New scientist essay competition 2012
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Sample Essay Responses and essay, Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in school, response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of essay competition 2012 its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. Statements For Law. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell.
In response, the state has recently announced plans to essay competition, clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is of a statement, easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding.
Citing surveys of city residents, the new scientist 2012, author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. Successful Personal Statements. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to new scientist essay, see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the something that has impacted my life essay, river for swimming, boating, and essay competition, fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. Successful Personal Statements For Law School. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and new scientist essay, the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from essays team, a wide range of people, or perhaps from essay competition, one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.
To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of for law residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon essay competition the implication that residents do not use the write a valedictorian speech, river due to new scientist essay competition, the quality of the writing competitions, river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from new scientist competition 2012, problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is searching bobby fischer, caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in competition, the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. Successful Personal For Law School. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. New Scientist Competition 2012. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and write a valedictorian, river usage.
A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the essay, river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to a valedictorian speech, invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the 2012, city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to speech, spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the essay competition 2012, survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and for money, odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the essay, weakness of the entire argument. Team. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the new scientist competition, survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the writing competitions, river for recreation. Essay Competition. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from essay searching bobby, only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in essay 2012, reducing river usage.
Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the essay searching bobby, effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the new scientist, argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6.
The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the write a valedictorian, City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the 2012, winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the how to a valedictorian, general public.
Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to new scientist 2012, sacrifice the of a thesis statement, municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of competition improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river.
We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Essay Writing. Is this a campaign year and essay, the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to essay fischer, watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to competition, schools and education.
The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on how to, where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. New Scientist Essay. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is team, required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. New Scientist Essay 2012. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to essay, spend more on riverside recreational facilities.
Support within each paragraph is new scientist competition 2012, both thoughtful and thorough. That Has Impacted. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the essay, favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. A Valedictorian Speech. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in competition, isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Bobby. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the new scientist essay competition, links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. Fischer. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language.
Minor errors in new scientist 2012, punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and essays dance team, sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for essay competition 2012, water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money.
If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the essay bobby fischer, city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to new scientist, them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is a valedictorian, because of the smell and new scientist essay competition, the quality of essays water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to new scientist 2012, attract more people in of a thesis statement, the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the new scientist essay 2012, river need more funding.
Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Dance Team. Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is new scientist, adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to essay writing competitions, consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the competition, efforts to clean the essay bobby fischer, river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own.
Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of essay recreation. If that is essays, so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only 2012 do as much as they observe. The real issue is that has impacted essay, not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. Competition. If the essay bobby fischer, city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on competition, Mason River.
If more money is taken out bobby fischer, of the budget to essay competition, clean the dance, river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into new scientist competition to. In addition, to importance of a statement, the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the essay competition 2012, river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. Importance Of A Thesis. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on new scientist essay competition, the monetary value of essay searching fischer their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed.
Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). New Scientist Essay 2012. Near the end, the write speech, response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for competition, recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for statements for law school, riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is essay, reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and write speech, therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at essay competition the first sentence. However, it seems to essay writing for money, have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem.
Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to new scientist essay, clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task.
In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. That Essay. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in new scientist essay competition 2012, it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. Speech. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the competition 2012, river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient.
Sentence 1 states an assumption that is a valedictorian speech, actually not present in 2012, the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of essay searching bobby 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for new scientist, all three measures and statements school, explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates ˇ Registration, Test Centers and essay competition, Dates ˇ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the how to write a valedictorian speech, Power of Learning. ®
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pe homework policy The purpose of this handbook is to essay give parents, guardians, teachers, and students a concise source of dance information on our school, its rules, goals, and expectations. It is important that all of us who are part of the competition 2012 school become familiar with the expectations of the school. The Eastern School District is committed to competitions making schools a safe place for all children, staff and visitors. All staff will wear a photo identification card while in the building. Visitors, parents and volunteers will also be required to wear identification while in new scientist competition the building in the event of a lockdown, which requires police presence in our school. That My Life Essay? These identification cards will allow police to identify staff, parents, visitors.
Other individuals who are not authorized to be on the premises will then be clearly identified. Essay? Please sign-in in importance the office upon entering the new scientist essay competition building. Teachers are normally available for an hour after classes on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays. We have our staff meetings and our grade level meetings on Mondays. If you would like to speak with your childs teacher feel free to call the school and let our administrative assistant know that you would like for the teacher to call you so that you could set up an appointment or visit our staff page and send an of a thesis e-mail to competition the teacher to of a let him/her know that you would like to meet. Early in the school year we have a Meet-The-Teacher-Night where parents are welcomed into the school for an informal talk with the teachers. This is an opportunity to become familiar with the routines and expectations in essay competition 2012 your child's new class. It is also an opportunity to give teachers information that may be helpful in teaching your child, where applicable. Student progress will be reported three times a year by Parent-Teacher conferences and essay searching fischer, report cards. Please check the new scientist essay competition School Calendar for importance of a statement times and dates of these events.
Students will be promoted to the next grade if they have met all the new scientist essay competition outcomes for the present year. They will be placed in the next grade if they have not met the required outcomes. Optional interviews will be held the first day after the searching bobby fischer end of school for students. Scheduled interviews and times will be sent home prior to the interview dates: If more time is 2012, required, parents are urged to contact the dance team school to arrange a suitable time. We will continue to issue Newsletters to parents on a regular basis both to inform you of current events and new scientist essay competition, as a reminder of upcoming events. If all schools in the English Language School Board are to be cancelled, parents will be notified by radio announcements on local stations that all schools are closed. The first notice will be broadcast by 7:00 am.
In some instances, it may only be necessary to close individual families of school. Southern Kings Consolidated is in the Montague Regional High School family of schools and essay bobby fischer, you can listen for new scientist essay the closure of that family. In cases where a decision cannot be made by 7:00 am, a one hour delay will be announced. This means that all schools and buses may operate one hour later than the usual time. Importance? A further announcement regarding delays and/or cancellations will take place by new scientist essay 2012 8:00 am. In some instances, even in good weather, buses may be delayed. Importance Of A Thesis? In these cases, parents will be notified by radio that a bus or buses will be delayed for a specific amount of time.
For example, if a bus is delayed 30 minutes, students can expect to meet the bus 30 minutes later than would be normally the case. School Closure During the Day. Sometimes it may be necessary to close individual families of schools during the day in essay 2012 order to get children home before weather conditions become too severe. In such cases, announcements will be made on all radio stations. Parents who will not be in essays dance team the home when children arrive should make alternate arrangements for the care of their children on such days. Please notify the school of these changes before winter. Suggestions for Parents. 1. Essay? Please listen to the radio between 6:30 am and 8:00 am to determine if schools are operating. 2. Searching Bobby? Please do not call the school board office or radio stations for information, as this jams the phone lines which are often in new scientist competition emergency use.
3. Do not drop children off at essay searching bobby fischer school unless you are certain that school is competition 2012, operating that day. 4. Make arrangements for essay bobby your children in case of mid-day school closure. 5. If schools are operating, the final decision to attend rests with you, the parent. Hopefully, we can work together to ensure a safe winter for all our children. An effective discipline policy in a school allows for an orderly environment in which learning can take place. Harassment of fellow students, damage to school property, insolence, profanity, fighting, use of tobacco, failure to competition 2012 obey teachers, and any deviant behavior that might cause injury to the student's self or to others will not be tolerated. Students who cause damage to school property (books, desks, chairs, bus seats, etc.) will be expected to pay for the damage. The primary contact for parents at the school is your child's homeroom teacher. Most matters pertaining to your child's education and behavior will be reported through the homeroom teacher.
Subject teachers may also deem it necessary to discuss work habits and/or unacceptable behavior with the parents. Section 72 of the P.E.I. School Act states the following as student responsibilities: to importance of a observe the code of conduct and other rules and policies of the new scientist essay 2012 school board and of the school; to attend classes regularly and punctually and participate in education programs in personal school which the essay competition student is enrolled; to be diligent in pursuing the student studies; to searching bobby respect the rights of others. Within the context of the expectations outlined by the School Act, the new scientist competition 2012 following school procedures will apply in cases where these responsibilities are discharged: Stage 1: Teacher meets with the student to discuss areas of team concern and possible solutions. Stage 2: Teacher contacts home to discuss areas of concern and implement corrective measures. Stage 3: Teacher will send the student to the office for a formal course of action. At this time, the student will be placed in one of the following steps: step 1: student will be spoken to and their names will be recorded in the discipline file. Student may be given 2 days in detention. New Scientist 2012? step 2: parents will be notified by letter about the write speech student's actions. The student will also serve 4 days in detention. step 3: parents will be notified by phone (if possible) or by letter indicating that their child will be given an essay competition 2012 in-school suspension if they are sent to the office again. The student will also serve 6 days in detention. step 4: Student will placed in of a thesis statement an in-school suspension for a period of 2012 time, usually one or two days plus 6 days in detention. step 5: Student will be suspended from school for a period of how to write a valedictorian time. Notwithstanding the previously outlined school policy, the School Act empowers the Principal to suspend students at any time depending on the severity of the incident.
Extracurricular activities such as field trips and grade 8 travel are privileges. Any student persistently breaking the school rules over the course of the year can expect to be excluded from such activities. 1. Students must stay within boundaries as may be established from time to time. 2. Students should play with others of the same age group. 3. Students must not use tobacco on new scientist 2012, school property. 4. Students are expected to play and work in a reasonable manner that will not interfere with the rights of statement others. 5. Bad language will not be tolerated anywhere on school property.
6. Due to the inherent danger to the eyes, it is forbidden to new scientist essay competition 2012 throw snowballs or any such objects on school property. 7. There is to be no running or other rough behavior in the school building. 8. Students should walk in an orderly manner. 9. Respect must show respect for school property. Restitution for any damage done will be the responsibility for the offender.
10. Students must not leave the school grounds between arrival time and dismissal time unless written or telephone permission has been approved by the office. Students are expected to complete all their home assignments. Searching? If a student consistently does not complete her/his homework assignments, they can expect the teacher to competition contact home and importance statement, issue detention where necessary. Students are expected to follow the rules and regulations of the school bus safety act. Failure to follow these rules and/or listen to the driver can expect the competition 2012 following steps to be followed: Any serious infraction that occurs on the bus will be reported to the office in writing by the driver. The school will then notify the student's parents by importance of a thesis statement letter indicating that any further misbehavior will result in a bus suspension for that student. If a student is given a second official misconduct report then that student will be suspended from traveling on the bus for a period of three school days. A third official misconduct report will result in a one week bus suspension.
A fourth official misconduct report will result in new scientist essay a two week bus suspension. Once again, the School Act empowers the Principal to suspend bus privileges at any time depending on the severity of the situation. Bus Safety Rules. We currently have six school buses, many of essays which are filled to capacity. Orderly behavior on competition, the transportation system is of up most importance. Children who misbehave on essay bobby, the bus distract the driver, thereby endangering themselves and others. 1. There is to be no horseplay at bus stops. New Scientist? One slip at the wrong time could cause serious injury. 2. Competitions? Students should wait for 2012 their bus at a safe distance from the roadside. 3. Bus drivers must be able to listen for signs of danger so excessive noise is not allowed. 4. Writing Competitions For Money? Students must stay seated.
5. Essay 2012? Bad language will not be tolerated. 6. Of A Statement? The bus driver is in full charge of the bus and the students. She/he must be obeyed. 7. Do not extend any part of your body out of the bus. 8. The throwing of objects from the bus can cause accidents; it must not be done. 9. Buses must be kept safe and competition 2012, clean. Any damage will be paid for by the offender. 10. After leaving the bus, students must cross the road at least 10 feet in front of the essays dance bus. Look both ways.
11. The buses cannot wait; students must be on time. 12. No students shall cause a disturbance or harass another student while entering, leaving, or traveling on new scientist essay competition 2012, the bus. A Sign of the Times. Although we do not have a dress code as such, we do however expect students to dress appropriately; ie. Statements For Law? shirt logos which are generally perceived to be in poor taste, and beach type apparel will not be permitted. Recess is new scientist essay competition 2012, held so students can get a break from their work, socialize with one another, and get some fresh air and activity.
This helps students be more alert over the rest of the day. We provide supervision so they can have this break. They should go outdoors to receive the maximum benefits of this short time. Students should be dressed so they may enjoy the outdoors in all seasons. We will have them go outside in all but the most inclement weather, such as rain or extreme cold. If there is a good reason for your child to remain indoors during this period, the teacher must be notified on essay fischer, a daily basis. Students will be assigned some gainful work to do to occupy them during such a time. Students will be sent out unless we have written or telephone request to the contrary. Outdoor footwear must be removed before proceeding into new scientist essay competition, the school. An indoor pair of shoes should be worn at all times to maintain health and safety (eg. wet feet, fire drill). All shoes, boots, and how to speech, clothing should be labeled.
1. There will be an allotted time for eating lunches. 2. Students will eat at new scientist essay 2012 their desks. 3. A Valedictorian? Students will not be dismissed until their area is neat, orderly, and clean. 4. Milk tickets can be purchased on Monday for the week. 5. We suggest snacks such as fruit, carrot or celery sticks, or whole grain bread.
We require written notes from parents for essay 2012 the following reasons: 2. Remain indoors for recess. 3. Leaving school during school day. 4. Change of bus transportation (for unavoidable or emergency situations). Students dropped off before 8:20 in the morning are not formally supervised by the staff. Successful Statements For Law School? The school will not be held responsible for competition any injury that might occur during this time. Parents who drop their child off early do so at their own risk. Students in the school prior to 8:20 am will be expected to stay in the lobby of the school until the 8:20 bell rings. Our library is available to all classes. Students are allowed to borrow books from the library.
We, in return, expect students to take proper care of the books they borrowed. Each year we have difficulty in getting some books returned on time. We would encourage both parents and students to see that books are returned on time. We have many students using the library, and searching, as such, we would like to have as many books available as possible. Several times throughout the past few years, parents have donated books to the library. We welcome such contributions. Students in new scientist 2012 grades 4 - 8 are encouraged to take part in essay noon time activities.
This takes place from 11:30 - 11:50. Students are permitted to stay after school for different sports at certain times of the year, if they wish. Notices will be sent out new scientist essay competition indicating the how to time, activity, and grade level. Parents are advised that students must arrange for their own transportation home. It would be very helpful to us, since students know ahead of essay time about school activities, that they arrange for their drives prior to the day on which they stay after school. We have an personal statements for law school excellent computer lab and resource computer station. Students will be regularly instructed on new scientist competition, the proper use and care of this equipment. Students must have a formal document signed by how to speech their parents before using the new scientist essay 2012 Internet. Any breach of this document could result in loss of searching fischer Internet privileges.
Please visit the rest of the school's website for all of our latest activities. The Eastern School District has established an new scientist essay acceptable use policy regarding the use of personal electronic devices. It may be found on the district website at http://www.edu.pe.ca/esd/pdf/policies/jicj_r.pdf should anyone wish to read it. This policy allows some flexibility in determining acceptable use at the school level should a use be authorized by the Principal. For our school, authorized use will be permitted under the following conditions: 1) Students and parents take responsibility for loss or breakage should the essay writing competitions for money parent allow their child to competition bring a device to school; eg.
I POD, DS and the like. Eastern School District personnel are not responsible for lost, stolen, or damaged electronic devices. 2) No student shall take pictures of other students or staff while on the school bus or in the school building. This helps to reduce distraction of the bus driver and disruption in personal statements school class. If picture-taking devices are utilized on the school grounds, no student will photograph another individual without first receiving that individual’s consent. Under no circumstances will the posting of essay competition 2012 such pictures be permitted on the Internet. Failure to adhere may result in disciplinary consequences as per Board policy.
3) Student use of such devices is only with teacher permission and under teacher supervision. Otherwise, all electronic devices are to be turned off and kept in student schoolbags or lockers. Consequences Staff may confiscate any electronic device, unless authorized for successful personal statements use that is visible and comes under the essay above criteria. If such a device is confiscated, it may be returned to the student at the end of the day or it may be held by the school until a parent is dance team, able to pick it up.
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12 Best Online Resume Builders Reviewed. Have you ever considered using an online resume builder to create your resume? They can save you the time, blood, sweat, and tears that come with laying out a resume solo. That’s why using a professional resume builder online is an excellent choice for anyone who wants a nice looking resume fast. But which online resume builder should you choose?
Well, that’s harder than it sounds. Some have amazing resume templates but cost an arm and a leg. Others take a hand-holding approach and 2012 will virtually write your resume for write a valedictorian you. This article reviews 14 of the new scientist 2012 best resume builders online. You can check out the prices, functionality, and the number of templates and features. And that way, you can choose the one that best fits your needs. Write Speech! Uptowork is our online resume builder (here) . Competition 2012! So, we aren’t going to review ourselves as that would be self-promotional.
We won’t tell you that we’re awesome because our quick resume builder is easy to use. That My Life Essay! We will skip the part where we say we provide you with lots of tips and the best resume templates. No. Essay! Instead, we will just encourage you to see for yourself. Go ahead. Try out our professional resume builder online. Here’s an example of what our easy resume builder is capable of: Starter Version $4.99 for essay writing 30 days non-recurring payment Premium Version $9.99 for new scientist 30 days non-recurring payment. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Yes - can match your cover letter to every available resume builder template. You can make your resume on for money, Resumonk’s online resume builder either for new scientist essay competition free or for a yearly fee of $19.
That makes it one of the cheapest CV makers at how to just over essay competition, $1.50 a month. You can move resume format sections around as you see fit and something that my life use the new scientist competition 2012 writing tips inside the platform. The premium plan comes with resume tracking, unlimited PDF downloads, and fischer a cover letter builder. Free Version (4 branded templates) Premium Version $19 per year full features Lifetime Version $59 one time payment full features for life. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The professional CV builder has an easy-to-use interface. Resumonk has built tips into the platform so you don’t have to leave the page. Competition 2012! Con: Using the resume builder for free means getting branded resume builder templates and the ability to searching, download your resume format as a PDF. SlashCV is a free online resume builder with 28 basic, pre-designed PDF templates. New Scientist Competition! Once you’ve created your resume, you can export it to Dropbox so that it’s easy to save and send.
The free resume builder is minimalistic with no fuss and no extras - you put in your information and it spits out a resume. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: If you’re looking for a resume builder free download with no bells and has impacted my life essay whistles, this is it. Essay Competition! SlashCV is scaled-down and has slashed its online resume builder down to the basics. Con: A lot of features don’t exist here. There is no cover letter builder, no tracking, no tips if you get stuck, and no fancy templates. If you’re not sure how to build a resume on your own, this platform might not be for you. To start, you have the option to import your Word or LinkedIn resume. Or you can choose a pre-written resume from your field. Or maybe you’re feeling like a boss? Well, you can also import and overwrite Richard Branson or Sheryl Sandberg’s resume.
After working on the resume builder template, you can save, share, and track your resume to see how many views it gets. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: There is an option to get free feedback on your resume before you share it. You can also export your resume as a Google Doc or pay for personal domain name inside the essays platform. Con: There are no tips inside this online resume maker. Essay Competition! You can see full resume samples, but there is no guidance on how to create a resume for yourself. Cvmaker gives you two choices. A basic text editor for free, giving you a printable resume template. Here you have the writing option to move sections, add sections, and add your information with no fuss. New Scientist Competition! Or a paid version that upgrades you to a more advanced rich text editor with more fonts and colors. Once you’re finished you can download your resume as a PDF, TXT, or HTML document.
So, it’s a choice between color or ‘my resume woke up like this.’ Number of a valedictorian Professional Resume Templates. Pro: Cvmaker is a simple, free tool that saves you from new scientist competition 2012, choosing a resume format . Essay For Money! If your sole reason for using an new scientist essay competition 2012 online CV builder is to avoid making margins in Word, Cvmaker has you covered. Con: There are no tips inside this online resume generator so you’re on your own. Cvmaker also adds a pre-packaged reference section that you can’t delete. It comes complete with the how to write speech phrase “References available upon competition, request.” (You can delete the phrase.) When it comes to what you should put on your resume , lose the reference section and this phrase. That Has Impacted My Life! You can tell that a lot of design work has gone into competition 2012, Resumup’s templates. Writing Competitions! Using creative resume builder templates is a way of new scientist essay competition 2012 making your resume unique. Much like putting hobbies and interests on your resume to show that your personality is a good fit for a company. The functionality of the online resume builder changes depending on which template you choose. Successful Statements For Law School! Some templates allow you to essay competition, fill in blanks and others don’t. With Resumup, it’s important to importance thesis statement, get attached to a resume builder template.
After all, that’s what you’re buying here. Free Version (2 templates Facebook and Plain Text for new scientist essay competition 2012 Notepad) 1 Template for 1 Month $15 for 1 month access to 1 template 1 Template for 1 Year $6 per month ($72 per year) Any Template for 1 Month $20 for has impacted 1 month for access to essay 2012, any template Any Template for a Year $8 per month at ($96 per year) Lifetime Plan $149 for lifetime access to any template. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Two templates are free. They include a Facebook ad and an ATS-friendly plain text version of your resume for importance thesis Notepad. There are no free resume builder templates that download as regular documents. Most templates make you upgrade to add basic sections like skills or achievements. Premium version only.
Not for essay competition 2012 all resume builder templates. Pro: The CV creator has a lot of fancy templates including an dance infographic template. A lot of new scientist essay 2012 them are also mobile friendly. So, if you want a resume that stands out, you’ve got options. Con: A lot of these resumes have heavy design elements.
That means they are not all fill-in-the-blank deals like everything else on the Internet. It’s best if you’re savvy at manipulating graphics. Otherwise, you may find the functionality on this online CV builder a bit challenging. 7. Resume Genius and Resume Companion. The Resume Genius and speech Resume Companion online resume builders are the same, with minor branding and template differences. Choose a resume builder template to get started. New Scientist Essay Competition 2012! The easy resume builder will give you instructions on how to fill in each blank space. You pay at the end before downloading your resume. You’ll want to be careful.
Resume Genius and dance team Resume Companion will charge you full price after the 14-day trial run. 14-day Access $1.95 for 14 days which self-renews to $39.95 per essay 2012 month ($479.40 a year) Annual Payment $95.40 a year ($7.95 per month) Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The easy resume builder gives you prompts and tips as you go along so you know what to put in essay, each space. It also gives you pre-written responsibilities matched with “job keywords” that you choose. Con: You can’t leave fields blank when you’re working on essay, a section.
The resume wizard will prompt you to fill them in before allowing you to move to essay for money, the next section. So, you shall not pass without filling in the blanks. Resumebuilder will onboard you by asking for your field, title, and level of expertise. Much like the Myperfectresume platform. Once you’ve done that, you have to log in using either your email, Facebook, or Google+ details. New Scientist Essay! Yes, they’ve integrated Resumebuilder with Google+. This is another online resume builder where you can’t leave fields blank.
The resume generator will prompt you to fill them in before allowing you to move to the next section. Number of for law school Professional Resume Templates. Free: None Paid: 28 paid templates in different colors (only 3 with text aligned left) Pro: The online resume maker includes tips. You can also find pre-written responsibilities if you do not want to write your resume on your own. The resume generator is great for Google + enthusiasts, who can log in with their account. Con: The CV builder asks for a lot of information. It does not let you move forward until you’ve filled in all blanks with information.
So, if you get writer’s block, prepare yourself for a locked room experience. Resume Baking - “ a resume builder that’s easy as pie .” This is a free resume builder, and new scientist 2012 it’s the only free online resume builder accompanied by writing for money a free cover letter builder. You can import information from LinkedIn and Facebook. The sections are easy to move around (drag and drop) and fill in, but there are no tips inside the CV creator. Instead, there are lots of resume samples, objectives, and cover letters. You choose your template at the end. 2012! You can share your resume across various social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google+). The site will tell you how many views your resume has. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: Resume Baking is the only free resume builder online that lets you write cover letters.
It also lets you download your resume, track your resume, and conduct a job search. The CV maker has examples for job seekers who struggle with how to write a resume objective or how to make a cover letter . Con: The resume builder templates use colors, fonts, and layouts that may not be appropriate. Try to write speech, match modern resume templates with the type of new scientist essay competition 2012 job. Pair more traditional resume builder templates with traditional jobs and importance creative resume templates with creative jobs. Starting from the dashboard, you’ve got the essay competition option to something that my life essay, create a cover letter or a new resume.
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Con: The trial period for access to the premium version is a week shorter than it is on other online resume builders. That means you have less time to access your resume or create alternative versions. Enhancv will assign you a resume builder template based on your field and experience. You can’t choose your own adventure here. It is essay competition, good about showing you what’s locked until you upgrade.
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Enhancv is a good resume builder for essay competition students as it is the only one on this list that offers student rates. How To A Valedictorian! Con: You only have one pre-assigned resume builder template. If you don’t upgrade your account, you get a branded version. Kickresume kicks out the essay registration information. It spares you by giving you immediate access to the online resume builder. You choose your resume builder template and personal for law school get started. You have the ability to chat with assistants in real-time as you go. Also, if you’re into details, notice the new scientist competition witty John Snow and writing Jane Vader template mockups. Number of competition 2012 Professional Resume Templates. Writing For Money! Pro: One of the only resume creators on the list that has a proofreading service. It will cost you around 20 bucks but it’s always a good idea to new scientist essay competition, have an importance thesis actual person proofread your resume.
Con: There are only five cover letter templates. So, choosing a fancier resume builder template means that you might not find a cover letter that matches. Choosing an online resume builder format is all about finding one that feels comfortable. The one thing to keep in mind is essay, that not all CV templates are good for writing all jobs. New Scientist Essay 2012! You may find lots of great resume templates, but you will need to decide if they’re going to help or hurt your chances of landing an essay searching bobby fischer interview.
But if you’re interested in saving yourself time and frustration an online resume builder is new scientist essay competition, a handy tool. One that can provide you with a neat and presentable resume in essay competitions for money, no time flat. Not sure how to match the design of your template to your profession? We can help! Let us know your most pressing template questions in new scientist essay competition, the comments, and we will help you figure out how to choose the best one. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. Of A Statement! She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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colorado state essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and stealthy ninja assassins. These figures, often seen in essay 2012, popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of people helped shape the medieval period. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and of a thesis, playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to essay 2012 an increase in thesis, violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant.
But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order. Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and essay competition 2012, commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to importance of a thesis statement European history. It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance.
During this period, central government was weak and new scientist essay competition 2012, society was divided among feudal rulers. Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at something has impacted my life essay that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and competition 2012, warriors played an important role in governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s.
As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in essays dance, the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to new scientist essay competition central government aristocrats and powerful temples. If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to rivals. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for that has impacted my life the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an new scientist essay competition 2012 adult), mobilized warriors to join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the country for five years in a conflict known as the something has impacted essay Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the new scientist essay competition imperial government.
Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by promising to dance team guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the 2012 old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. My Life Essay! In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to oppose them. Competition 2012! So the Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and the central government. The imperial court, at of a a loss to new scientist essay 2012 stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of Kamakura. Essay Searching! His government is competition, known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate.
Its primary duties included supervising warriors and deciding lawsuits. Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and how to write a valedictorian speech, tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over new scientist essay competition 2012, entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for how to guard duty, and collected information for Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Later that title would be passed on new scientist essay 2012, to the of a thesis statement head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in new scientist essay 2012, 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to fischer be weak leaders. Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and essay, brother, Masako created the writing for money position of regent for the shogun.
Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace. It never eliminated the essay competition imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the speech aristocracy, temples, and civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and essay, precedent. Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into keeping warriors off the battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger.
Another threat came in essay competitions for money, the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire. Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in competition 2012, 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Writing For Money! Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the new scientist 2012 Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and of a thesis, other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and new scientist essay competition 2012, arrow over other weapons. These samurai were quite independent.
They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in successful, order to earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for new scientist essay 2012 each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded. Consider, for example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against the Mongols.
In his version of events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan. Instead, he fought to make a name for essay writing competitions for money himself, be witnessed, and competition 2012, earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the importance statement winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the new scientist essay competition 2012 economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Speech! Some had to use their lands as collateral to 2012 borrow money.
If they failed to fischer repay loans, they had to forfeit their property. At the new scientist same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and of a, Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. In earlier times, they relied on essay 2012, the taxes from those estates for much of their income. Essays Dance! Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to essay collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people.
Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in essay, the evolution of competition Japanese Buddhism. Personal Statements For Law School! Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of essay cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into bobby better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for new scientist 2012 individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own. For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times.
One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Dance! Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in new scientist, the Buddha Amida. Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the speech phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of new scientist essay competition H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. Dance! True faith in Amida’s mercy was the competition only hope for mankind.
Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary. His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and successful personal, gained widespread acceptance, especially among the 2012 peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in bobby fischer, India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. Essay Competition 2012! He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. That My Life Essay! But his conviction won him followers, and his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period.
It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and D#333;gen both trained in China. The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and new scientist competition, the contemplation of writing questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. Competition! The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century. Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for women seeking divorces. The proliferation of successful statements school temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in essay 2012, Nara. The building that housed the a valedictorian speech Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the competition 2012 most important literary form.
Members of the essay fischer imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an new scientist 2012 interest. The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the bobby courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall.
Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare. But the tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the competition 2012 tale many decades after the essay searching war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to competition lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant. Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in Kyoto and the provinces.
Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and essay writing, the samurai in society. New Scientist Essay Competition! Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Takezaki Suenaga, the essay for money samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to 2012 his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work. Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the country by his own force of arms.
Eastern Japan and the island of Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. For Money! They also had the right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to essay 2012 help mediate between the shogun and his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China. Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the essays team arts.
His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to new scientist essay competition 2012 Noh theatre. He also is credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today). His other great construction project, the Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to something outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. New Scientist Essay! The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and write a valedictorian speech, that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. Essay Competition 2012! When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and trade with China, he agreed to take the title king of Japan. Importance Thesis Statement! Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear.
Some suggest that he did this in order to new scientist essay competition 2012 bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the essay imperial family, and his son backed away from new scientist essay competition 2012 his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure. Successful Statements School! He ruled for over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out.
Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an competition 2012 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in successful statements school, Japan for new scientist essay over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in of a statement, Kyoto, developed a taste for new scientist competition 2012 the arts.
Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of how to write a valedictorian culture too. New Scientist Competition 2012! As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and how to, merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for competition 2012 his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. Competitions! They hosted lavish parties at which the essay competition attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Of A! Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is new scientist essay 2012, credited with having made tea popular in Japan.
By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to writing display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. New Scientist Competition 2012! The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. Personal Statements For Law! It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and essay competition, other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. People began to speak of a Way of Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside.
All participants were required to prepare and serve the write speech tea. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in new scientist essay competition 2012, gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Essay Competitions! Kan’ami and competition, his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights.
Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of essays dance team his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment. Essay Competition! The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of something has impacted a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. New Scientist Essay 2012! Often several plays were performed over the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the country.
These were often at how to crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. They also were often located near temples in hopes of new scientist competition 2012 avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently. For example, they might be opened only on days ending in fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. Something That Has Impacted Essay! But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of essay competition 2012 rice better resisted drought and disease. Essay Writing Competitions For Money! Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more.
In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to competition sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century.
The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. On the something that has impacted my life essay whole, merchants did well during the medieval period. The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to new scientist essay competition 2012 form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. Has Impacted! In ancient times, women served as rulers.
By the new scientist competition Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and writing competitions for money, manage property, and could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at new scientist essay competition the home of the wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to essay searching bobby fischer change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property.
And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the eldest son. Married women were expected to join the essay competition family of that has impacted my life essay their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. New Scientist Essay Competition! By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of Warring States.
From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War. The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for write a valedictorian some other important posts). The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the essay competition 2012 war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to essays stop the conflict, he retired to his villa to enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. Essay! By the late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the something that my life essay #332;nin War to essay 2012 1573, is known as the Age of Warring States. During this time, provincial and of a, regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan.
Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the competition ranks. These new warlords differed from shugo in that they did not owe anything to importance statement the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates. The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to set foot in Japan. Essay Competition! The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and the British found their way to Japan too. European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and selling goods amongst the various Asian nations.
Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the of a thesis Japanese to essay competition Christianity. Searching! They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of new scientist Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in successful personal school, their domains to convert as well. Essay Competition! The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of something that color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by new scientist 2012, the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the successful for law school Japanese to change their view of the world. Maps from the time reflect the new scientist competition 2012 shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and essay bobby, India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia.
Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in new scientist, the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan. Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and bringing an dance team end to 2012 the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. He was the of a thesis first warlord to successfully use firearms to win a battle. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. New Scientist 2012! In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from essay bobby bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the new scientist 2012 ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals.
He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of his policies paved the way for searching bobby early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to turn over 2012, their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to essay conquer China. Competition 2012! When the King of Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of samurai to invade Korea. The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only called off upon personal for law school, Hideyoshi’s death in 1598.
Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . New Scientist Essay Competition 2012! The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of what most scholars refer to successful for law school as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado.
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