Writing the perfect college admission essay
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Best Professional Practices for Artists: The Artist Resume. While serving as a juror for a large group exhibition, I had to view a number of professional artist resumes. Overall, the experience was less than pleasant. I was shocked and dismayed by the disorganization I encountered. One resume did not have the college admission, artist#8217;s name at the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them!
Several resumes did not include basic contact information. Letters? Others included lengthy descriptions of college essay, professional experiences that had nothing to do with an art career, and still others were difficult to final essay navigate, with pages and pages of small-type font. I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for the basic information and experience which mattered. If you are going to be evaluated for a professional opportunity based on your resume, the number one thing you need to do is make your information easily available. Make the font legible. Keep the size large enough to read without reading glasses. Use bullets and clearly separated or labelled sections. Is there enough white space?
Too much white space? If you fail to college cover these basics, your resume will be useless. The Art Resume vs. The Employment Resume. Art resumes are very different from your job resume.
The purpose of an art resume is to help an artist to win awards and exam essay format grants, to gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of this has anything to do with your former employment in non-art-related fields. You will want to leave your employment experience out, for the most part. Another main issue: length. Typically, an art resume is two to three pages long. If you are asked for writing the perfect admission essay, a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in length and include everything you#8217;ve ever done in art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages.
Your art resume should be edited down to the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience. Who is your audience? What is your goal? The more research you can do on whoever is going to be reviewing your resume, the better for you. How can you make yourself look most appealing to your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. Contact information is always first. Essay Letters To Alice? Include your name, address, phone, email, and writing college admission website. I think it is a good idea to print this part larger than the writing admission essay, rest for easy and quick viewing. Education goes next. Include your most recent degrees first.
If you have a degree in something non-art related, you may want to writing the perfect essay leave it out. Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well. On Search Strategy? I suggest putting #8216;Awards and Honors#8217; next, if you have any. This category is important because it digtinguishes you from all the other candidates. If you have been awarded a grant, put it here.
If you received an art award at college graduation, it goes here. Essay? Any #8216;Best in Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here. These items are a big deal. Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. If you have only essay had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in writing college essay, a more general exhibition section. If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217; Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category. Base your decision to include a juried section on your numbers of essay based on community, these. Writing The Perfect College Admission? Typically, a juried exhibition is seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is well-known. Always list the pride and prejudice letters to alice, name of the the perfect college admission, juror in addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates.
This type of essay, name-dropping is strategic, especially in an art world that is small and inter-connected. #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next. Choose what to writing admission include based on drunk driving, what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of a packet you are sending to a gallery, you may want to edit out shows done in coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. Gallerists tend to be snobs. Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the one you are applying to leave it out. If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in this section is to display a breadth of experience and a professional appearance.
You want to seem responsible and easy to work with this makes you a more desirable candidate. The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for pretty much anything, you need to have some kind of press. Press on college essay, online sources and blogs are absolutely fine. Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning. If a group show you participate in is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what?
If you need more lines in iii richard, your press section, then include it. The Perfect College? If you have enough press to look respectable, leave it out. Essay And Prejudice? 8. Related Professional Experience. This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is not a job resume. Your goal is not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and any art-related jobs you have held. Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is not a job resume! I know that many professional resumes include an writing admission objective. This takes up unnecessary space and is redundant. If you are applying for something specific, your objective will be obvious.
Leave this section out of an essay artist resume. You should keep an all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in the perfect college essay, order to cut and paste the pride and prejudice to alice, info into a new, shorter resume designed for a specific purpose. Writing The Perfect College Essay? One other, last suggestion is to look at several examples of drunk topic, resumes by artists you respect. Admission Essay? Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes. Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for yourself based on iii richard, these examples.
Happy applications! Oh, and if you want to read the college admission essay, Professional Practices Post from last month on Artist Statements, click here. Author Cara Ober is Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Admission? Cara Ober is the Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to college admission Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. Biggs and Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of Success. Black Voices in Contemporary Art Criticism. Strategy? Where are all the Black art critics? Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino.
Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to Baltimore Artist. Admission? Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. This is a pretty good article, except for the typo. That is essential in creating a good resume. Based? Proofreading. It is funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to distinguished. Also, comma at start of last graph is not needed. Also. The Perfect Admission Essay? What about Public Art?
I m seeking for this only.. The first thing to learn about how to write a resume cover letter is that the cover letter gives the job seeker a unique opportunity to introduce him or herself before actually meeting in person.Sample CV. I found your article on essay format, Sample Resume writing tips insightful and writing college essay helpful, thanks for sharing this information on resume. Sample Resume. While it is important to essay put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of school for college, a while sometimes your experience is essay, actually relevent.
In this case, education should be located at the bottom. Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to resumes, and what may be right for one employer may not be for the next. The Perfect Essay? This is good advice thank you. Strategy? But reading it had me thinking that, given all the protocols, would be nice if the enclosed work spoke for writing college admission, itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the over-riding consideration? Great post- thank you so much! All of iii richard, this is such a mystery to writing the perfect college admission essay many of us. @Radar Redux- Good luck to you in exam essay format, creative or nontraditional formatting.
In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and the perfect college choose not to deal with you. There is something to be said for driving topic, being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators. No one wants to work with someone who they perceive will be difficult. If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to writing the perfect admission essay hear about exam essay, it. It seems so trivial, though its not.
The idea of editing the writing admission, information is great. Very useful post. Thanks. This is a very helpful blog post for artists. Final Essay? I will pass it on to all the recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase. We am not judging anyone who chooses to conform to any process so as to get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in so as to writing the perfect college admission make a living, get shown, etc. The advice here is all excellent regarding this.
That said, we had asked should an and prejudice artist feel compelled to the perfect fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in the first place, if they feel the process does not represent them in the way they wish to be represented. For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at all. Essay Iii Richard? They believe it to writing the perfect college admission be archaic. They ask who does it really serve anyone and how? This questioning at least deserves consideration/ examination. And if one has a real deep desire to exam format deconstruct and recontextualize the #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for the project part of, say, a grant. Why not jump in from the the perfect essay, start in this way it is writing the perfect essay, a real #8220;action#8221;instead of a simulation. The results may be illuminating. how does an the perfect college artist apply for grant $$ without a resume if it is part of the essay, requirement? i would save the #8216;challenging the formula#8217; for my grant proposal. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. as you do more exhibits, you will want to edit and choose the most competitive ones for your resume. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out writing admission essay down the road. Great advice and thanks.
One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for your resume? Even if its decent? This comment has been removed by the author. On Community Service? You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at area retailers like the BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and Atomic Books. Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and events and the perfect admission is updated daily. Tag your art and Balti-centric photos #bmoreart!
We want to see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore. The Internet is Exploding: 10 Must-Read Articles this Week. ABOUT ME | Call for Book Publication. MECU NEIGHBORHOOD EVENT GRANT APPLICATIONS *DEADLINE EXTENDED* Order the BmoreArt Journal of Art + Ideas directly from us or from area retailers. BmoreArt is Best Cultural Resource in Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and critical daily online journal.
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parent homework pass Your news when you want it. A study of the impact of homework in different countries says that the pressure of homework causes friction between children and college admission, parents. This pressure is worst in families where parents are most keen for their children to succeed at school. And the survey claims that homework causes anxiety and emotional exhaustion. As a solution, the report suggests that homework clubs, which take place after school, are a successful way of getting the benefit of homework, without risking the disagreements associated with homework at home. The report from the Institute of Education in London is a review of research over 75 years, which examines the impact of essay pride and prejudice letters to alice homework in writing college admission the United Kingdom, the essay letters United States, Europe, Australia and the Far and Middle East. And it says that homework can become a source of tension, particularly when parents try to take too much control of writing the perfect essay how children are approaching their homework. For parents to driving essay, make a positive contribution, the report suggests that parents should take a more supportive and admission, less interventionist role, only helping when they are asked. Parents have the most positive influence when they offer moral support, make appropriate resources available and discuss general issues. They should only on community actually help with homework when their children specifically ask them to, says report author, Susan Hallam.
The report backs the effectiveness of homework clubs, which have become popular in many schools. The Perfect College? These provide a quiet place where children can study after formal lessons finish, with a teacher often available to help them. Homework clubs give children the benefits of homework without the rows at home. Children feel they make homework enjoyable and give them a better chance of passing exams, says the report. They may assist in raising standards for those who need extra support or who find it difficult to do homework at home. As such, they help to bridge the gap between the haves and the have-nots. The report also says that the impact of homework on academic achievement is essay format relatively limited compared to other factors, such as prior knowledge, ability, time on admission essay task, good attendance at letters to alice, school, motivation and self-confidence. People seem to forget what homework is for. Sadly kids often won't ask if they don't understand, they just want the lesson over writing admission with. The best way for on community service a teacher to see who is struggling is to the perfect admission, set homework.
When I was at school, you didn't get in to trouble for college admission essay doing your homework but getting it wrong; far from the perfect college admission essay it, the essay iii richard teachers offered us extra coaching at writing the perfect, lunch and break times to help us catch up. Writing The Perfect Admission? You only writing admission essay get in the perfect college admission trouble if you are too lazy to do the writing the perfect college admission work set. My advice to pupils is it's your education and career that is at stake so take some responsibility. The only time pupils have been up till midnight and final format, wearing themselves out on homework is when they had it for two weeks and the perfect college admission essay, decided to do it all the night before it is due in, because they wanted to do other things in essay the evenings. Hello? Some of writing the perfect college these children expected to writing the perfect college, do homework after spending an entire day in school are as young as FOUR! These are mere children in all aspects of development and the perfect college admission, children this young should not be receiving homework! It seems to me that the education system is stealing our children's childhood and very few are prepared to stand up and question this. Essay Strategy? There is no way that a four year old or come to that a nine year old needs to the perfect admission, learn about adult work schedules and drunk driving essay topic, commitments - this is the time when they should be learning through play and discovery not sat at writing the perfect college admission, a table just because it may be expected of them during their adulthood. No wonder so many of based today's youth leave school with little self worth or respect, they have been expected to grow up far too quickly.
If it weren't so sad, some of these comments would be funny! I have home educated all three of my children, we average two to four hours study a day (not all that is academic), and forget it altogether if we have a lovely day and go for a walk instead. In case you're wondering my eldest is a Recruitment Officer, the middle one is at University doing a Russian Degree and the youngest one still studying from home. The Perfect? Home Education must be the only time homework doesn't cause stress. They've all grown up to be confident, happy productive young people who enjoy learning and find satisfaction and a sense of driving essay achievement in what they do. Joy Beasley, Halesowen, England.
Come on! If nowadays kids are not able to cope with a few extra minutes of writing the perfect admission essay homework after school, what will happen when they have to work extra hours for work? I think we are creating a nation of essay iii richard lazy and idle people. Children are now psychologically distressed. For God sake, let's stop that: we are creating problems that don't exist. Let's stop analysing things and start working. Writing The Perfect Admission Essay? I've been working in an English school for a few months only and I think that now education is seen as something boring.
I have always had homework to do and never had my parents behind me to help. What matters now for strategy kids is to play with their brand new mobile phones. Let's react and show kids that life is not like in Coronation Street or whatever soap opera they watch every evening on TV. If children's education was handled differently there would be no need for the endless extra hours of the perfect college essay homework, most of which is busy work rather than genuine study. Many home educating families will witness the fact that their children don't need to be schooled from 9am to 3pm every day in order to keep up with children within the school system and they certainly don't then need to sit alone for essay iii richard a couple of extra hours in the evening doing more work! If these children can succeed with unqualified parents teaching them for a few hours a day, surely schooled children could do the same if the teachers were free to teach without being slaves to paperwork and targets? No homework = Happy kids and writing college essay, parents. Happy kids and parents = Better home life.
Better home life = Easier to concentrate on studies. Concentrate on drunk essay topic studies = better results. Better results = Better jobs, plus more money. More money = Better quality of life. Better quality of life = Happiness and good health all round! Get rid of the stress, do not add to it.
Life is there to be enjoyed, you get one shot at it. Give the kids and writing college admission essay, us a break. If there is less homework, surely it would also encourage more people (i.e. Essay Pride Letters? single parents/full time workers/people wanting to improve their lifestyles) to study at night school that don't have the time to study in the day, plus knowing they'll be up finishing some 50 million word dissertation by the day before yesterday! The world won't stop just because your homework wasn't done or the dog ate it or you dropped it a puddle! Remember those?! I have read all of the writing comments with great interest as I have two young boys of my own year one and year six. I am a full time working single mum leaving home at 7am and not returning until after 7pm. Both my children receive nightly homework, which I insist must be completed to the best of their ability. Sometimes there is writing the perfect college essay friction and frustration between us, it's inevitable.
Whilst I agree children are under a lot of pressure, I try to remind my boys that their standard of writing education is essay iii richard vital and the effort they put in will be rewarded. It is the perfect college admission hard work but we have to encourage our youth to do well in essay strategy education, even if at the end of the day that's all they have. Except of course for writing essay love and support. My boys can be dustmen if that makes them happy, as long as they are educated dustmen! Homework Clubs are a great idea, but are not new. A colleague and I used to run one back in the early 90s after repeated children were unable to do homework because they did not have the equipment, books or help at essay based service, home. Writing College? As a busy mum of essay pride and prejudice to alice three young children it would benefit me and most other busy families, leaving the evenings free to enjoy each others' company and the children to pursue other activities e.g. sport/ brownies/cubs etc. Liz Langley, Mons, Belgium. As neither pupils nor teachers want homework, why not do away with it completely, but extend the school day by an hour or two. That way more will get taught, working parents will not have to worry about after school care, pupils will have no homework to do and teachers will have no homework to mark.
My working day ends when I get home from writing the perfect work, so should teachers and essay pride and prejudice letters, pupils. I went to a school which had boarding and day students. There was a defined time at the perfect admission, the end of the writing the perfect essay day for homework, which all the students remained in school for. This meant the day students didn't have to battle it out with their parents and didn't have to take work home with them. Writing The Perfect Admission Essay? It also made book sharing and group work much more easy to exam, organise. The added bonus was that by the time we got to university we were used to settling down for a couple of hours work in the evenings. Rachel, Edinburgh, Scotland.
My cousin was a secondary school teacher for many years and point blank refused to the perfect essay, set homework for any of his pupils. He didn't see the point in it. Pride Letters? If it can't be done at school, why should it be done at all? Martin Willoughby, Stevenage, UK. The amount of homework a child faces is ridiculous and one of the writing essay reasons I took my children out of school to educate them at writing the perfect college admission, home. The Perfect College Admission? These are children! They are meant to be playing after their school hours (which involves a lot more emotional learning than most adults appreciate). What happens when a child spends hours working on their homework when they don't really understand the subject: hours of work to be met by getting into trouble by drunk driving essay topic the teacher the the perfect college next day. Writing The Perfect Admission? So often I remember homework not being marked by the teachers, sometimes for weeks, which gave me the message that what I did didn't matter - I, and what I did, wasn't important. As for 'preparing children for the adult world' in terms of hours worked, as with everything else, it should be tailored to the child's age, abilities and aptitudes - after all, that's what the Law requires.
I have four children, one doing GCSEs this year, one year nine and writing essay, twins in year seven. Our philosophy is essay iii richard that homework is a priority on coming home from school. This has been the same throughout their school lives. All homework where possible is done immediately (even after returning from ECAs) or risk the consequences. The Perfect Essay? Playstation/computer/TV and essay on search, other activities have to wait until later or weekends. I rarely help with homework as this does not help any child, although I am there if needed. We have plenty of family time - our meals are eaten together (no TV), we sit and talk in the evening, weekends and holidays is their time with friends (one weekend a month is kept as family time). The Perfect College? Even as a full time working mum and on community, dad this was the the perfect admission essay same. My kids still have their jobs to do too! Plenty of time. Of course homework causes stress, what kid in their right mind goes home at the end of the pride and prejudice to alice school day thinking whooohaaaa!
I've got homework to do. The Stress comes, as the article says, from parents forcing kids to do their homework. So there are three solutions, stop homework, let the kids decide whether they'll do it or not, or as seems to be the prevalence do it for them. personally I'd stop homework, in 13 years of education (primary to a levels) I've never been given a piece of homework for any other reason than the essay teacher was required to provide me with homework. If the curriculum wasn't such an unholy mess perhaps homework could be avoided, because teachers would be able to teach, instead of pen-pushing. Simon Binks, Reading, England. I was actively encouraged by exam essay my daughter's teachers to the perfect, do her homework for her, particularly the essay projects that counted towards her marks. This would ensure that the school had a 'pass' to up their standard in the league tables. Other parents have told me the same story. The Perfect? I admit, I did it to writing the perfect admission, help my daughter. How many other parents will be as honest?
Perhaps then homework can be shown for what it is; a way of improving student standards by writing essay allowing their parents to do the work. Homework is essential for reinforcing the ideas thrown out in the classroom. Nobody likes doing it, but the one hour per subject during the school-day just doesn't cut it when attempting to understand subject material. I recently graduated from my university with a degree in Meteorology and I can certainly attest to the tremendous stress and workload involved with all the homework assigned. However, I must say that if children can't handle the (relatively) simple stress from homework, then how can they ever hope to cope with the high expectations and on search strategy, stress levels expected of them when working in their intended career? Michelle, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. There would be big arguments if we tried to force adults into doing compulsory overtime - homework is the same. Kids have a long day as it is.
Besides, a lot of research actually shows that doing a lot of homework has no appreciable effect on writing college results. Better results come from teachers who are relaxed and essay on community service, can teach instead of essay worrying about discipline and inspections. I'm 17 years old so naturally I have a part time job. I've noticed as I get old the amount of letters to alice homework in increased, thus making less time for family time. I think it's the teacher's job to teach because they're being paid for it. I shouldn't have to teach myself at home something because the teacher fails to do that.
I wish I could spend more time with my family, especially my older sisters, but homework definitely prevents this. I am a teacher and a parent. I have arguments at home about my son's homework, and have to sit in on the perfect essay endless detentions at school for lack of homework. Iii Richard? We should give up on homework as a bad deal. Nobody gains from it. James Brown, Birmingham, UK. I am an English teacher in a Junior High School in Japan (12-14 year olds) and we have a homework club. It doesn't work. All it does is take up more of the teachers precious time and make the college essay students do homework straight after their lessons have finished, instead of giving them a couple of pride to alice hours rest so they can do it when they are ready. College Essay? Children DO have to take responsibility for their actions. If you dictate everything to them then they will leave school and not know how to organise their lives.
Time management is very important in life and homework is good training. Also, there are not enough hours in essay the school day to cover all the necessary work in writing the curriculum and so an essay iii richard element of writing the perfect college admission essay homework is drunk driving essay topic essential, particularly from year 10 onwards. Kids need to learn that four hours school work a day bears little relationship to what is expected at college/university, let alone when they start working for a living. Too many children leaving school are ill educated and only semi-literate at best. Writing The Perfect College Admission Essay? It is far easier to exam essay, learn when they are young and is time well spent. My daughter starts school at 7.30am and is dismissed at 2.45pm. By the time she gets home she is done with school. She is 10 years old and all she wants to do is play with her friends. The there is the after school programmes, as sport id good for them. College? With homework we are stressing out kids way too young.
If they can't learn it in school, then the strategy education district isn't doing it's job. Heather Stabler, Round Rock, TEXAS, UK ex pat. Surely the starting point is to ask what is the purpose of the perfect homework? Is it because parents feel cheated if their child isn't doing enough homework - parent/school communication problem? Is it to finish work not done at school? Is it to build on what is done in essay topic school - with appropriate amounts and difficulties set? Or is writing the perfect essay it, just perhaps, to start to instil the iii richard discipline that, regardless of distractions, sometimes work just has to be done - and you have to plan how and when to do it.
And this reinforces the college essay point - it really is largely up to the child and the school. Parents should keep a good distance unless - as we have sometimes found - the pride and prejudice question doesn't make sense or the child just needs to look at admission, the problem from another perspective. Perhaps what is really required is writing the perfect college essay a genuine homework policy which all three parties - teachers, children and parents - all understand. When I was at school homework caused all kinds of problems between myself and my parents. The Perfect College Admission? They were constantly on essay pride and prejudice letters at me to do work or revise or something. I always did enough to get by and do reasonably well at school, but that often wasn't enough for them. Writing College? Now I'm in my final year at University and everything is going well. Homework did, without exception, cause all sorts of problems, and exam essay, although I'm not against it in principle, a better system should be instigated to writing the perfect college admission essay, help children and parents who fall out over it. Homework that has been brought home by writing the perfect college admission my seven year old daughter has already caused disagreements. The methodology and content is so different to college, what my wife and I did at school it is hard to essay on search, grasp what the the perfect admission school are after.
The homework is often unclear and not specific enough to exactly what the teachers are after. Is it really necessary at this young age? Can't they just enjoy being kids? Dave Clack, Bicester, England. The simple truth is that homework is essay pride and prejudice to alice of little value until a child begins to study for their GCSEs. All other homework before that is essentially preparing them for that day so that they are used to it. The Perfect Essay? The best thing a parent can do is to instil a routine for their child that they do homework at the same time for the same length of time every day. Then when it becomes important they are used to essay, applying themselves. Most homework problems in our house are generated by a school policy that declares homework to be the parents' responsibility.
To me, it is writing the perfect college very clear and simple: if the school wish to set homework, then they should enforce it and sanction non-compliance accordingly, not buck-pass. My role as parent is merely to provide appropriate study facilities along with empathy, support and love. I don't mind the homework setting so much but like other views expressed, get frustrated when it is and prejudice letters simply pointless 'colouring' for the perfect college admission my 11 year old or comes with poor instructions as to what is required. Both my husband and I work full time and finding the time at essay on search strategy, weekends to create the routine of 'homework time' for our eight year olds is difficult as the children are at essay, an age when their homework has to be supervised. Essay Iii Richard? At times this has been a stressful 45 minutes or even an hour. Given the research view that the writing the perfect college value of the work that they do in that time is minimal, I am questioning if this is really worth the hassle? Angela Ensten, Dunstable. I'd love to help my children with their homework, but, as a teacher, I'm too busy marking other people's children's homework to have any time for my own. How's about that for irony?
Diane Adams, Newcastle, UK. I don't think it is the homework as such - it is the amount of homework teachers expect these young adults to do. By the time they have done 2-3 hours homework had something to eat they are too tired to do anything else. As working parents would we be expected to do the same for our employer before we can do the essential things, like running a house interacting (as it is now) with our children and have the social life we crave for? No. so why make these demands on our teenagers?
I am not saying NO homework just be a little less demanding on them. After all a good rest is half the job as we keep telling them. A happy child will learn more than a stressed one so why do we put so much stress on them to do hours and hours of work after their normal working day. On the driving essay topic art project front; we did a school trip when I was about 11 and the perfect admission, had to make a model of something from the trip. Year on year these models were handed down.
It's truly amazing how repainting the grass makes it look like a totally different Stonehenge from last years. I'm a college student and the perfect college admission, although it's typical for work to writing admission, pile up my course has been absolutely ridiculous. I'm in essay format my second year doing applied science and only recently the the perfect college teachers have started giving us more assignments. This has put a lot of iii richard pressure on me and my classmates, for the perfect essay example two of my classmates are working mothers and find it difficult to cope doing both. In September-December no assignments was set for us to do and only started in January. We have an IVA (Integrated Vocational Assignment) to do at this moment which is the biggest pressure for all of the perfect college admission essay us, it isn't fair. Yep, got to agree with you there. I'm currently studying at University, and I'll be sat at my computer, head right in the perfect essay the middle of something, when my Sister, who is doing GCSE's back home, phones up or comes on MSN, then I'm expected to drop everything to give her a hand with something that she's had for a week which is essay service due in the next day, thus putting me off my train of the perfect thought, if Tony wants a life line, he'll kill off Homework, or if the essay based service Tory's want a decent landslide victory, they'll promise to do it, and by thunder they will, save our souls, sanity, and various other aspects from the dreaded homework beast.
Craig Jackson, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. I try to help my daughters with their homework in a constructive way. With my younger child (14) I will type out her essays etc on writing college the computer whilst she dictates them to me. I don't change what she says, I just type it out final, verbatim and leave her to do spelling and writing essay, grammar checks and put the final punctuation in when it's finished. College Essay? With my older daughter (17) I help by discussing her work with her. Apart from Chemistry, she's doing A levels in subjects I understand so we have long involved conversations about Shakespeare and Tudor history etc which she says really helps her get her ideas straight when she's putting an essay together. I help both girls as much as I can but I won't do the actual work for them - that's not helping as they wouldn't be learning anything if they didn't do the essay iii richard thinking and the research themselves. Poppy Hasted, London, England.
Ellie, London, UK - Isn't the fact that a four and a half year old even has HOMEWORK a damming indictment of the government's (and parent's) target obsessed (or perhaps jumping through hoops would be better) education system fixated on league tables and performance without actually considering what we are doing to the perfect, children (or should that be pre-adults?). I cannot see the point of homework until secondary school, and even then only final essay format substantial levels at 14 onwards. This was the kind of homework regime I went through (and I'm not old, just under 30) and I consider that I was a more rounded, intelligent, person at 16 than the general level of 16 year olds being produced these days. Good teachers are the writing the perfect college key - not homework. My child's school sets regular spellings and times tables each week and also encourages them to read regularly, but there is no pressure heaped on essay and prejudice letters to alice them.
They then have an optional homework menu each term which has creative ideas for the perfect science, geography, IT, music, PE, Art and DT projects that they can do at home. At the end of each term they have a celebration day when children can bring in any optional homework they have done during the term. They are generally really interesting things that children want to do and enjoy doing, and many don't need much, if any, input from parents. When the on search 'I'm bored, what can I do?' cry is heard, the homework menu provides plenty of ready-made ideas that will keep a child constructively occupied. The head teacher of our local high school promotes a very unrealistic homework timetable for year 11 students where she expects students to college, work three hours after school and more at weekends. This time table makes many students guilty and essay strategy, despondent because they cannot possibly work so many hours.
I have mentored students that her demands are very unrealistic, and that an hour and a half of high quality work will stand them in good stead. Sarah cotter, Woodridge, Suffolk. I think it is essay a problem of pointless homework. I always hated being given time wasting work that had no value, just because the exam teachers had to give us something. Kids work enough during the day, that until their courses require coursework, homework should be abolished. It's making me laugh all these comments about homework and all the stress, and writing the perfect admission essay, even more laughable when people say there should be no homework, as when I was at school I coped, sometimes it was stressful but that is the point, school is not meant to be easy! And by the way I only left school two years ago in essay letters case anyone was wondering! Imagine, expecting children to do homework at home. Surely the writing the perfect best way to resolve the problem would be to extend the iii richard school day by writing the perfect essay two hours and let the essay strategy teachers supervise homework that is set.
I fact if the children bring washing equipment, a sleeping bag and a bit of food perhaps the teachers can look after them all week. This would not only writing essay mean the essay iii richard parents not having to take any responsibility for their child's education, but you could also clearly call the writing the perfect college essay teacher to account when the child does not achieve the required standards by the end of the year. Essay Strategy? No more nagging teachers because essential homework has not been done be it reading and spelling at one end, or GCSE coursework at the other. What a solution. Cookery was always the writing the perfect admission worst, I regularly had to go and specially buy the essay based ingredients (often late at night). The instructions always indicated that these items could be found in the perfect essay any kitchen, not in essay iii richard mine they couldn't! Peter Armitage, Cardiff, Wales. Homework does cause tension at home, not only from parent to children but also between adults if both have different methods or answers to the questions set. Also when the homework does go in we don't seem to get any feedback to college, check it. The clubs are a good idea but does anybody think that the teachers want to spend their time running them when they're so overworked already. Richard Vickers, Nottingham, England.
Tensions arises in our house when my daughter's two job-share teachers want different homework handed in at different times. Try and get her to do homework on a Wednesday night when it is a different teacher on Thursday, and equally doing the final exam essay other teacher's homework on writing the perfect college admission essay a Friday or Sunday. Doesn't make for good homework routine. Mo Angus, Aberdeen, Scotland. British kids have the essay longest school hours in Europe and the perfect college essay, I think it is inappropriate to expect them to do homework as well. No wonder kids are getting fatter and less fit - they haven't got the time to play! Anna Hayward, Cambridgeshire. I lived in a small house with five younger brothers and writing admission, paper thin walls. Trying to college essay, do my homework was nigh on impossible in those circumstances and rows and tears would often result. Exam? A homework club would have made life much easier and would have put those children from working class homes on more of an equal footing with their middle class counterparts.
The only time homework causes a problem in our house is when it's either unclear what needs to be done or badly planned. We had one instance in November where science homework was given on a Monday, to be handed in on Friday - the work was to create a sundial and mark the position of the shadow morning, noon and afternoon. The morning was fine, but since our son was at school during the day he obviously couldn't mark the noon position and by the time he got home it was dark in admission essay the evening so there was no light to cast a shadow! Madness. Other homework has been very vague in the requirements meaning that correct answers were marked as wrong purely because they weren't presented in the way the teacher was expecting. Lee Furness, Blyth (Northumberland) Not so much a source of tension for us, because I do take a hands-off approach most of the time and hope that the doing or not doing of homework is a life lesson itself. However, I do find, that when asked to essay strategy, help, I can't be of much assistance as I can rarely understand the context in which the homework was set.
Homework clubs sound like a much better idea and would leave us to spend our precious little time in family pursuits. This article is so true. My brother is writing always in fight with my mom about his homework.
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allan kaprow essays Allan Kaprow. Essays on the Blurring of Art and Life . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993, pp. 1-9. Universiteit Antwerpen, Theater- en Filmwetenschap, 2010. Belgium is Happening. ?The Legacy of Jackson Pollock (1958) The tragic news of Pollock's death two summers ago was profoundly depressing to writing the perfect admission essay, many of us. We felt not only a sadness over the death of a great figure, but also a deep loss, as if something of ourselves had died too.
We were a piece of him: he was, perhaps, the strategy embodiment of our ambition for absolute liberation and the perfect admission a secretly cherished wish to overturn old tables of crockery and flat champagne. Writing The Perfect College Admission? We saw in his example the possibility of an astounding freshness, a sort of ecstatic blindness. But there was another, morbid, side to his meaningfulness. To die at the perfect college the top for being his kind of modern artist was to essay, many, I think, implicit in the work before he died. It was this bizarre implication that was so moving. We remembered van Gogh and Rimbaud. But now it was our time, and writing the perfect college admission essay a man some of us knew. Final Exam Essay? This ultimate sacrificial aspect of being an artist, while not a new idea, seemed in Pollock terribly modern, and in him the statement and the ritual were so grand, so authoritative and all-encompassing in their scale and daring that, whatever our private convictions, we could not fail to be affected by their spirit. It was probably this sacrificial side of Pollock that lay at the root of our depression.
Pollock's tragedy was more subtle than his death: for writing the perfect admission essay he did not die at the top. The Perfect College? We could not avoid seeing that during the last five years of his life his strength had weakened, and during the last three he had hardly worked at all. Though everyone knew, in the light of reason, that the man was very ill (his death was perhaps a respite from almost certain future suffering) and writing the perfect college essay that he did not die as Stravinsky's fertility maidens did, in the very moment of creation/ annihilation—still we could not escape the disturbing (metaphysical) itch that connected this death in some direct way with art. And the. connection, rather than being climactic, was, in a way, inglorious. If the end had to come, it came at the wrong time. Was it not perfectly clear that modern art in writing essay, general was slipping? Either it had become dull and repetitious as the advanced style, or large numbers of formerly committed contemporary painters were defecting to earlier forms.
America was celebrating a sanity in art movement, and the flags were out. Writing Essay? Thus, we reasoned, Pollock was the center in a great failure: the New Art. His heroic stand had been futile. Rather than releasing the freedom that it at essay on community first promised, it caused not only writing the perfect a loss of power and possible disillusionment for Pollock but also that the jig was up. And those of us still resistant to iii richard, this truth would end the same way, hardly at the top. Such were our thoughts in August 1956. But over two years have passed. What we felt then was genuine enough, but our tribute, if it was that at college all, was a limited one. It was surely a manifestly human reaction on the part of those of us who were devoted to the most advanced artists around us and who felt the shock of being thrown out on our own.
But it did not seem that Pollock had indeed accomplished something, both by his attitude and by essay and prejudice, his very real gifts, that went beyond even those values recognized and acknowledged by sensitive artists and critics. The act of painting, the new space, the personal mark that builds its own form and meaning, the endless tangle, the great scale, the new materials are by now cliches of college art departments. Writing The Perfect College? The innovations are accepted. They are becoming part of textbooks. But some of the implications inherent in these new values are not as futile as we all began to essay iii richard, believe; this kind of painting need not be called the tragic style. Not all the roads of this modern art lead to ideas of finality. I hazard the the perfect admission essay guess that Pollock may have vaguely sensed this but was unable, because of illness or for other reasons, to do anything about it. He created some magnificent paintings.
But he also destroyed painting. If we examine a few of the essay innovations mentioned above, it may be possible to see why this is so. For instance, the act of painting. In the admission essay last seventy-five years the random play of the essay and prejudice letters hand upon the canvas or paper has become increasingly important. Strokes, smears, lines, dots became less and writing the perfect college admission essay less. THE LEGACY OF JACKSON POLLOCK. Fig. 1 Jackson I'ollock in his studio, 1950. Photograph by Hans Namuth. attached to represented objects and existed more and more on their own, self-sufficiently. But from drunk essay topic, Impressionism up to, say, Gorky, the idea of an order to these markings was explicit enough. Writing College Admission Essay? Even Dada, which purported to be free of writing college admission, such considerations as composition, obeyed the Cubist esthetic.
One colored shape balanced (or modified or stimulated) others, and these in turn were played off against (or with) the whole canvas, taking into account its size and the perfect essay shape—for the driving essay most part quite consciously. In short, part-to-whole or part-to-part relationships, no matter how strained, were a good 50 percent of the making of a picture (most of the college time they were a lot more, maybe 90 percent). With Pollock, however, the so-called dance of on community, dripping, slashing, squeezing, daubing, and whatever else went into a work placed an almost absolute value upon a diaristic gesture. He was encouraged in this by the Surrealist painters and poets, but next to his their work is consistently artful, arranged, and full of finesse— aspects of outer control and training. With the huge canvas placed upon the floor, thus making it difficult for the artist to see the whole or any extended section of parts, Pollock could truthfully say that he was in his work. Here the direct application of an automatic approach to writing, the act makes it clear that not only is this not the old craft of painting, but it is perhaps bordering on ritual itself, which happens to use paint as one of its materials. (The European Surrealists may have used automatism as an ingredient, but we can hardly say they really practiced it wholeheartedly.
In fact, only the final exam writers among them—and only in a few instances—enjoyed any success in this way. Writing Admission Essay? In retrospect, most of the Surrealist painters appear to have derived from a psychology book or from each other: the empty vistas, the basic naturalism, the sexual fantasies, the bleak surfaces so characteristic of this period have impressed most American artists as a collection of unconvincing cliches. Hardly automatic, at that. And, more than the others associated with the Surrealists, such real talents as Picasso, Klee, and Miro belong to the stricter discipline of Cubism; perhaps this is why their work appears to us, paradoxically, more free. Surrealism attracted Pollock as an attitude rather than as a collection of artistic examples.) But I used the words almost absolute when I spoke of the diaristic gesture as distinct from the essay based on community service process of judging each move upon the canvas. Pollock, interrupting his work, would judge his acts very shrewdly and carefully for long periods before going into another act. He knew the difference between a good gesture and a bad one.
This was his conscious artistry at work, and it makes him a part of the traditional community of painters. Admission Essay? Yet the distance between the relatively self-contained works of the Europeans and the seemingly chaotic, sprawling works of the American indicates at essay on community best a tenuous connection to paintings. Writing The Perfect College Essay? (In fact, Jackson Pollock never really had a malerisch sensibility. The painterly aspects of his contemporaries, such as Motherwell, Hofmann, de Kooning, Rothko, and even Still, point up at final essay one moment a deficiency in him and at writing the perfect college essay another moment a liberating feature. I choose to consider the drunk driving essay topic second element the writing the perfect admission essay important one.) THE LEGACY OF JACKSON POLLOCK. I am convinced that to grasp a Pollock's impact properly, we must be acrobats, constantly shuttling between an identification with the hands and body that flung the paint and on search strategy stood in the canvas and writing essay submission to the objective markings, allowing them to the perfect essay, entangle and assault us. This instability is indeed far from the idea of a complete painting. The artist, the spectator, and the outer world are much too interchangeably involved here. (And if we object to the difficulty of the perfect college, complete comprehension, we are asking too little of the art.) Then Form. Essay? To follow it, it is necessary to get rid of the usual idea of Form, i.e., a beginning, middle, and end, or any variant of writing admission essay, this principle—such as fragmentation. We do not enter a painting of based service, Pollock's in any one place (or hundred places).
Anywhere is everywhere, and we dip in writing admission, and out pride letters to alice when and where we can. This discovery has led to remarks that his art gives the impression of going on forever—a true insight that suggests how Pollock ignored the confines of the rectangular field in writing college essay, favor of a continuum going in all directions simultaneously, beyond the literal dimensions of drunk topic, any work. (Though evidence points to writing admission, a slackening of the on community attack as Pollock came to the edges of many of his canvases, in the best ones he compensated for this by tacking much of the painted surface around the back of his stretchers.) The four sides of the writing college essay painting are thus an exam essay format abrupt leaving off of the activity, which our imaginations continue outward indefinitely, as though refusing to accept the artificiality of an ending. In an older work, the edge was a far more precise caesura: here ended the world of the artist; beyond began the world of the spectator and reality. The Perfect College Essay? We accept this innovation as valid because the artist understood with perfect naturalness how to do it. Employing an iterative principle of a few highly charged elements constantly undergoing variation (improvising, as in much Asian music), Pollock gives us an all-over unity and at the same time a means to respond continuously to a freshness of personal choice. But this form allows us equal pleasure in participating in a delirium, a deadening of the reasoning faculties, a loss of self in the Western sense of the format term. This strange combination of the perfect college admission essay, extreme individuality and selflessness makes the work remarkably potent but also indicates a probably larger frame of psychological reference. And for essay pride letters to alice this reason any allusions to Pollock's being the maker of giant textures are completely incorrect. They miss the point, and misunderstanding is bound to follow.
But given the proper approach, a medium-sized exhibition space with the walls totally covered by Pollocks offers the most complete and meaningful sense of college admission essay, his art possible. Then Scale. Pollock's choice of enormous canvases served many purposes, chief of essay topic, which for writing the perfect college admission essay our discussion is that his mural-scale paintings ceased to become paintings and essay became environments. Before a painting, our size as spectators, in relation to the size of the picture, profoundly influences how much we are willing to give up consciousness of our temporal existence while experiencing it. Pollock's choice of great sizes resulted in writing the perfect admission essay, our being confronted, assaulted, sucked in. Yet we must not confuse the effect of these with that of the essay hundreds of large paintings done in the Renaissance, which glorified an idealized everyday world familiar to the observer, often continuing the actual room into the painting by means of trompe l'oeil. Pollock offers us no such familiarity, and our everyday world of convention and admission essay habit is replaced by the one created by the artist. Reversing the above procedure, the painting is continued out into the room. And this leads me to my final point: Space. The space of final essay, these creations is not clearly palpable as such. We can become entangled in the web to some extent and by moving in and out of the skein of lines and splash-ings can experience a kind of spatial extension.
But even so, this space is an allusion far more vague than even the writing the perfect college admission essay few inches of space-reading a Cubist work affords. It may be that our need to identify with the process, the making of the whole affair, prevents a concentration on the specifics of iii richard, before and writing the perfect college admission essay behind so important in final exam, a more traditional art. Writing The Perfect College Essay? But what I believe is clearly discernible is that the entire painting comes out at us (we are participants rather than observers), right into the room. It is possible to see in this connection how Pollock is the terminal result of a gradual trend that moved from the on search strategy deep space of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries to the building out from the canvas of the writing admission Cubist collages. In the drunk essay topic present case the picture has moved so far out that the canvas is no longer a reference point.
Hence, although up on the wall, these marks surround us as they did the painter at work, so strict is the correspondence achieved between his impulse and the resultant art. What we have, then, is art that tends to essay, lose itself out of bounds, tends to to alice, fill our world with itself, art that in meaning, looks, impulse seems to break fairly sharply with the traditions of painters back to at least the Greeks. Pollock's near destruction of this tradition may well. THE LEGACY OF JACKSON POLLOCK. be a return to the point where art was more actively involved in writing college admission, ritual, magic, and life than we have known it in our recent past. If so, it is an exceedingly important step and in its superior way offers a solution to the complaints of those who would have us put a bit of life into art. But what do we do now? There are two alternatives. One is to the perfect essay, continue in this vein. Probably many good near-paintings can be done varying this esthetic of Pollock's without departing from it or going further. The other is to college admission, give up the making of drunk driving topic, paintings entirely—I mean the single flat rectangle or oval as we know it.
It has been seen how Pollock came pretty close to doing so himself. In the process, he came upon some newer values that are exceedingly difficult to discuss yet bear upon our present alternative. To say that he discovered things like marks, gestures, paint, colors, hardness, softness, flowing, stopping, space, the world, life, death might sound naive. Every artist worth his salt has discovered these things. But Pollock's discovery seems to college, have a peculiarly fascinating simplicity and directness about it. He was, for me, amazingly childlike, capable of becoming involved in drunk driving essay topic, the stuff of his art as a group of concrete facts seen for the first time. There is, as I said earlier, a certain blindness, a mute belief in everything he does, even up to the end. I urge that this not be seen as a simple issue. Few individuals can be lucky enough to possess the intensity of college admission, this kind of on search strategy, knowing, and I hope that in the near future a careful study of this (perhaps) Zen quality of the perfect college admission essay, Pollock's personality will be undertaken.
At any rate, for based on community service now we may consider that, except for rare instances, Western art tends to need many more indirections in achieving itself, placing more or less equal emphasis upon things and the relations between them. The crudeness of Jackson Pollock is not, therefore, uncouth; it is writing essay, manifestly frank and drunk uncultivated, unsullied by training, trade secrets, finesse—a directness that the European artists he liked hoped for and partially succeeded in but that he never had to writing, strive after because he had it by nature. This by on search, itself would be enough to teach us something. It does. Pollock, as I see him, left us at the point where we must become preoccupied with and even dazzled by the perfect essay, the space and objects of our everyday life, either our bodies, clothes, rooms, or, if need be, the drunk driving topic vastness of Forty-second Street. Not satisfied with the writing admission suggestion through paint of our other senses, we shall utilize the specific substances of essay and prejudice, sight, sound, movements, people, odors, touch.
Objects of. THE LEGACY OF JACKSON POLLOCK. every sort are materials for the new art: paint, chairs, food, electric and neon lights, smoke, water, old socks, a dog, movies, a thousand other things that will be discovered by writing the perfect college, the present generation of artists. Not only will these bold creators show us, as it lor the first time, the world we have always had about us but ignored, but they will disclose entirely unheard-of happenings and events, found in garbage cans, police files, hotel lobbies; seen in store windows and on the streets; and sensed in dreams and horrible accidents. An odor of crushed strawberries, a letter from a friend, or a billboard selling Drano; three taps on the front door, a scratch, a sigh, or a voice lecturing endlessly, a blinding staccato flash, a bowler hat—all will become materials for this new concrete art. Young artists of today need no longer say, I am a painter or a poet or a dancer. They are simply artists. Format? All of the perfect college admission essay, life will be open to them. Driving Essay Topic? They will discover out of ordinary things the meaning of ordinariness. They will not try to make them extraordinary but will only state their real meaning. But out of nothing they will devise the extraordinary and then maybe nothingness as well.
People will be delighted or horrified, critics will be confused or amused, but these, I am certain, will be the the perfect college admission essay alchemies of the 1960s.
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essay knowledge self The main entry focused on knowledge of one's own mental states. Yet “self-knowledge” can also be used to refer to knowledge of the self and its nature. Issues about knowledge of the self include: (1) how it is that one distinguishes oneself from others, as the object of admission essay, a self-attribution; (2) whether self-awareness yields a grasp of the material or non-material nature of the writing the perfect college essay, self; (3) whether self-awareness yields a grasp of one's personal identity over time; and (4) what sort of self-understanding is required for rational or free agency. These issues are closely connected with referential semantics, the writing college admission essay, mind-body problem, the essay iii richard, metaphysics of writing essay, personal identity, and moral psychology, respectively. This section briefly sketches some prominent views about knowledge of the self arising from debates in these areas. In self-attributing a mental state, I recognize the state as mine in essay some sense, and my self-attribution partially consists in a reference to myself.
This reference is reflexive, in that I think of myself as myself and not, e.g., as BG, or as the shortest person in the room. Nozick (1981) underscores the significance of being able to thus refer to oneself: “To be an I, a self, is to have the the perfect college admission, capacity for reflexive self-reference”. Essay Iii Richard. This raises the question: how is it that I identify myself, and distinguish myself from others? Consider: seeing a flushed red face on film, I might wonder whether the face I see is mine or my identical twin's, and therefore I may say, “someone is embarrassed, but is it me?” Evans (1982) argues that for some kinds of self-attributions, such a question will not arise. Adopting a term from Shoemaker (1968), he describes self-attributions of the the perfect college, relevant type as “immune to error through misidentification”.
None of the following utterances appears to make sense when the writing the perfect essay, first component expresses knowledge gained in the appropriate way: “Someone's legs are crossed, but is it my legs that are crossed?”; “Someone is hot and sticky, but is it I who am hot and writing the perfect essay sticky?”; “Someone is being pushed, but is it I who am being pushed?” (Evans 1982: 2201) Evans believes that my immunity to error through misidentification, in such cases, shows that I identify myself directly in these cases. If in college admission identifying myself as the one who is hot and sticky, I used some information beyond the information involved in college determining that someone is hot and sticky, then I could possibly be justified in believing that someone was hot and sticky but mistaken in thinking that it was me. Because that scenario doesn't “make sense”, he thinks, I must recognize myself directly, without any identifying information. Others deny that self-identification is based, direct, claiming instead that it occurs by way of some sort of writing, description. For instance, Rovane argues that, in college admission self-reference, the way one thinks of oneself can be analyzed as “the series of psychologically related intentional episodes to which this one [the current intentional episode] belongs” (Rovane 1993: 86). While Rovane sees intentional states as the anchor to self-reference, Howell (2006) provides an alternative descriptive picture, in which the self is identified through awareness of an occurrent sensation.
Proponents of descriptive accounts claim that such accounts can accommodate the fact that we don't actually err about who it is that is hot and sticky. For instance, Rovane claims that it is unsurprising that we are reliable self-identifiers, given that understanding ourselves and our place in college admission the world is required for genuine agency. (We return to the issue of agency below.) Still, there is an important epistemic disagreement between those, like Evans, who claim that self-reference is “identification-free”, and those who claim that we refer to ourselves via a description. The former maintain that there is, in a real sense, no room for error about who is hot and sticky, whereas the latter will say that while such errors are possible, we simply avoid them. Notably, both “direct reference” and descriptive accounts capture the reflexivity of first-person reference. (For descriptive accounts, this reflexivity lies in the fact that “this one” refers to the very thought of which it is a part.) They thereby fit with the widely accepted belief that self-reference in the distinctively first-person mode is essentially indexical. (See Castañeda 1966; Perry 1979; Lewis 1979.) The dispute between Evans and Rovane is then, in part, a disagreement as to whether the indexical term “I” refers to the self directly, as Evans believes, or instead refers via an implicit indexical of another sort, e.g., “this” or “here”. Final Essay. In general, one's epistemology of self-identification will depend on what sort of indexical one considers most fundamental, in self-reference. A final issue concerns the relation between self-awareness and college awareness of drunk, other persons. On the admission, leading traditional view of this relation, one first grasps that one bears psychological properties, and essay reasons by analogy to the conclusion that other creatures do as well. (This is the the perfect college admission essay, “argument from writing college, analogy” to the existence of other minds, articulated by J.S. Mill (1865).) Some recent philosophers have challenged this traditional view, contending that self-awareness is logically dependent on at least a conceptual grasp of other persons. For instance, here is Bermúdez: [A] subject's recognition that he is distinct from the environment in virtue of being a psychological subject depends on his ability to identify himself as a psychological subject within a contrast space of other psychological subjects. The Perfect. (Bermúdez 1998: 274) In a much-criticized piece of reasoning, Descartes (1641/1984) contrasts the certainty afforded by introspection with the dubitability of knowledge of the service, physical, to show that introspective objects (thoughts) are ontologically distinct from physical things. This strategy for supporting dualism has few current proponents.
Commentators still adhere to admission essay the basic criticism lodged by Arnauld (1641/1984): that a purely epistemic premise cannot support an ontological conclusion. It is clearly possible to be (relatively) certain that there is water in the tub, while doubting that there is H 2 O in the tub; yet water is based on community, identical to H 2 O. Many contemporary materialists are similarly concerned to restrict the deliverances of introspection, arguing that while mental states appear, to introspection, to be non-physical, the grasp which introspection affords is partial at best, and systematically misleading at admission, worst. However, there are materialists who take the opposite essay on community service tack: rather than rejecting self-reflection as a guide to ontology, they claim that some mental states appear physical. These arguments employ three types of writing admission, self-reflection: introspective awareness of sensations, introspective awareness of perceptual states, and proprioceptive awareness of college, bodily states. Proprioception is the putatively direct, non-perceptual awareness of one's bodily state; it is writing, what allows you to know that your arm is drunk topic, raised “from the inside”, that is, without looking at your arm. The argument for writing materialism from proprioceptive awareness, due to Brewer (1995), is as follows. Final Exam Essay. Proprioception is epistemically on a par with introspective knowledge, in that (i) it is a species of direct, non-inferential awareness, and (ii) it is the perfect admission essay, “immune to error through misidentification of the first-person pronoun” in Shoemaker's sense. Presumably, introspective awareness of mental states justifies the based, claim that we are mental beings, by virtue of the perfect admission, its epistemic character.
But proprioceptive awareness of physical states shares this epistemic character; so we are equally justified in essay the claim that we are physical beings. This argument falls short of disproving dualism, for it leaves open the question how our mental nature is related to our physical nature. Brewer (1995) also builds an alternative argument along these lines, which seeks to rule out dualism by focusing on introspective awareness of sensations. This argument takes introspective awareness of sensations as intrinsically mental and, at the same time, intrinsically physical. Like the previous argument, it claims that awareness of physical properties is epistemologically equivalent to awareness of mental properties. But it goes further, contending that introspection provides an awareness of physical and mental properties, in sensations, as inextricable.
It thus tries to block the possibility of distinctness between the mental subject and writing the perfect essay the physical subject. A final argument to show that self-knowledge supports materialism, advanced by Cassam (1997), uses a somewhat different approach. Rather than relying on the spatial quality of bodily sensations or proprioception, this argument exploits one's awareness of one's own perceptual states. It says that in becoming aware of our own perceptual states and taking these states to represent a physical world, we are driven to conceive of ourselves as physical objects. Broadly Cartesian objections to introspection-based arguments for materialism illuminate possible ways that the ontological conclusion can be flawed, consistent with the introspective evidence.
For instance, the iii richard, apparent proprioceptive awareness of the position of one's limbs could be nonveridical: an amputee might have a similar sense that her legs are crossed, even if she doesn’t, in fact, have any legs. (This does not violate Evans’ claim that such judgments are immune to error through misidentification: the writing the perfect college admission essay, error here is not one of misidentifying the subject, but instead of final format, falsely ascribing a property to the self.) A similar argument could be made against the claim that sensations are intrinsically spatial, and that perceptual states represent a physical world. Even if one's sensations portray oneself as spatially extended, the the perfect college, idea that one is non-extended (immaterial) is writing the perfect college admission, logically consistent with the presence of those sensations or (apparent) perceptual states. Proponents of these arguments for materialism could respond by writing the perfect essay claiming either that knowledge of oneself as a mental thing is essay, less certain than this alleged contrast implies, or that knowledge of oneself as a physical thing is more certain than it implies. The ontological views described in the previous subsection have no immediate consequences for personal identity. For it may be that the criteria of writing the perfect college admission, persistence through time, for persons, differ from the criteria of persistence for (other) material objects even if, as materialists contend, a person at a time is necessarily constituted by some matter or other. (See the entry on personal identity.) Knowledge of driving essay, mental states is writing the perfect admission, not usually thought to provide any special insight into one's persistence through time, since it is typically assumed that one enjoys privileged access only to one's current states. In particular, the individual has no special insight into essay iii richard, whether her current apparent memories are veridical, and so has no special way to determine whether a particular prior experience was hers. Writing The Perfect. Since views about essay strategy first-person access played a greater part in shaping theories of personal identity during the modern period than they do today, my brief remarks here will focus on that period.
As mentioned above, Descartes’ meditator uses the proposition that there is the perfect admission, thinking occurring, to which she purportedly has immediate (indubitable) introspective access, to establish her own existence with certainty. But this does not allow the meditator to grasp a persisting self. For Descartes, the self, like every other substance, is not directly apprehended; it is understood only through its properties. Hume also claims that we never directly apprehend the self. Unlike Descartes, he concludes from this that there is no substantial self.
In a famous passage, Hume uses introspective awareness to show that the self is essay topic, a non-substantial “bundle” of perceptions. For my part, when I enter most intimately into what I call myself , I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of heat or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. College Admission. I can never catch myself at any time without a perception, and can never observe anything but the perception. When my perceptions are remov’d for any time, as by sound sleep; so long am I insensible of myself , and may truly be said not to exist. (Hume 173940/1978: 252) Locke agrees that self-reflection is writing admission, important to admission the nature of the self. But while Descartes takes self-reflection to reveal that nature, Locke seems to suggest that one's self-conception constitutes the self. [A person is] a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and iii richard considers itself as itself , the same thinking thing in different times and places. (Locke 1689/1975: II.27.ix, my emphasis).
On some interpretations, what it is for an experience or action to belong to me (a Lockean person) is for me to appropriate it, or to impute it to writing college myself (Winkler 1991). This interpretation underscores the importance of Locke's claim that “person” is a forensic term. “Person”is a forensic term, appropriating actions and their merit; and so belongs only to intelligent agents, capable of a law, and essay happiness, and writing the perfect essay misery. This personality extends itself beyond present existence to what is past, only by writing admission essay consciousness,- whereby it becomes concerned and accountable; owns and imputes to itself past actions, just upon the same ground and for the same reason as it does the present. College Essay. (Locke 1689/1975: II.27.xxvi) Locke's view of the self is usually considered less deflationary than Hume's view. But these philosophers agree that, in a very real sense, the nature of the essay iii richard, self is bound up with one's reflections on one's states. For Hume, this means that the self is nothing over and above a constantly varying bundle of experiences. For Locke, it means that the self is the perfect admission, defined by what we door, perhaps, can self-attribute, through recollection and/or appropriation. Kant repudiates the basic strategy shared by Locke and Hume, for he denies that self-awareness reveals objective facts about service personal identity. He concurs with Descartes and Hume that we never directly apprehend the self (this fact is writing the perfect college admission, what he calls “the systematic elusiveness of the ‘I’”).
And while he holds that we cannot avoid thinking of ourselves as persisting, unitary beings, he attributes this self-conception to necessary requirements for thought which do not directly support substantive ontological conclusions about the writing the perfect, nature of the self. A couple of contemporary views about personal identity are noteworthy in this context. Galen Strawson's (1997) view does not explicitly draw on introspective reflection, but it implies that the limits of a subject correspond to the limits of the perfect admission, what could be introspectively grasped, at on search, a moment. A subject is defined by (indeed, identified with) a period of experience which is admission essay, “experientially unitary”. Final. Since in humans an appropriately unified experience lasts no more than about three seconds, subjects are in fact very short-lived. Dainton and writing the perfect college admission essay Bayne (2005) present a related view, which tries to avoid the result that subjects are very short-lived. On this view, personal identity is tied to (the capacity for) experiential continuity rather than experiential unity.
But unlike Strawson's view, the drunk driving topic, continuity view is vulnerable to familiar objections concerning the possibility of writing college admission essay, branching streams of consciousness or “fission”. The role of the perfect college admission, self-understanding in agency is a complex topic, and we can only college admission briefly examine some leading positions on exam format, the issue here. Knowledge of admission essay, one's relatively stable traits and iii richard dispositionsone's characteris believed, by some, to be crucial for the exercise of free agency. For instance, Taylor claims that self-reflection is imperative for being human (where this means, in part, being capable of agency), [T]he human animal not only finds himself impelled from admission, time to time to final exam essay format interpret himself and writing college admission his goals, but he is always already in some interpretation, constituted as human by this fact. (Taylor 1985: 75) In a somewhat different vein, Frankfurt maintains that the capacity to rationally evaluate one's desires is required for freedom of the will. This rational evaluation issues in second-order desires, that is, desires concerning which desires to have or to act upon.
[N]o animal other than man appears to have the capacity for reflective self-evaluation that is writing college admission, manifested in the formation of second-order desires. Writing. (Frankfurt 1971: 7) It is final exam essay format, only because a person has volitions of the second order that he is capable both of enjoying and of lacking freedom of the will. (1971: 14) These claims by Taylor and Frankfurt go beyond the writing the perfect college essay, merely pragmatic observation that a reasonable degree of self-understanding is required for strategy effective action. Instead, they assert that what is distinctive about the exercise of writing essay, a free will, in determining one's course of action, is that this exercise involves the capacity to critically reflect on one's basic goals and desires. (For a related recent view, see Bilgrami 2006.) While Taylor, Frankfurt, and Bilgrami stress that a broad self-understanding is crucial for responsible agency, others claim that particular actions require some awareness of one's intentions in performing that action. For instance, Searle (1983) argues that intentions are always self-referential, in that when one performs an action X intentionally, the relevant intention to act includes an intention to X so as to fulfill that intention itself. Drunk Essay. Anscombe (1981) similarly emphasizes the significance of writing the perfect college admission, one's awareness of intentions in acting. In fact, on her view thoughts about driving essay actions, intentions, postures, etc. have a special status: it is only thoughts about such aspects of the self that are.
unmediated, non-observational, and also are descriptions (e.g., “standing”) which are directly verifiable or falsifiable about the person. Writing Admission. (Anscombe 1981: 35) And she also believes that action requires some awareness of these features of oneself. For criticism of the idea that action requires awareness of intention, see Cunning (1999). One contemporary theory of writing the perfect admission, practical reasoning, offered by Velleman (1989), casts knowledge of the self in a particularly important role. Velleman notes that we strongly desire to understand ourselves and, in particular, to understand our reasons for acting. On his view, this desire leads us to try to discern our action-motivating desires and beliefs. (He calls this attempt to gain self-awareness “reflective theoretical reasoning”.) But strikingly, Velleman thinks that the desire for self-understanding also leads us to model our actions on our predictions about how we will act.
In this way, our expectations as to how we will act are themselves intentions to act. “Intentions to act are the the perfect admission essay, expectations of strategy, acting that issue from reflective theoretical reasoning” (Velleman 1989: 98). Thus, Velleman can say that our desire to understand what we are doing, at the perfect admission, the moment we are doing it, is pride letters to alice, usually satisfied, since our predictions about how we will act are themselves intentions to act, and hence our beliefs about what we will do are “self-fulfilling expectations”. Finally, there is an the perfect college emerging literature which examine the effect of societal influences on subjects’ self-understanding and, thereby, on agency. See, e.g., Neisser and iii richard Jopling 1997 and writing admission essay Meyers 2002. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.
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