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Improving productivity

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bill simmons resume Show Your Spirit. Special to productivity Page 2. Paper? There's a small place inside us that they can never lock away, and that place is called hope. It all started with that damned Sports Illustrated cover four weeks ago. Improving Productivity? There was Nomar, inexplicably shirtless, flexing a bat in front of his waist, grinning broadly, looking like they cut-and-pasted his noggin onto Stone Cold Steve Austin's body. Surprised Red Sox fans had three immediate reactions: 3 . Hey wait a second . NOOOOOOOOOOO. Yup. it was the dreaded SI Jinx, the magazine curse that makes Bobby Brady's Hawaiian tiki seem like a rabbit's foot.

Apparently SI's other option was dressing up a black cat in a No. 5 jersey and eecs photographing it from under a ladder. Anyway, panic swept through Red Sox Nation as word spread about the cover. Productivity? We were titillated that Nomar received some much-deserved ink, rattled by his impressive, It doesn't make me gay to thesis international development say that Nomar's ripped, right? physique and infuriated at improving productivity SI for jeopardizing our beloved shortstop's health. In that order. And then it happened.

Midway through the afternoon -- the same freaking day. Where Statement In A Research Paper? -- word filtered from various media outlets that Nomar had injured a tendon in his right wrist. Details were scarce, early reports weren't encouraging . and productivity everything just stopped. People sleepwalked through the rest of the workday, searching for updates on radio and the Internet, sending out appeared brief essay this, e-mails, calling friends and improving basically engaging in Group Commiseration. Rumors flew around various message boards that included the dreaded, impossible phrase Out for the year. More sophisticated Sox fans remembered that Nomar originally injured his wrist after being struck by an errant fastball from former Orioles pitcher Al Burn in Hell! Reyes (back in September of phd thesis eecs '99).

Was Nomar suffering lingering problems from that pitch? And should we organize a witchhunt to improving find Al Reyes? Nobody knew. Initial reports confirmed that Nomar had battled recurring problems with that same tendon (from the Reyes game), only now he was suffering from extreme discomfort and brief this a sudden loss of strength. Productivity? Yikes. Pit in the stomach time. Something bad was going down here; the 2001 season was going down in flames faster than the Spin Doctors after Cleopatra's Cat was released. Plan For Mac? We waited for positive news -- something, anything -- but deep down, we knew it wasn't coming.

And that was that. The next three weeks of spring training were agonizing; every day felt like a kick to productivity the collective groin. Essay This? Newspapers were crammed with stories about Nomar's inexorable march to surgery, Crazy Carl missing buses, tension between Jimy and productivity Duke and problems flaring up with Valentin's knees, Coney's shoulder and Manny's hammies. For a season brimming with so much promise -- every year we believe that This is the essay this year, but after the Manny signing, we were really believing, Hey, this is the year! -- the sudden collapse just seemed cruel. Improving Productivity? This team can tread water for two to three months without Nomar, but not much longer, and no reasonable fan would expect them to contend in October unless Nomar, Pedro and Manny are all playing at 100 percent. Let's be honest, it takes months to recover from major wrist surgery, especially for a hitter like Nomar who relies on his wrists and is the in a paper his bat speed. Improving Productivity? Even if he returns near the end of the season, he won't be the where thesis in a paper same. We know this.

We know this. Act II: The Void. Productivity? Somewhere in the middle of plan template for mac this mess, the season suddenly commenced in Baltimore last Monday -- a disheartening 2-1, 11-inning loss that dredged up many of the problems from last year. Once again, the Sox offense wasted a fine effort from Pedro, who ended up getting the dreaded no-decision (Pedro could have married Derrick Thomas and gotten better support over the past few years). Once again, shoddy defense cost the Sox a crucial run in a close game. Once again, Jimy (The dealer's showing 6 and I'm sitting on productivity 18. International Development? hit me!) Williams made some strange decisions, starting two inexperienced players at new positions and refusing to productivity pinch-hit for Darren Lewis with runners in scoring position in the 9th and 11th innings (with Dante Bichette and Scott Hatteberg sitting on business the bench, to boot). Productivity? The more things change, the more they stay the same. Except for one thing . no Nomar. I wrote last week that a Red Sox season without Nomar felt like a cheeseburger without ketchup or a Cinemax skin flick without Shannon Tweed, so I was prepared for where thesis located research the worst.

But at least four different times during Monday's game, I fell off the wagon and suffered legitimate Goddammit, why does Nomar have to be injured. Productivity? moments that caused me to shake my head, drop a few F-bombs and appeared brief this question the morals of the improving Baseball Gods. Quite simply, the essay this Nomar-Pedro tandem was the best thing to productivity happen to the Boston sports scene since the Larry Bird Era. We love these guys. Outsiders can't fully appreciate it. On the where statement located paper one hand, there's Pedro -- the most dominant pitcher since Koufax, maybe the greatest right-hander since Walter Johnson, a no-hitter waiting to happen every five days and one of the more charismatic Boston athletes in improving, recent memory. Custom? Every one of Pedro's starts is an event. That's the best way I can put it. Improving Productivity? He's a comet. He's the Dominican Larry Bird.

On the other hand, there's Nomar. Statistically, he was on pace to be the most memorable all-around right-handed hitter since DiMaggio (has any player before Nomar ever topped .300 as a rookie, then added at least 15 points to his batting average in graduate custom, each of the next three seasons, without losing any power?). He approaches every at-bat the same way, right down to his manic-obsessive, Nicholson in 'As Good As It Gets' routine with the batting gloves. Improving Productivity? He never studies pitchers, freely admitting that he doesn't know if the team is graduate paper, facing a righty or a lefty on some days. He swings at everything, and I mean everything . And yet the guy belts more line drives than anyone you've ever seen. He's a line drive machine. It's uncanny. You really have to watch the Red Sox day in improving, and day out to where thesis statement located research paper appreciate it. After Boston fans suffered through a catastrophic, titleless 10-year span ('87 to improving '96) that featured the brief essay rapid decline of the C's and B's, the improving productivity Tuna's bitter departure to is the thesis statement located in a paper the Jets, the stunning deaths of Lewis and Bias, Bird and Neely having their careers cut short by injury and Clemens fleeing to Canada . watching Pedro and improving productivity Nomar arrive in the same calendar year ('97) felt like hitting the lottery. Suddenly we had two heroes again, the apa referencing for essays artist and the everyday grinder. Improving Productivity? Pedro was Hendrix; Nomar was Springsteen.

Pedro was Brando; Nomar was Newman. We came to marvel at the unique contrasts between the two superstars. Pedro doesn't just get batters out, he buries them. He breaks them. On those special days when Pedro has all four pitches working, it feels like somebody stuck Fenway Park into a light socket. You stand on every two-strike count, you scream at the top of your lungs, you pound your hands together until they throb, you high-five strangers. you give yourself to this man . Everything you have.

Everything. Thesis Statement In A Research? I'm telling you, he's a comet. Nomar? We have a different bond with him, almost like he's a family member; we immediately adopted the improving California native as one of us. Even the way we scream his name speaks volumes: No-mahhhhhhhhhh! That always cracks up outsiders at Fenway, those four or five moments a game when Nomar glides towards home plate, bat in hand, and you hear a rustling buzz of thesis international development excitement (building applause), followed by general recognition and giddiness (Hey, Nomar's up!), followed by a genuine roar and a cacophony of improving productivity No-mahhhhhhhhhh's! But his consistency makes him more endearing than anything -- all those line drives, how he runs out grounders, his uncanny ability to avoid slumps, the way he carries himself and plays the game. That stuff grows on you after time. Even if he lacks Pedro's outgoing personality, Nomar's average guy charisma makes up for it. Yank him off the Red Sox for a few months and everything changes. It's like watching an episode of The Sopranos without Tony involved -- maybe every plot doesn't have to revolve around Tony, but you still need him there.

You need him around. Together, Nomar and Pedro equal Tony; remove one of them and the Red Sox aren't the same show anymore. As we're finding out. Apa Referencing For Essays? Act III: The Comeback. To understand why we haven't given up hope for the 2001 season -- even though Nomar's probably not coming back until August, even though this might be the worst defensive team to play in a major league baseball stadium since Kelly Leak and the California Bears ignited the Astrodome, even though the productivity starting rotation goes Pedro, Nomo, Castillo, Tomo and apa referencing Uh-Oh, even though $12.5 million worth of improving productivity washed-up second basemen rot on the bench, even though our manager openly works on his resume between innings -- you have to understand us. Red Sox fans are complicated and perennially misunderstood. You probably think that 82 straight years of failure, as well as some beyond-scarring losses, a haunted ballpark and the fact that we came within one pitch of winning the '86 World Series 13 different times would jade us beyond repair.

Nope. Appeared Brief This? For whatever reason, we always believe that this will be The Year . and when it doesn't happen and things fall apart, we react as if our hearts were broken for improving the first time. Business Plan Template? Those three months after the Manny signing exemplified everything; we went from sizing World Series rings to popping Prozacs in the span of 70 days. Nobody overreacts quite like us, good and bad. We're a roller coaster ride.

We're insane. And it's all because we're terrified that we might live a complete life -- I'm talking seven to improving eight decades, followed by business plan template death -- without seeing the Boston Red Sox win a World Series. Improving Productivity? The local media preys on this fear. Is The Located Research Paper? Manipulative, mean-spirited, agenda-ridden -- pick an adjective, because all of them fit -- this current crop of writers overrates our weaknesses (the woe is me complex), dwells on negative issues and delights in tweaking our stars. Outsiders read them and think, All Boston fans are like that.

Not true. The media members are just trying to rile us. Usually, it works. Improving Productivity? Again, we're insane over this whole thing; we're not rational. But at least we care. Put it this way: If you had to graduate custom paper find a movie that personified Red Sox fans, you know what the obvious choice is? The Shawshank Redemption.

That's why I led with the Andy Dufresne quote up top. There's a small place inside us that they can never lock away, and that place is called hope. Improving Productivity? That's us! Andy didn't deserve to spend 20 years in jail . Apa Referencing? we didn't deserve to improving root for a baseball team responsible for so much heartache over the years. Andy planned his escape every day . Is The Statement Paper? we think about winning the World Series every day. Andy battled the Warden and lost . we battled the Yankees and lost. Improving Productivity? People thought Andy was crazy because he had hope . people think we're crazy because we always think, This is the year! Andy was gang-raped for over two years by The Sistas. we suffered through the '86 World Series. And so on. But here's the key . Andy escaped. He dug out of Shawshank with a rock hammer, for international God's sake.

He crawled through 500 yards of s**t-smellin' foulness the likes of which we couldn't imagine. He stole millions from the warden and improving caused the graduate paper warden to decorate his office with his brains. Improving? He fled to Mexico and settled in Zihuatanejo, but not before hiding some money and a letter in thesis international development, a Maine cornfield, just in case his buddy Red was released some day. And Red was released, and improving he found the money and the letter, and he skipped town and headed to Mexico, and he found Andy, and business template for mac hell, for all we know, they're probably playing chess on that boat right now. Yeah, it's only a movie, but it makes you wonder about the improving productivity Red Sox and what would happen if they win the Series.

Everyone has their own fantasy about this, but we all agree on one thing: Downtown Boston would turn into a three-day Mardi Gras. Back in my raging 20s, I worried that I would go overboard, that they would find me the where thesis research same way they found the late Chris Farley -- butt-naked, bleeding, incoherent, beyond drunk and crawling towards a hooker, with a smile on my face. I feel differently now that I'm 30 -- I see the improving productivity whole thing unfolding like a giant group hug, like when Andy and Red greet each other at the end of Shawshank, but multiplied by 10 million people. Graduate Custom Paper? Does that make sense? And that's the lure. The giant group hug. Productivity? That's why we keep the appeared faith every year. Improving? That's why we overreact to everything.

That's why Sox fans were doing backflips over Manny's signing and practically chugging Drano after Nomar's injury. That's why we were rejoicing last night after Hideo Nomo's improbable no-hitter, convincing ourselves that Nomo has suddenly reversed every negative vibe from March. And that's why we're waiting . and hoping . and praying . and that's why we're quietly pining for July, when the Sox somehow keep treading water and development remain alive in improving, the A.L. East, and then Nomar starts taking BP, and then he heads down to Pawtucket for the rehab stint, and then he returns, our secret weapon down the stretch, reunited with Pedro, spraying line drives once again, the business plan for mac piece that pushes us over improving, the top and closer to the giant group hug. Will it happen? Maybe, maybe not. But I hope it happens.

When all else fails, just remember that hope is a good thing, maybe the best of things, and no good thing ever dies.

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Tips For Increasing Productivity - Forbes

HBS Class of 2017 MBA Application Essay, Resume, and App Form. In this post I will be analyzing the optional essay question and key components of the HBS Application for the Class of productivity 2017 as indicated by the optional MBA essay topic: You’re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, academic transcripts, extracurricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores, and what your recommenders have to say about you. What else would you like us to apa referencing, know as we consider your candidacy? I did not get this post up in time for R1 as I was too busy working with clients on their HBS R1 applications, but better late than never! SORRY ABOUT THE FORMATTING ISSUES BELOW. I WILL ADDRESS THEM AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.

My comprehensive service clients have been admitted to the regular HBS for the Classes of 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and improving productivity 2005. My clients’ results and testimonials can be found here. In addition to providing comprehensive application consulting on HBS, I regularly help additional candidates with HBS interview preparation. For Essays? I have worked with a large number of applicants from Canada, Europe, India, Japan, other parts of Asia, and the United States on HBS application. I think that this range of experience has helped me understand the many possible ways of making an effective application to HBS. My best HBS client results were the best ever for the Class of productivity 2016.

I had six clients admitted from five different counties. Their backgrounds and essays varied greatly. In fact, one one of them actually contributed his or her essay to The Unofficial Harvard Business School Essay Book, which made me really happy . Thesis? I can’t tell you which one. I do highly recommend reading this book because it will give you a really good idea about the range of possible answers and dispel any myths about improving productivity needing to submit something that is professionally written. I would also recommend the graduate custom paper old book that contained HBS admits essays. That collection is still a good read for understanding how to put together an productivity MBA essay though the specific questions are no longer being asked by HBS. Combined, both books are really great guides for someone looking to see sample successful MBA essays. Beyond those essay books, a piece of absolutely required reading for graduate custom, HBS admissions is Poets Quants’ John Byrne’s interview with Dee Leopold, Managing Director of improving productivity MBA Admissions and Financial Aid at Harvard Business School.

If you are looking for plan template for mac, one article to give you overall insight into improving productivity, how HBS makes admissions decisions, John Byrne has done an thesis development exceptional job of asking Dee Leopold the right questions. I will quote from that interview below. Note: Application related content is taken from the online application. Instructions: Please provide a current resume or CV. Ideally, this would be about 1-2 pages in length, but we’re not going to make a fuss if yours happens to be longer than that.”

The resume has always been an improving important part of any HBS application. You can find a resume template I have linked to on my blog here. That resume template can also simply serve as a checklist for what to include. Plan For Mac? While many schools prefer a one-page resume, HBS really does not care. Productivity? Depending on a client’s background, I will recommend 1 or 2 pages. I think it best to think of a resume as a record of berkeley eecs accomplishment.

If you have sufficient accomplishments, 2 pages is fine. Productivity? Some applicants try to a use an MBA student’s recruitment resume format as the basis for their own resume, but I generally don’t consider this a good idea as such resumes serve a very different purpose. An MBA resume should really designed to focus on you overall, that is thesis international development your academic, professional, and improving productivity personal accomplishments and key facts. A recruiting resume is graduate paper meant for improving productivity, a different kind of audience, recruiters, and typically focuses on thesis statement, a much more narrow range of information. When I first start working comprehensively with any client, whether they are applying to HBS or not, I always start with the resume for a couple of reasons:

1. It is a great way for any applicant to summarize the productivity most important information about them and their accomplishments. It sometimes helps applicants actually remind themselves of what they have done. 2. For me, it is a way I learn about a client so that I can better understand their background. One key thing to remember about what you include on graduate custom paper, your resume: Anything that is there, just like any component of the application, may become the basis for improving, a HBS interview question. Therefore if you don’t want to talk about international development it and don’t need to write about it, leave it off the resume. While not mentioned in the HBS essay question, there is also an Employment Section of the application that provides space for you to discuss two positions in detail including providing brief descriptions of your professional accomplishments and challenges. To some extent this information will overlap with the resume. This is nothing to productivity, worry about. That said the challenge question in particular is very possibly something you would not be covering in your resume.

Stanford has a similar detailed employment section in their application, which they seriously. I assume HBS does as well, so just as with the resume, make sure your answers in the application are as effective as possible. Don’t treat it like some form you do at the last minute. First, keep in mind that a dmissions officers read transcripts and are trained to know what they are reading. They don’t just look at GPA (If your school calculates it). If there is something really bad on your transcript (a fail, a withdrawal, etc) or odd, you really do want to graduate, explain it in the additional section or, in some cases, in the essay. If is just a C and you have no specific excuse, don’t bother trying to improving productivity, explain it. If your academic performance varied greatly from year to year (or semester to semester), was there a reason for it? Is it one that you want to provide?

I don’t recommend discussing how you became depressed after your boy/girl friend broke up with you, but, if, for example, you were taking a major leadership position in a student organization, running a start-up, working a lot to pay for school, doing major research, or playing a varsity sport, you do have a topic worth discussing. For Essays? Finally, If neither your transcript, GMAT/GRE, or resume indicate that you have solid quantitative skills, you should explain why you do if you can. Productivity? The proper place to provide that explanation is in the additional section or the essay. Given HBS’ instructions on apa referencing for essays, this, I do highly recommend including your best extracurricular activities with perhaps 2 out of 3 being focused on college/university activities, unless you have some particularly impressive post college/university activities, where I might see including only improving 1 activity from college/university. If you have done nothing impressive extracurricular-wise after graduating and have 3 good activities from university, feel free to berkeley phd thesis, just use use this section for productivity, those activities. If you did nothing but study during college or university and really have no activities, hopefully you have three post-college things to include. If you have any activities that are directly relevant to your professional goals or to berkeley, your personal story and productivity you really want to emphasize them, use this space accordingly. Thesis In A Research? While I would surely emphasize the most impressive activities in terms of leadership or engagement, if you need to focus on personal interests that were not group focused (running for example) because you simply don’t anything better, put it here.

Activities that show you are well-rounded, civically engaged, artistic, athletic are all possibilities here. Keep in improving, mind that extracurricular activities can (and usually should) also be fully accounted for on the resume and brief this given the fact that you can submit a two-page resume, there is productivity no reason that can’t account for phd thesis eecs, an activity. Also, if you are not using the space for anything else, the 500 character additional information section could be used. Instructions: Were you on improving productivity, the Dean’s List? Did your apple pie win a blue ribbon at the state fair? Tell us about it here. List any distinctions, honors, and awards (academic, military, extracurricular, professional, community) in order of importance to you (i.e., list the most important first). You may list up to three awards. For some applicants this section is really easy to fill out because they have won a number of awards, distinctions, or honors and graduate just need to prioritize them.

Other candidates will freak out about this section because they never won anything that they think fits. While, it is sometimes really the case that I will have perfectly great applicant who has nothing to report in this section, most applicants are actually likely to have something. HBS is not asking you a narrow question here, so think broadly. INTENDED POST-MBA CAREER GOALS. (This is found on the Employment page of the application) “Intended Post-MBA Career Goals. Briefly tell us more about your career aspirations: Instructions: Please only add additional information here if you need to clarify any information provided in the other sections of your application.

This is not meant to be used as an additional essay. Please limit your additional information to the space in improving, this section. We’ll know you’ll be tempted, but please don’t send us any additional materials (e.g., additional recommendations, work portfolios). To be fair to international development, all applicants, extra materials won’t be considered. Here it is improving — the moment you’ve been waiting for!

Time to where research paper, do your essay! (If you want to, that is. Believe it or not, the essay is optional.) The essay question is: You’re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, academic transcripts, extracurricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores, and what your recommenders have to improving productivity, say about thesis international development you.

What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy? Use your judgment as to productivity, how much to tell us. We don’t have a “right answer” or “correct length” in mind. We review all the elements of your written application to decide who moves forward to international development, the interview stage. Upload your Word or PDF document below. As far as format goes, use a standard font like Times New Roman or Arial in a size that won’t hurt our (rapidly aging) eyes. No need to productivity, repeat the question above unless you want to.” If you read the Harbus essay collection, you will see that applicants handled this essay in a variety of apa referencing for essays ways last year. Four Ways HBS Evaluates Applicants. My objective when working with each of productivity my clients is to help them identify the best content in their essays, resume, interview and other application components to show fit for apa referencing for essays, each school they apply to.

My approach is to understand the audience that is being communicated to because the only objective of your application is to improving productivity, communicate effectively to your audience, the admissions committee. The following summarizes what HBS is looking for in terms of three stated values (Habit of Leadership, Analytical Aptitude and Appetite, and Engaged Community Citizenship) plus Diversity and the possible places where you can demonstrate these in your initial application (Interview and post-interview not considered below): These four core ways that HBS evaluates applicants need to be communicated in located in a research, your application and improving productivity one or more of them should be used in your essay. In addition to those four elements (which are discussed in detail below), other possible common topics for inclusion here would be: -Your wider post-MBA career vision that you could not explain in the 500 character answer on the Employment page. Thesis Statement Located Research? Some applicants will not touch on this topic at all in improving, their essays. -Why you want an brief essay this MBA in general? Again, some will address this, others will not. Since there is no place in the application to indicate this otherwise, it would reasonable to explain your rationale for doing an MBA, whether you state this in improving, general and/or terms of HBS in particular is your choice, but my bias is certainly for being HBS specific. -Why HBS? I don’t think one has to necessarily write in detail about why you want to go to HBS, but providing your overall rationale for why you want to go HBS now is phd thesis eecs certainly reasonable.

If your career vision is productivity something you are writing about and there are particular aspects of phd thesis HBS that really relate to productivity, it, feel free to mention them. For a discussion of international development career vision, why an MBA? or how to explain why you want to attend a particular program, see my analysis of the improving productivity Stanford essays. If you are a reapplying to HBS, I do recommend addressing that issue either in the essay or, if you only need a brief amount of words, in the Additional Information section. If you are reapplicant, please see here. It is usually the case that ones tries to graduate custom, show growth since the last application. Whatever form(s) this growth takes, you might need a brief amount of word count or significant word count. Common topics: 1. Changes in career goals since the previous application.

Feel free to alter your goals, just explain why. 2. Why you are a better candidate now. This could be everything from a career change to productivity, increased GMAT scores to improved English ability to taking courses to overcome an academic weakness to a valuable extracurricular activity. The mission of brief essay this HBS is to improving, educate leaders. I have worked with clients from Canada, France, India, Japan, UK, and US who were admitted to HBS. They had a diversity of educational, extracurricular, and professional backgrounds, but were united by one thing: In one or more aspects of their lives, they demonstrated this habit of leadership. Business Template For Mac? HBS takes a very broad view of what they are looking for:

HBS does not explicitly ask you to show your potential for improving productivity, leadership in this essay, but it may very well be something you decide to write about. Leadership is business for mac no easy thing. Nor is it always obvious. If you leadership is fully obvious from resume, than perhaps your essay not discuss it, but the improving productivity worst possible thing is to conceive of leadership as simple formal responsibility or a title because this conveys nothing about the brief person in improving, that position. While some applicants will have held formal leadership positions, many will not. Berkeley Phd Thesis Eecs? Formal leadership positions are great to write about if they involve the productivity applicant actually having significant impact, making a difficult decision, being a visionary, showing creativity, or otherwise going beyond their formal responsibility, but the same is true for those showing leadership without having a formal title. If you are having difficulty really understanding leadership, one great place to thesis, read about leadership, and business in improving productivity, general, is Harvard Business School Working Knowledge. Also, if you have not done so, I suggest reading relevant essays in 65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays: With Analysis by the Staff of the graduate custom paper Harbus, The Harvard Business School Newspaper. Improving Productivity? Reading these essays should help you to essay, understand the great diversity of topics that are possible and productivity not only in terms of leadership.

Some clients I have worked with have never really considered themselves as leaders. Apa Referencing? I think it is critical that if you are applying to HBS that you have idea about what kind of leader you are. While there are number of ways to describe leadership, I particularly like this formulation of leadership types that INSEAD Professor Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries has used in one of his Harvard Business Review blog posts (Disclosure I am a student in productivity, an INSEAD program that he co-directs): I have previously suggested that applicants who are having difficulty really understanding leadership find out what kind of leader they are by taking this quiz based on Lewin’s classic framework. While leadership is more complicated than Lewin’s framework, the quiz is a great way to get you started thinking about yourself, a key part of answering any leadership essay question effectively.

However I think the 8 archetypes above provide a much better guide for those who both have extensive leadership experience and those who think they lack it. Think of these 8 archetypes as aspirational images of template for mac certain kinds of productivity leader. You may fit into more than one category. Apa Referencing? You may find you don’t feel like you are really good at improving, any of the above in comparison to graduate custom paper, the descriptions above, but that is OK because you are trying to identify your potential even if it seems based on productivity, relatively little “objective evidence.” If leadership is not obvious from your resume or likely to custom paper, be a topic your recommenders will focus on, you should certainly consider how you show your leadership potential. I have never worked with anyone who could not demonstrate potential in at least one of the categories above. Some types of leadership experiences that make for effective essays: -A time you convinced someone or some group. -A time you lead others. -A time you demonstrated courage. -A time you made a difficult decision. -A time you were innovative. -A time you formulated and executed a strategy or tactics.

-A time you turned around a situation, overcame an improving productivity obstacle. -A time reformed something. -A time you changed something. -A time you effectively negotiated with someone. -A time created something. -A time you managed or organized something. -A time you mentored or coached someone. While “Engaged Community Citizenship” might take the form of leadership, it is quite distinct: So much of our MBA experience – including the thesis international case method, section life, and student-organized events – requires the active collaboration of the productivity entire HBS community. That’s why we look for students who exhibit the highest ethical standards and appeared brief this respect for others, and can make positive contributions to the MBA Program.

The right candidates must be eager to share their experiences, support their colleagues, and teach as well as learn from improving, their peers. HBS and other MBA programs are looking for students who will make a contribution. Development? This really makes sense because of the productivity collaborative nature of plan template MBA education. While professors play an important role in the classroom, students learn from productivity, each other on a continuous basis both inside and where thesis located in a research outside of improving class. An MBA education is very much one based on relationship building. One of the chief functions of an apa referencing for essays MBA admissions committee is to select people who will be good classmates. The director and the rest of the committee have done their job properly if they have selected students who can work well together, learn from each other, and improving if these students become alumni who value the relationships they initially formed at business school. Given that two of the apa referencing for essays major takeaways from an improving productivity HBS education are the relationships that a student forms during the program and access to appeared brief essay this, the alumni network, HBS is improving looking for this, candidates who will fully engage with others. Engagement in productivity, a community may take many different forms.

Over the this years, I have found the following types of productivity activities to be very effective for MBA applications: -Volunteer or social activities at work, whether it is business actually organizing them or participating in them. -Volunteer or social activities at school, whether it is improving productivity actually organizing them or participating in them. -Volunteer or social activities outside of thesis statement in a work or school, whether it is productivity actually organizing them or participating in them. -A volunteer activity related to your post-MBA goals. -A volunteer activity that allowed for the development of apa referencing for essays leadership and/or teamwork experience. -A volunteer activity that put you in contact with people who are quite different from you in terms of nationality, income level, and/or educational background. -An international volunteer or social activity. -Active involvement in productivity, an alumni organization. -Active participation in a sports team. -Active political involvement (Not just voting or knowledge of politics, but actual activities) -Participation in apa referencing, an orchestra, band or other musical group.

-Participation in improving, drama or dance. -Organizing trips or other activities for a group of berkeley phd thesis eecs friends. -Serving as the leader, organizer, or active member of a team-based educational activity such as a seminar, project, or overseas trip. The above are just some possibilities. Some people will no doubt worry that they lack extracurricular activities to demonstrate such community citizenship, but in my experience there is always some way to improving productivity, demonstrate this. Part of my job is to help my clients identify such activities and communicate about them effectively. Business Template? If you have demonstrated extensive community citizenship in your resume, you may very well not need to write about in improving, the HBS essay, but you might still find that explaining your motivation for such activities is something you want to convey to plan template, HBS. For those with limited objective resume content in improving, this area, if there is an effective way to get some positive aspect of thesis located research paper your community citizenship into the essay, do so. HBS is a highly competitive and challenging academic environment.

It is not for anyone. Productivity? “Analytical Aptitude And Appetite,” what can more generally be thought of as academic potential, will be very easy for some candidates to demonstrate without ever writing an essay on the topic. You must demonstrate your analytical intelligence somewhere in your application. Yes, a solid GPA and GMAT are enough for graduate paper, that purpose, but if you think your academic record and improving productivity GMAT are weak, I do suggest demonstrating your high analytical aptitude and appetite in your essay. Also, whether you address your analytical abilities in your essay, for most applicants, it would also be very useful to have one or more recommenders discussing this. Some effective ways to demonstrate analytical intelligence include the is the thesis located in a following: -Solving a complex problem at work, school, or elsewhere. -Discussing the successful completion of complex analytical tasks. -Breaking down a complex problem that you solved and communicating it a very brief and clear way.

– Demonstrating great personal insight into ones weaknesses, failures, and/or mistakes. -Showing the ability to learn from weaknesses, failures, and/or mistakes. -Showing the ability to learn and master something highly complex. -Demonstrating a high level of creativity. Those with truly outstanding academic background and test scores need to likely focus less attention on this area. If you think you have weaknesses in this area, consider how to use the essay to improving, mitigate them. The above list provides some effective ways to do that. This overall intention to create a highly diverse class significantly impacts HBS admissions’ decisions. Graduate Paper? The critical thing is that you demonstrate why you are unique and how you will add to productivity, the diversity of the class. In your essay you need to graduate paper, show what makes you stand out.

Especially if you think your academic, personal, professional, and/or extracurricular experiences are not inherently unique, it is very important that your essay demonstrates what makes you stand out. Some ways of demonstrating diversity that my clients have used successfully include the following: -Being the first person or kind of person to do something. -Being the improving productivity youngest person to do do something. -Making an original contribution to something. -Having an unusual family, academic, personal, or professional background. -Unusual skills or talents. -Extensive international experience. -Receiving prestigious awards or scholarships. Keep in mind that diversity is a matter of interpretation and presentation and it is each applicant’s responsibility to best demonstrate how they will add value to their classmates. One of business my jobs as a consultant is always help my clients identify ways that make them distinct even if they think they are not special. I operate on the assumption that everyone is unique.

So far I have discussed topic selection. I think it is useful to think about the improving productivity actual structure for an effective essay. When it comes to telling stories, which is what the plan two essays for HBS require you to improving, do, I think it is most important to think about berkeley your audience. You are not writing these essays for yourself, you are writing them to convince your audience. How to convince them? The following grid connects the parts of an essay (the first column) to three core aspects of writing an effective essay. Improving Productivity? The table should help you see the relationship between the components of international a story and what I would consider to be three major questions to ask about any story. What actions did you take?Action Step 1: The grid above is improving productivity based on the following assumptions, which I consider to be basic for writing effective essays:

Your reader must understand you. HBS emphasizes this in the essay instructions: Just answer the where is the thesis located in a research question in improving productivity, clear language that those of us who don’t know your world can understand. Apa Referencing For Essays? Provide a clear interpretation of what you have done. Write in simple language, even about complex things. Assume your reader has a basic business background, but don’t assume any expertise. Productivity? Cause-effect relationships should not be merely implied where possible. Showing your actual action steps is critical. A full explanation might be impossible because of word count, but if you tell things in sequence, it usually provides that explanation. You reader must believe you.

If your reader is not convinced by your story, you are dead. I am all in where is the thesis statement in a paper, favor of telling the best version of a story that you can, provided it is also believable. Improving Productivity? Bad self-marketing is frequently based on where is the thesis located research, lies that can be seen through. I have met many admissions officers and improving productivity while not all of them were brilliant, all the good ones had finely tuned “bullshit detectors.” If your essays have a seemingly tenuous relationship with reality, you are likely to be setting yourself up for a ding. Your reader must be engaged. If a reader does not become interested in what they reading, there is essay this a problem.

The problem may be that the essay is simply generic or it might be the way a story is being told is boring or it maybe a lack of passion in the writing. Improving Productivity? Whatever the case, it needs fixing. Appeared Brief Essay? One of my roles as a consultant is to improving, coach my clients on where statement located in a research paper, writing essays that will be engaging. You must sell your reader on your high potential for improving productivity, admission. Appeared? Great essays don’t just need to be believable and interesting, they have to improving productivity, be convincing. You are trying to get admissions to take a specific action after they read your file: admit you or invite you for an interview. Thus, essays must convince them to take action, they have to see why you should be admitted. Graduate Custom Paper? I help my understand how to productivity, do this and give very specific advice on how to do so. Your reader should be interpreting your essay the way you intend. In writing there is always room for misinterpretation.

If you have not effectively interpreted yourself, there is always the possibility that your reader will draw opposite apa referencing for essays conclusions from what you intended. I help my clients make sure that they understand and improving productivity correct for all such negative interpretations. My final point is that HBS is looking for people who want to be leaders, not mere managers. They are looking for people who will use their “one precious and wild life” to achieve great things, not those who will be satisfied at eecs, being mediocrities. Improving Productivity? If you can’t show the for mac potential for that now, when will you?

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A Child Anxiety Disorder - Case Studies. This page presents case studies about children who suffer from a child anxiety disorder. This page is under construction. If you are interested in either of the case studies presented below contact Dr. OConnor. She will let you know when these case studies are available for purchase. Improving! Read#xa0; Dr.

O'Connor's case studies about custom paper, a child anxiety disorder. Two case studies are discussed below. These case studies can increase your understanding of child anxiety, and how to productivity, help. T he children featured in these case studies present#xa0; differently and show varying symptoms of anxiety. Plan Template! They exemplify different categories of anxiety disorders, as well. And the consequences of the productivity anxiety disorders they suffer play out brief essay, differently for each child, at school, at home and in the community. Hence, these children not only improving, present differently, they require different intervention strategies. Children do not typically present in the same way, even if they share the same anxiety disorder. Similarly no one size fits all in terms of intervention strategies. And both the assessment, and intervention strategies must be tailored to the individual needs of the apa referencing for essays child or adolescent. Each case study is designed to productivity, increase your understanding of the child anxiety problem#xa0; that concerns you.

With increased understanding of how a anxiety in children can present, and the kinds of intervention strategies that can help, you will be in a better position to promote positive outcomes in an anxious child, despite the challenges he or she faces. Remember - Understanding the appeared essay this Problem is the productivity Key to Solving It. #xa0; Each case study is designed to plan template for mac, increase your understanding of child anxiety, and to help to help promote positive outcomes in the anxious children you care about or work with, despite the improving challenges they face.#xa0; If you feel either of these case studies can help#xa0; you, help a child who suffers from#xa0; a child anxiety disorder, you can purchase these case studies together, for a discounted price, or as a single item. So how can these studies help you? As you read each one, think about the child#xa0; you are concerned about. Does she or he exhibit similar concerns and behaviors? Which of his/her symptoms do you think point to a child anxiety disorder?

Do you think this child's behaviors reflect those that can signal a child anxiety disorder? Are these behavioral symptoms inhibiting the child’s ability to appeared essay this, cope with the emotional, social, learning and/or behavioral challenges of his or her life? What stressors do you think have triggered high levels of improving anxiety in this child? And what kind of strategies do you think could best help this child? Further suggestions for for essays using this case study to help you help a child or adolescent who shows how levels of anxiety have been outlined in the the improving productivity case study itself. Each case study includes the following#xa0; sections. A Child Anxiety Disorder: Case Study # 1. Thesis International! #xa0;case study has experienced a number of stressors that contribute to and exacerbate her feelings of anxiety . A close family member also suffers from an anxiety disorder, thereby suggesting a genetic risk for developing an anxiety disorder herself. Her anxious, sensitive temperament, which she exhibited as an infant and improving young child, and which continues, may also increase her vulnerability for developing an anxiety disorder. As an introverted child she tends to internalize her distress rather than to act out in an angry and/or aggressive manner. As you read this case study, note the symptoms of anxiety she exhibits . Anxiety disorders and phd thesis eecs depression often co-exist. Productivity! In addition to an anxiety disorder, this child was also diagnosed with depression.

Avoidance behaviors are evident, as well, and for essays usually apply to situations that trigger anxiety in this child. Improving Productivity! She will respond to your question and offer recommendations for plan addressing your concerns. Dr. Improving! O'Connor also offers an Assessment Based Solution package to help children of anxious parents . For Essays! When a parent suffers from an anxiety disorder his or her children are often at improving productivity, increased risk of developing an anxiety disorder themselves. To find out how a child of an where is the thesis statement located anxious parent is doing and improving what you can do to help, click here. To read more about child anxiety, including signs and symptoms and who is most at risk of developing an anxiety disorder , click here. Graduate Custom! Or to find out more about a child anxiety disorder including different categories and/or types, recommended treatments and how to help when a child suffers from a child anxiety disorder , click here. Improving Productivity! Our Case Study – A Child Anxiety Disorder.

To protect the confidentiality of the child discussed in this case, and her family, all identifying information has been changed. The Problem: Symptoms of a Child Anxiety Disorder. Parent Concerns: Mary is a 9 year old child. She exhibits a range of concerning behaviors including those that often signal a child anxiety disorder. She lives with her parents and several siblings. Mary’s parents reported that she has difficulty paying attention and phd thesis eecs concentrating.

She is also reluctant to do her school work and finds spelling and reading hard. Her parents reported that Mary often seems detached and improving productivity off in “her own little world” . She has an active imagination, which includes imaginary friends. Mary's parents reported concerns about her self-esteem and feel she is very shy . Mary experienced difficulty adjusting to her multi-grade class because she feels shy and nervous around older children. According to her parents Mary has always been shy and reluctant to graduate paper, participate with others. She is so shy, according to her parents, that she does not always answer when someone says hi or she speaks so softly that she can't be heard. She generally appears shy with everyone. In addition, she is reluctant to productivity, leave home to go to school or on outings and errands. She needs to be coaxed and graduate custom cajoled to leave the house.

Mary's parents also described Mary as nervous and anxious. They reported that when Mary is nervous she will get up and walk away or detach from the situation and improving productivity withdraw into her own little world. To read more about Mary’s symptoms, as well as the berkeley results of the improving psychological assessment that was conducted to explore her needs click here to join Dr. O'Connor's member-ship site. You can then click on to read the rest of this case study. Appeared Essay This! At the end of the case study you will find recommended solutions to help Mary and children who exhibit similar concerns.

You can try the recommendations that interest you to help an anxious child.

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essays etc This page is full of essays that I wrote at improving productivity University and College. I didn't get 'A's on graduate, all of them - just most of them - so steal at your own risk.This format is -of course - just temporary. History 339 Primary Documents Review Robert Jago 20015294 Document One: Debates on the Passage of the improving, Quebec Act, House of Commons, 1774: Each party in the debate accepts that it is apa referencing right and just that the newly conquered subjects of Canada should be assimilated with regards to religion and language. Where the parties differ is in the 'law-form' of the country and the rights of English colonists and tradesmen therein.

The Attorney General, Lord Thurlow, proposes that it is unwise to create a democratic system of government in the new colony. He states that, 'humanity, justice, and improving wisdom equally conspire to for essays, advise you to leave them [institutions] to the people just as they were'. Improving Productivity! With regard to the Englishman's right to carry his laws with him over to the new colony, the Attorney General considers this to be as absurd an apa referencing expectation as if a Londoner expected the laws of his city to follow him to the Isle of Guernsey. On this latter point, the Solicitor General, Alexander Wedderburn, claims that the rights of Englishmen should be withheld from improving Canada so as to 'keep alive in their breasts this attachment to plan template, their native soil'. The contrary argument comes from Colonel Barre and Mr. Charles Fox, and Mr. Productivity! Edmund Burke. The former argued from a jingoistic position, that the Attorney General should be more concerned with his English countrymen in Canada - who emigrated to phd thesis eecs, the country in the expectation of enjoying the same rights and privileges as they had in their motherland. Furthermore, Colonel Barre claims that the imposition of the English constitution is not a punishment, but, due to its liberal nature, it is a reward. Productivity! Mr.

Fox expands upon the latter argument and suggests that whatever elements of English law that the local inhabitants may find disagreeable may be easily adjusted to graduate custom paper, better fit their temperament. Finally, Mr. Fox, foreshadowing the productivity, argument by Mr. Burke in the years to come, states that his opposition to the authoritarian constitution to business plan, be continued in Canada is improving productivity based in his belief that, 'America is not to be governed by statement located force, but by affection and interest'. Mr. Burke partially digresses from the particular topic at hand and in productivity stead makes the 'slippery slope' argument, that a tyrannical government in thesis international development Canada will be used by unnamed forces at improving home as an plan example to show that 'stronger measures' are better suited for governing.

Finally, in another tangential argument, Lord North proclaims his support for the bill in order to prevent the establishment of a free assembly composed entirely of Roman Catholics. Document Two: Edmund Burke, Speech on Conciliation with America: In this document Mr. Edmund Burke seems to echo Mr. Fox's argument from the previous essay. Edmund Burke argues that America's bond to the British Empire rests solely on improving, the feeling amongst the essay this, Americans that English Liberty and English rule are one and indivisible. He argues that if Americans were shown that Liberty and English government were separable then the bond would be broken, because Americans could find 'tyranny anywhere'. Document Three: Edmund Burke, Speech on Fox's East India Bill: In this document Edmund Burke draws a distinction between a classical Charter, which may help enumerate some of the natural rights of men, and the East India Company's Charter, which illuminates the Company's rights over men. Productivity! Mr.

Burke claims that all such political arrangements are artificial and statement located in a paper are part of a social contract. Improving! While the East India Company has fairly, legally, and justly acquired its dominion in India for money, it must not disregard that in doing so it formed a social contract with the Indians and therefore it must run its lawful administration to their eventual benefit. Document Four: William Cobbett, Political Register: This document has a surprisingly twenty-first century view of the Raj . William Cobbett argues that the conquest of India is the greatest crime in the history of the world, it is without justification, and the unceasing wars which accompany it are a waste of English lives, and custom a slander of English honor and glory. Document Five: William Wilberforce, Speech on the East India Company's Charter Bill: William Wilberforce fears that Britain is too easily sitting on its laurels with regards to India. Improving Productivity! He fears that the impressive edifice that is the thesis development, British Raj has blinded England to improving productivity, how tenuous their rule is. The reason for this is that Britain has failed to win the where thesis in a research paper, affection of the improving productivity, Indians.

William Wilberforce's solution to the lack of affection the Indians may feel towards Britain is to recreate the Indians, as an Asian race of Englishmen. Document Number 6, Thomas Munro on the Employment of Natives in apa referencing the Public Service: Thomas Munro proposes that the British are courting disaster if they continue to exclude Indians from high public office in India. He writes that the productivity, Empire's hold over them should be one of affection, and that that affection is won by allowing the Indians into the highest offices of the Empire. He writes that excluding Indians from high office would remove the incentive for Indians to international development, educate themselves along British standards. Improving! Without such an education their civilization would sink still further. He concludes that British rule should be maintained permanently in India so that the apa referencing, process of Anglicisation and civilisation may continue until Britain 'shall in time so far improve the character of our Indian subjects as to enable them to improving productivity, govern and protect themselves'. Document Number 7, Thomas Babington MacCaulay Sppech on the Government of India: Thomas MacCaulay reiterates Thomas Munro's earlier argument that Indians should be admitted to all of the high offices of India so that this incentive might help raise the general character of the template for mac, Indians. MacCaulay draws on improving, divine providence in his explanation of the British object in India. He writes: 'we shall never consent to . stupify and paralyse a great people who God has committed to where is the statement paper, our charge '. MacCaulay considers that the civilizing mission in India can only add to Britain's honour. he concludes by epitomizing his and Thomas Munro's argument that the improving, 'empire is the imperishable empire of thesis development our arts and our morals, our literature and our laws'.

Document 8, William Huskisson Speech on moving for a select committee on the civil government if Canada: William Huskisson attacks the feeling in Parliament that the empire must pay its own way and bring some material benefit to the Home Islands. He argues that Britain has a duty to her subjects and not the other way around; that Britain has formed numerous colonies in her own image and that abandoning these colonies of Englishmen [indistinguishable from themselves] would be 'an indelible disgrace'. He attacks these men as 'Little Englanders' and appeals to their patriotism by invoking Britain's civlizing mission to the world. Improving Productivity! Document 9, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: In this document, Mr. Wakefiled describes the anarchic British settlement of where is the thesis in a research New Zealand and the problem of dis-honourable settlers run riot over the natives. His solution is to send the islands a Bishop in order to supervise the settlers. Document Ten: Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton, Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements): Sir Thomas first accepts that it is right and just for Britain to productivity, find new outlets for the surplus population of the Home Islands. However with this right comes the duty to supervise that colonisation in order to check an evil as great as slavery - the custom, oppression of the natives of productivity 'barbarous countries'.

The chief reason for their oppression is the distance between the settlers that commit the crimes and the English courts fit to punish them. Where Thesis In A! Document Eleven: John George Lambton, Earl of Durham, Report on the Affairs of productivity British North America: In this document the Earl of Durham proposes the union of British America into a new nation which would allow the local population to for mac, have some say in the government. The proximity of the improving productivity, United States has daily shown the British Americans that enjoy a poorer material life than their southern cousins and this creates a move for separation from the phd thesis, Empire. The only way that this can be countered is improving through the fostering of national feeling which would give the British Americans 'a country which they would be unwilling to see absorbed even into one more powerful'. The Earl of Durham also finds that many people in the metropole are too ready to leave the security of the thesis international development, British dominion over improving America to the common ties of affection. Document Twelve: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, Speech in the House of Commons: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, states that while Canada is a military liability to Britain, its commercial and political importance far outweigh this problem. He also writes that if certain Canadian parochials would wish to essay this, separate their country from Britain's nominal control, they must consider that while Britain does gain much from Canada, Canada gains far more materially from Britain and the Imperial connection. Document Thirteen: John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy: John Stuart Mill writes that nations have a duty to colonize the world in order open the resources of the under developed nations to the world and to the benefit of all mankind. Productivity! He notes that while the principle of thesis development comparative advantage is generally accepted, a similar principle, applying to labour is rarely considered, 'the exportation of labourers and capital from a place where their productive power is improving productivity less to a place where it is greater, increases . the aggregate produce of the labour and capital of the world'.

Document Fourteen: Richard Cobden, Speech at Manchester: Richard Cobden opposes the military expenditures related to maintaining an empire. He writes that surely the English do not intend to maintain the empire by this force of arms, and if as some argue, arms are needed to defend trade, then why is a similar expenditure of the machines of war not needed to ensure the security of the this, transatlantic trade with the United States. He also argues that the solution to the frequent insurrections by the natives throughout the Empire is for 'civilised men [to] treat savages like men'. Document Fifteen: Richard Cobden, Letters on India: Richard Cobden expresses the fear that like Greece and Rome before her, Britain may be 'corrupted and demoralized' by her Asian Empire. He appears to want to hasten the end of the Raj by removing the 'screen' of the British East India Company from the improving, administration of India, so that Parliament could meditate on the awesome responsibility of governing and civilising more than one hundred million people. Document Sixteen: Earl of Rosebery, Speech to the Leeds Chamber of Commerce: The Earl of Rosebery introduces the term 'Imperial Federation'. The purpose of such a community is to ensure the continued connection between Britain and appeared her dominions. The previous claims that Britain must shoulder the burden of Empire, and that the colonies are a drain on her materially and spiritually have given way to the Earl's claim that it is solely because of the Empire that the trade with the colonies is so high.

He notes that trade with Australia and its three million inhabitants is the productivity, same in real numbers as trade with the United States (a liberated colony) and its sixty million inhabitants. Document Seventeen: Benjamin Disraeli, Speech at graduate the Crystal Palace: Disraeli attacks the 'Little Englanders' and the liberals for improving productivity their attempts to undermine the thesis statement, Empire. Productivity! Disraeli claims that if not for the devotion and loyalty of the colonies to apa referencing, England, the imperial ties would have been severed. Productivity! Disraeli finds that the time is right for the consolidation of the Empire into a federation with an Imperial Tariff, military, and parliament. Document Eighteen: W.E. Gladstone, England's Mission: Gladstone undermines the cause of paper Imperial federation by calling it a 'superstition equally gross and mischevious'. Productivity! He again appeals to divine providence and 'England's mission' which appears to be to thesis international development, create outlets for her surplus population.

The glory of founding these repositories of men is that they are also repositories of productivity English liberty and culture and where thesis located therefore are bound to her by 'moral and social sympathies' as opposed to the writ and fiat of Downing Street. Document Nineteen: John Bright, Speech on improving, India: John Bright renews the call to administer to India with an eye for its eventual independence along a British model. However he does not appeal to a sense of future glory or 'England's mission' as justification, but instead writes that Britain should 'make amends for the original crime upon which much of our power in India is founded'. Document Twenty: John Robert Steeley, The Expansion of England: India for the moment excepted, John Robert Steeley finds that unique aspect of 'Greater Britain' is its shared nationality. He draws the distinction between the British Empire and this greater British nation which is an enormous agrandisement of the national estate and allows for an Englishmen to travel anywhere on earth and still find himself at home. On a separate point, Steeley writes that the Raj has removed from the phd thesis eecs, Indians the native Official class which is necessary for them to have self government. If Britain were to remove herself from India, she would be abandoning it to improving, chaos; therefore, for the good of the Indians (and not for the honour of those Englishmen that conquered them) the Raj must continue until the eventual goal of self-government is at hand. Britain should not delude herself about having won the love of the statement research, Indians, because unlike the civilising mission of Rome in Iberia, Britain can offer the Indians only an austere 'cold daylight' to their previous 'warm gorgeous twilight'. Document Twenty-one: Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury, Speech in the House of Lords: The Marquess of improving Salisbury admonishes his fellow Lords for failing to take the apa referencing for essays, initiative in the expansion of the colonies.

He writes that the rising walls of productivity protectionism and the advancing colonial frontiers of appeared brief essay this her competitors are putting Britain at productivity a grave disadvantage. Business Plan Template For Mac! She must therefore act immediately at any chance to win a legacy for productivity her grandchildren in fertile places such as Uganda lest such places become part of a German or French legacy. Document Twenty-two: Lord Curzon of Kedleston, Speech at Farewell Dinner, Byculla Club, Bombay: Lord Curzon describes the British civil servant in apa referencing for essays India as someone of the highest moral principles. Productivity! He writes that these moral principles alone are the business plan, justification for the British presence in India. Document Twenty-three: Lord Milner, Speech to the Manchester Conservative Club: Lord Milner describes the innumerable benefits bestowed upon Britain by her dominions. Improving Productivity! These dominions alone will ensure that Britain will remain a great power, just as their absence will ensure her material impoverishment. His slogan, 'One throne, one flag, one citizenship' summarizes his position. Eecs! Document Twenty-four: Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa: The author enumerates the responsibility of British rulers to the native inhabitants of her colonies. This is the first part of the dual mandate in the tropics. As part of that mandate the British must raise the improving productivity, moral stature of the natives and country that they rule; in for mac order to do so the British themselves must maintain the improving, highest of moral standards in order to ensure their prestige and authority. Appeared Brief! The second part of the mandate is the development of the tropical economy so that its resources may be available to all of mankind.

Document Twenty-five: George Bernard Shaw, The Man of Destiny: George Bernard Shaw, speaking through Napoleon expounds upon English hypocrisy. Improving Productivity! He writes that 'an Englishman does every thing on berkeley phd thesis eecs, principle'. GB Shaw writes that an English man's morals are interpreted so as to improving productivity, justify his nation's necessity. Document Twenty-six: J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study: Hobson's is a socialist interpretation of the support and apa referencing for essays expansion of the British Empire. Productivity! The author quotes Cecil Rhodes when he said 'Her Majesty's Flag [is] the is the research paper, greatest commercial asset in the world'. Document Twenty-seven: J. Productivity! Ramsay MacDonald, Labor and the Empire: Ramsay MacDonald derides the plan template for mac, character of the men of the colonial service. He complains that they have done their duty in the colonies with the narrowest of minds and have refused to understand the minds of the improving, natives. He lays the blame at a national pride which has degraded into racial chauvanism.

Document Twenty-eight: General Jan Christian Smuts, Speech at Banquet given in his honor by member of both Houses of Parliament: General Smuts describes the Empire as a world in itself, or a 'Commonwealth of berkeley Nations' rather than an Empire. He writes that while there may be Empires such as India and Egypt within this commonwealth, the bonds within it are not those of a traditional empire such as Russia or Rome, but rather ties of affection. For General Smuts, the British Empire, with its foundation in the Hereditary Monarchy, stands for 'a fuller, a richer, and improving productivity more various life among all the nations that compose it'. Document Twenty-nine: Clement R. Atlee, The Labour Party in Perspective: Clement Atlee states that the two pillars of the Labour party's policy for the Empire are 'self government' and 'socialisation'. The first pillar involves allowing for self-government where it is possible, and where it is not possible, formally recognizing the colonies as mandates within the League of nations structure. By opening the colonies for inspection by the League of Nations, the Labour Party intended to ensure that the business plan template, League accepted some of the productivity, responsibility for defending the colonies, thus taking some of the pressure off of the British military. The second pillar is less defined. Plan Template For Mac! The only concrete proposal of Atlee's is to improving productivity, turn over the control of the phd thesis, 'means of production' in the colonies to the League of Nations.

Criminology 135 Assignment Three Robert Jago 200015294 In his book, Multicultural Citizenship, Will Kymlicka expounds upon the basis of the collective rights of the several types of improving productivity groups that make up Canada. He claims that there are first and foremost the custom, two founding nations; This primary grouping is productivity composed of the descendants of the colonizers who created the state in their image. This primary group founded the apa referencing for essays, state with their conceptions of rights and privileges in mind. Kymlicka states that these two founding groups are rightfully afforded every chance at self-government. Together with the founders there are immigrants, or 'New Canadians'. Immigrants and other non-primary (or non-founding) groups do not share in productivity the primary groups' rights. These non-primary groups have no legitimate or just claims to have separate self-governing institutions. Most importantly, these non-primary groups have no moral right whatsoever to have their cultures or languages recognized in an official capacity. The reason that the business template for mac, non-primary groups do not hold the same types of nationality rights as the primary groups is because they voluntarily surrendered their rights as a distinct people by emigrating to an established state and society. Improving! The duty of New Canadians is to assimilate themselves into the dominant society.

The hundreds of Aboriginal peoples that inhabit Canada poses a different sort of rights than either the founders or the apa referencing for essays, immigrants do. Because aboriginal or 'native' Canadians are part of in Canada because of force, they continue to productivity, possess the same nationality rights that any other sovereign people posses. Native rights were never surrendered voluntarily, therefore they continue to thesis statement in a paper, exist. Improving Productivity! It is should be noted that all individuals, regardless of their group affiliation [or lack thereof], have certain 'natural rights' such as the freedom of speech and assembly and of life, liberty and property. As sovereign peoples, aboriginals continue to have the right to their own justice system. Graduate! They have a right to conscript people, they have a right to execute people and so on and so forth. They also have a right to be un-democratic; the improving, rights of peoples and nations have long been recognized as entirely separate from the natural rights of individuals. With it decided that aboriginal nations continue to international development, posses a broad range of nationality rights, the main question at hand is whether or not they should exercise any of these rights. A further question is what is the improving productivity, duty of the Canadian state, if any, to aboriginal individuals, who have a legal status as native and, Canadian citizens. Plan For Mac! A further question is, should non-status natives, who in many respects are similar to new Canadians, be considered part of this equation. To begin to productivity, answer these questions there needs first to be a summary of the state of affairs for natives in the criminal justice system.

It is graduate paper commonly agreed that the central problem behind much native crime is substance abuse , whether that be heroin on the streets of Vancouver, Alcohol in the reserves of Saskatchewan, or gasoline and glue in the shanties of Labrador. On some reserves, alcohol is responsible for 95% of crime, with nearly 100% of the adult population involved in some way or other. Productivity! Furthermore, this alcohol abuse leads to a disproportionate amount of violent crime including spousal and child abuse - both of which may lead to further cycles of family violence. Outside of reserves, natives are disproportionately represented in violent crime and graduate paper drug related crime as well as domestic violence. Natives comprise between 8 and 68 percent of the provincial prison populations, well beyond their share of the population. There are numerous reasons why natives come into productivity, constant conflict with the graduate custom, law. One such reason for native conflict with the law is what can be termed, 'a problem of policing'. Several studies have shown that white police officers are more likely to deal with a complaint involving white people without recourse to arrest. Improving! When these same white police officers come into similar conflicts with native or black individuals they are more likely to resort to arrest. Where Is The Thesis Statement Located In A Paper! One response to this problem of improving productivity policing is to hire native police officers to serve in areas with large native populations.

However, by enlisting natives to police natives one can be said to be pandering to racial biases; it is not dissimilar from enlisting whites to police whites, blacks to police blacks, and so forth - it is at template best an unsettling proposal. Furthermore, besides the task of making such a proposal socially acceptable there is improving a growing body of evidence which shows that the racial biases that native police officers would have may not necessarily benefit natives. In a study regarding the use of deadly force in the United States, it was found that black officers were just as likely to shoot black suspects as were white officers. For Essays! It was hypothesized that there was both an institutional and meta-cultural bias against black men and many police officers had this bias, regardless of their own colour. This may also hold true for natives. Natives have traditionally been under valued in white society and this view may have been internalized by natives. Productivity! The internalization of colonialism and apa referencing the affectations of it is apparent in Verdun-Jones and Griffiths' text.

They imply that there is a single native society with traditional communal values and that is based on consensus. Each of those assertions is improving absurd. Native societies are extremely diverse and any unifying aspects are the product of colonialism- something that the authors blame for the high rates of criminality amongst natives. Traditional native society in British Columbia was not based on communal property in the current sense, but was based on clan or familial property that was viciously guarded. There was no peace amongst the appeared brief this, first nations of British Columbia. Productivity! Crime fighting in pre-contact societies more often involved physical violence than consensus and 'community healing'. As for custom paper communities as they exist today, they are the improving productivity, direct products of statement in a colonialism.

Natives never had an egalitarian society with equal justice for all as each type of criminal reform listed in the text holds as an axiom. Traditional native society in British Columbia was supported upon a superstructure of slavery, violence and improving the absolute rights of thesis statement located research paper private and family property. In order to solve the productivity, problems of business plan for mac native communities there must be a whole hearted acceptance of some aspects of European culture. There must be a recognition of the productivity, pillars of common law. There must be a recognition of the formal, legal equality of men ,women, and foreigners.

There must be a recognition of the right to confront accused, there must be a statute of limitations, a right of appeal, and brief all of the improving productivity, basic rights regarding the use of evidence. Before any major reforms can be undertaken there needs to be a recognition that each level of government has some specific responsibilities with regard to natives. The native governments themselves have a responsibility first and foremost for preserving native culture and civilization [the term is here used loosely]. The federal governments under their fiduciary responsibility [held by the crown under section 22] have a duty to native individuals. Thesis Development! These dual roles are enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. What these roles mean for justice reform is that each government holds a separate interest and must guard this interest in any decision regarding reforms. Improving! This does impinge upon the inherent and moral right of sovereignty that the various native nations hold, but there are some political realities that supercede these rights and business one of them is that native Canadians are - in the least - the improving productivity, bearers of dual loyalties , national or ethnic and political. The first loyalty is to their own racial government, and business plan template the second is to the civil government in Ottawa. Productivity! With regard to justice reforms, these separate roles do come into conflict. Graduate Custom Paper! There has been at least one case brought before the courts on productivity, Vancouver Island regarding the excesses of community justice. One man who had become known for drinking and behaving irresponsibly while living in Victoria, was kidnapped under the for essays, order of improving his community's native elders, and with the consent of his family, conscripted into a traditional native healing ceremony.

If the interests of the community had prevailed we would have heard little of this case. However, the man in for essays question exercised his rights as a Canadian citizen and invoked the charter against improving the community that unlawfully attacked him. The men that took him on essay this, community orders and beat him into sobriety were charged with kidnapping and assault, much to the consternation of his family and community. Improving! The federal government also has a duty to thesis, protect the community at large - that is to say, white Canada from dangerous individuals regardless of race or nationality. Certain offenses such as forcible rape have recently been treated differently if they had been committed by a native. Because of the harsh realities of the residential schools, many natives were sexually abused and have begun to improving productivity, act this out on other people, through forcible rape, or child abuse et. al.. Any federal actions in justice reform must therefore take these many factors into business, consideration. First and productivity foremost is the right of natives to have their own justice system. Second is the general issue of accountability and democracy enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Third, their is the fiduciary responsibility to berkeley phd thesis eecs, native individuals, coupled with the Peace Order and Good Government related duties of the government to improving productivity, ensure public safety and the general welfare of the non-native populace.

The various native governments have one sole concern on this issue and that is advancing their national self interest. Template! It is an affront to productivity, the dignity of a sovereign nation to have their nationals arrested, tried and imprisoned in a foreign justice system. The most powerful regular exercise of state power is the ability of the state to arrest, try , and detain its wayward citizens. The native governments, if they are to act as real nations do, need this 'big stick' in order to survive and rebuild. Paper! The nationalization of the justice system by the Native governments is imperative if they are to legitimately exercise authority over their citizens.. The decision on whether or not there should be a native justice system lay entirely with the federal government. The question before the federal government is, should it devolve, delegate, or maintain its current responsibilities for the administration of justice on the native reserves. One option for the federal government is to create a parallel federal government of natives with the accompanying institutions such as a court and police system. This was proposed in the Royal Commission on Native Peoples. This option is the most contentious.

The rest of Canada is likely to balk at any form of improving consociational government between the races. Any new political arrangements with natives should be on a territorial basis, because of Canadian's familiarity with this form of international development governmental responsibility. Another reason for the devolution of justice on a territorial basis is the sheer diversity of native nations. Some native peoples may not wish to improving, accept responsibility for the administration of their own justice system for eecs one reason or another. Perhaps they do not trust the factions within their nations to be able to impartially administer a court and police system. The record to date of native government and policing has shown that impartiality and productivity the independence of the police are far from thesis international guaranteed. The purpose for constructing a separate native justice system is to improving, mitigate the harmful effects of colonialism which are responsible for the heightened criminality of apa referencing natives. While the proposition that colonialism has hurt natives more than it has helped them is improving open to question, what must be dealt with here is whether or not a separate court and policing system for each native nation will 'heal the wounds' of a century or two of phd thesis colonial rule. The answer is, yes and no. Productivity! On some reserves or tribes with large enough populations and with the basic tenets of western-liberal justice and democracy established, a justice system would be a welcome step on the road to becoming full partners in the federation. On reserves here nepotism and ancient class and racial bigotry reign, the addition of the police would be half way towards creation of a police state.

The devolution of justice to some native nations would allow for the racialization or nationalization of many high paid and professional jobs. This would immediately give a boost to the native societies. Beyond that, native civilians would benefit from for mac having full access to people of improving productivity their own race who share their cultural prejudices and for essays traits. However, it is improving productivity unclear if these utopian reserves of rights and democracy and brotherhood exist. The most likely and most beneficial choice the federal government could make for natives is to delegate the responsibility for graduate custom the court system to them. Improving Productivity! This would mean the stationing of federal officers on the basis of their race and national origin [presumably native - or more specifically Salish, Tsipsian or whatever] to reserves. Furthermore it would mean the creation of a separate system of circuit or county courts for the reserves that would remain part of the provincial or federal court system. Perhaps this new system could be adjunct to the federal court. A separate layer of the graduate, federal or provincial courts that would serve justice on reserves only would be halfway between an autonomous paralell native federation, and a native archipelago of four or five hundred justice systems. This final option would have the productivity, added benefit of maintaining control of the courts in the Department of Indian Affairs and or justice. The judges would be federally appointed from a separate native court bar [just as there is a Supreme Court bar].

Furthermore the separate level of courts would be acceptable to many non-native Canadians. The court would have a specific territorial entity as its jurisdiction and this entity is not composed exclusively of the people of one race. The court would administer justice on the territory of the reserves. Just as the supreme court of the united states refers to the laws of the phd thesis eecs, states of a cases origin when rendering their decisions, the improving, new federal court could refer to the numerous reserve or national laws when rendering its decisions. Apa Referencing! A native court, a native bar, and native judges, administering local native laws do not necessarily prevent a native man for getting drunk and beating his wife.

The sense of pride at having his own court system is likely to do little as well. What is productivity wrong with the reserves is a lack of economic opportunity and a lack of order. Economic opportunity is not within the scope of international this paper, but order is. If there cannot be a separate federal police force for improving productivity natives, and if policing cannot be devolved to native governments for apa referencing for essays fear if giving too much power to improving, too many corrupt regimes, then what is to be done with the police? A separate police division of the RCMP has been tried and has failed. What could work is a piece meal response that would have capable reserves with their own police forces and lesser reserves with a force of apa referencing specially trained RCMP subject to local police boards. This would be coupled with a native court sensitive to coerced evidence, police prejudices and differential use of the arresting power. The separate layers of policing may cut down on many of the unnecessary arrest of natives as well as allow people to have more confidence in the police and call them before a domestic disturbance turns violent. Improving Productivity! This would likely take care of many of the problems of order on appeared brief, the reserves. The courts would both serve as a support for the new policing system and act as a booster of national pride. With the question of law and order on the reserves out of the way, there is the question of extra-territoriality and the Metis and non-status natives .The key component of any separate system of justice should be that it is based on territorial distinctions.

That is the only practical way of administering justice and selling justice to a population of fair weather egalitarians like the Canadians . The Metis where they have their own territories should be allowed to be part of the native court and policing systems. Status natives living off reserve should have no recourse to the native courts if their crime was not committed on reserve. Improving Productivity! Because the court are founded on a territorial basis they have a limited exclusive jurisdiction. Non-status natives have voted with their feet in the same way that all immigrants have, and they have opted out of phd thesis eecs native national life, the reserve police and court system should not apply to them. While natives should have no access to the reserve court system if they are not physically on a reserve they still will have problems with criminality. The only feasible solution for urban natives is to have regular police officers of native ancestry in areas with large native populations. Besides that, all that can be done is mandatory awareness campaigns for improving the police, crown counsel and judges. Such training would focus on the rules of evidence and business the differential use of the discretionary power by police and by prosecutors which has resulted in discrimination against natives. The presence of native police officers on the 'native beat' might allow people of native ancestry to feel more comfortable with the officers and to come to them with problems earlier.

Native police officers may treat people of their own race better than people of an other race and deal with the former's problems out of court. While this beneficial racial is both unsettling and less than a certainty ,the presence of native police officers in disturbances amongst natives could in the least diffuse the productivity, situation and turn it from a racial confrontation to one merely of the police and a criminal. It is an uncomfortable conclusion to come to, however, it has been arrived at here. A separate Native court system, based on territory is the appeared brief essay, best means possible to correct the ill effects of the colonial experience. Because white-Canada has shown that it is unlikely to accept any system based solely on race and improving nationality - a separate native court system that would be open to all the natives of Canada is not politically feasible. A territorial division of power is common in Canada, and the extension of this division of powers to natives -while contentious- is where is the thesis research paper not an impossibility. If such a court was kept as an productivity adjunct to the federal court, and had a narrow jurisdiction over the reserves only, it could correct some of the ill effects of the colonial legacy - at least on the reserves.

However many Natives do not live on reserve, though they do share in the stigma of being native. Because white police officers, prosecutors, and judges, have been shown to discriminate against natives. The evidence shows that native police officers may be as likely to discriminate against natives as are white police. Where Is The Statement Research Paper! The best possible solution is the recruitment of native police officers for areas with high native populations in the hope that they would in the least encourage natives to report crime amongst themselves more readily than they do with white officers. In order to deal with some of the discrimination, there also needs to be a sensitivity program to productivity, include the police, judges, and prosecutors. While these solutions fall far short of what is statement located in a research needed to solve the problem of native criminality, it is the farthest one can politically go in Canada toward a solution. Crim201: Canada?s sexual assault laws were, until recently, based in the customary tradition of the United Kingdom. That tradition in itself is based on more ancient traditions. The common thread to most if not all sexual assault laws throughout history has been their exclusion of the martial relationship as a possible venue for sexual assault.

The first proposed laws on sexual assault in this study originate in classical Athens. This law was not specifically a rape law, but rather dealt with justifiable homicide. Drafted by productivity Plato, it stated that: The man who forcibly violates a free woman or boy shall be slain with impunity by the person thus violently outraged, or by custom paper his father, or brother and sons . And should a man discover his wedded wife being violated, he shall be guiltless if he kills the violator (Cohen 1993, p.8). This law protects both men and women from sexual assault ? which is something that Canadian law did not achieve until 1983. This law still does not protect a spouse from rape by his or her partner. It is also important to improving productivity, draw attention to whom the offense is being committed against.

It is stated that if a man discovers ?his? wife being raped, he may respond with deadly force. Appeared This! The act itself is not committed against the wife but against the husband?s possession. The next law comes from the Roman Empire. Unlike Athenian and Canadian law, this law provides for the possibility of a woman committing rape. Also, unlike Athenian and early American law, rape or ?lewd advances? could be committed against a slave(Russell 1975, p.13). Improving Productivity! If anyone makes lewd advances, be it a man or a woman, freeborn or freed, he will be liable for the outrage and even if an attempt is brief made on the chastity of a slave, this too is deemed to be an outrage (Justinian ca 550, p. Productivity! 166). This law is berkeley a codification of improving productivity earlier Roman law. Among the key points to note about the law is that it falls within the realm of tort. Sexual assault at this early stage was only international a concern for the state if it was committed by a slave.

It is also important to note that the improving productivity, terms used in this law are not specifically inclusive of husbands and wives. No provision existed for the prosecution of rape within marriage. Marriage in the middle ages was, until 1180, an object of contention. While in Rome there were several ways in which one could be married, with different social and legal ramifications (Kolbert 1979, pp.54-57), in Europe Pope Alexander III decreed that there should be but one (Brundage 1993, pp.247-248). The Pope ruled that marriage began after an agreement to marry had been consummated (Ibid. p.248). In several cases involving leprosy, the Pope ruled that because the where is the thesis research paper, marriage had been consummated, one spouse had a duty to go with the stricken spouse to productivity, the leposarium where he will ?give her sexual solace on graduate custom paper, demand? or where she will provide him with ?marital affection? (Ibid. p.249). An emphasis should be put on the term ?consummated?. By the 13th century it had been generally agreed that two sorts of rights existed in marriage(Ibid. p.251). Improving! The first set were created with the for essays, agreement to marry, and those involved the productivity, marital rights such as property. The second set of rights were sexual rights or ?implied consent?.

These second rights were created when the couple consummated their marriage. A 14th century court ruling shows that, while the marital rights could be dissolved by separation, these sexual rights were permanent: We hold the defendant bound to pay the conjugal debt to phd thesis eecs, the plaintiff in her father?s house one night each week and to keep this obligation faithfully, until we shall order otherwise (Brundage, p.252). The marital debt was a very real and improving productivity enforceable debt throughout the middle ages. By most definitions (positivists excepted), what the court ordered in that case was a weekly, scheduled rape. This practice continued throughout the middle ages. Rape could only be committed by a man against a free woman(Wemple 1993, p.229). Punishments usually involved a fine which varied depending on the amount of force used (5 solidi for abduction and brief essay rape, 8 more solidi if he used a sword). A common punishment for a man who committed rape was that he must pay the offended family the bride-price. If she consented to sex, the price was reduced by one third. Consent was the property of the father or brothers, and sexual assault was an improving productivity offence against their property (Ibid.).

Other punishments for rape included enslavement to the offended family (if the offender was a servant or only half free), and death if the berkeley phd thesis eecs, offender had the productivity, audacity to flee to a church (Ibid.). Rape in the United Kingdom is a more puzzling affair. While it is commonly accepted that these mediaeval laws persisted, there is some evidence to the contrary. The doctrine on common law and marital rape was stated explicitly in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster Johnson and Sigler 1997, p11). Where Located In A Paper! This was reiterated by the 17th century judge Sir Mathew Hale. He stated that ?the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract? (Hall 1984, p.xvi).

He based his judgement on ?ancient common law doctrine?. While the Athenian, Roman, and Papal law cited above does suggest that Sir Mathew was factually accurate, he may not have been technically correct. Common law is an organic law which changes with each judicial ruling. These rulings are able to overturn legal doctrines such as the kind described in this paper so far. In 1631 a man was convicted in England of raping his wife (Hall, p.xvi). This suggests that perhaps, ?ancient common law doctrine? had long since been overturned by the time that Sir Mathew got to improving, it. Where Located Research Paper! Nevertheless it persisted unchanged until it was transferred to Canada in the 18th century. In 1800, the laws of England such as they were on September 17th, 1792, became Canadian laws. This was accomplished with the Act for the Further Introduction of English Criminal Law into Upper Canada (Garley 1989, p.26).

These laws were ineffective. Between 1840 and 1892, in Ontario, there were 228 rape prosecutions and 49 convictions (Ibid. pp. Productivity! 29-30). Graduate Custom Paper! By the late 1800?s the absurdity inherent in Sir Mathew Hale?s proclamation became evident. Improving Productivity! In R. v. Clarence, the courts decided that while a husband had the right to sexual intercourse with his wife, he could not enforce that right by for mac using force(anon. Productivity! 2000). The implied consent or the ?sexual rights? were no longer considered to be absolute: Subsequent decisions restricted Hale's proposition to situations where husband and wife enjoyed ordinary relations between them, thus exposing abusive husbands to prosecution for rape where they were judicially separated or where the wife had initiated divorce proceedings and business plan had been granted a decree nisi (Ibid.). The law continued to crumble throughout the 20th century. In 1935, Southern Australia allowed for productivity the conviction (albeit under exceptionally violent circumstances) of thesis in a research a husband for raping his wife.

In 1965, New Zealand permitted for the prosecution of husbands for raping their wives when a decree nisi was in place. Scotland barred spousal rape altogether in 1989, and England followed suit in 1991 (Ibid.). Canadian rape law throughout this period changed only once. While the absolute sexual rights that were referred to in the improving productivity, mediaeval period and reinforced by apa referencing Sir Mathew Hale did not survive the start of the twentieth century, the formal law still remained in place. Productivity! It was not until 1983 that the law shielding a husband from a rape prosecution by his wife passed into history. The law as it stood in 1927, and titled ?Unlawful Carnal Knowledge? reads as follows: 298. Rape is the act of a man having carnal knowledge of a woman who is not his wife without her consent, or with consent which has been extorted by brief threats or fear of bodily harm, or obtained by improving productivity personating the woman?s husband, or by false and fraudulent representations as to the nature and quality of the act. [emphasis mine] (R.S., 1927, 289, p.87) By 1980, this law remained unchanged(Tremeear?s 1980 Criminal Code 143, p.61). A rape by definition could not be committed by a husband against appeared essay this his wife. While the absolute sexual right in productivity perpetuity had ceased to exist, the right was maintained in existing marriages though it was grounds for divorce. The result of brief essay this these laws was the gross under reporting of rape. It was not simply because many women believed that their attackers would not be punished, but it is that many women did not believe that an improving attack had taken place (Russell, p.134).

Furthermore, because the state had for so long assumed that a husband had a right to his wife?s body, many wives had accepted and thesis development adapted to the situation. For a woman to improving productivity, see her husband as a rapist and to continue to live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for custom economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. One solution for these women is not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to improving, give up the for essays, right to say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71). Productivity! Women?s poor economic and social status had allowed for their continued use as sexual objects. The law reflected this.

It is a truism to state that Canada is a patriarchal society. There are reasons why this is so easily said, and the law prior to 1983 is one of them. However, the law did change. With bill c-127 (1983) the law expanded to include spousal sexual assaults as part of its jurisdiction (Boritch, pp.234-235). Possibly because of this and reforms to the rules of evidence, the number of template for mac reported sexual assaults rose dramatically.

However, while half of all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000) only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and improving p.224). R. v. Apa Referencing For Essays! White (1-24 C.C.C. 3d,) is an example of a crime that would not have been prosecuted prior to the 1983 reforms. R. v. White is a 1986 case, brought before the British Columbia Court of Appeal. The accused (White) was married to the victim, but they were estranged (Ibid., p.1).

The victim returned home one night to find the accused wearing surgical gloves and improving holding a pillow. Graduate Custom! She screamed, at which point he put the pillow over her face, and then covered her mouth with a bandage that wrapped around her head. He then beat her, threatened to murder her, and then after a long discussion, she went into productivity, the bedroom, where she was raped (Ibid., p.1). Before I continue, I should add that the actions described were perfectly legal until very recently. The accused claimed that the apa referencing, discussion led him to believe that his wife had consented to sex. He stated that he believed that sex was an attempt at reconciliation. The issue at hand in R. v. White is whether his mistaken belief that his wife consented is a valid defense. Improving! While the appeal of his conviction was dismissed, the fact that it went to trial is significant. If he had engaged in the identical activity three years earlier, he would have committed no crime. The signal difference between the law as it stands today and thesis statement located in a the law is it stood prior to 1983, was the fact that wives are no longer considered to be the possession of their husbands.

Sexual assault by intimates including spouses comprises 38 percent of all sexual assaults in Canada (Ontario Women?s Directorate). However, while 6 percent of the total number of sexual assaults are reported to improving, police, only phd thesis eecs 1 percent of these sexual assaults by intimates are reported (Ibid.). Several reasons for improving productivity this lack of reporting are provided in surveys. One major reason for not reporting sexual assaults by intimates is that the nature of the relationship may lead authorities to suspect that there really was consent. Furthermore, many women may not view a sexual assault by a husband or boyfriend as such. They may internalize the blame and say such things as, ?what did you think he wanted,? ?you drank with him didn't you,? or ?you should have expected something like this to happen.?(Ibid.).

In a search through fifty editions of Canadian Criminal Cases, I found only one case of spousal rape that was prosecuted. Appeared Brief Essay! The vast majority of sexual assault prosecutions continue to be for assaults by strangers, on young women. Prior rape and sexual assault laws sought to protect the chastity of the same class of young women from productivity sexual predator. The purpose was to defend men?s property. A look at which rapes are prosecuted shows that this is still the case. Sexual assault law has existed since the time of Plato. The point of berkeley that law, and productivity nearly every law that succeeded it was, in the case of women, not to protect them as victims, but to protect their husbands, brothers, or fathers as guardians. Where Is The Thesis Statement! Sexual assault law developed slowly through the mediaeval period, and followed the development of marriage and spousal property. While in the Roman Empire, a woman was a free citizen with the rights to dispose of her property, and enter into free contracts, in the mediaeval period, she was a possession to be transferred for a price from father to husband.

The mediaeval period saw the development of the productivity, principle of a ?sexual right? that comes into existence with the consummation of a marriage. This right was so absolute as to allow the for essays, authorities to order a former wife to submit to a weekly scheduled rape. As this law came to England it was formalized in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster. These confirmed a husband?s right to have sex with his wife, whenever he chose. In 1800, these laws came to Canada. For more than a century , the absolute and unbreakable sexual rights remained unchallenged. By the start of the 20th century, they were slowly chipped away at. A husband lost the absolute right to rape his wife even after they divorced. This right was confined to a marriage where ?ordinary relations? persisted. This law stood until 1983.

With bill c-127, the sexual assault laws were finally expanded to include violence within a marriage. Productivity! However, regardless of the new law, few reports of spousal rapes are made. The reasons for this are numerous, but the most troubling is the belief by many wives, that what happened was not an appeared essay assault. Productivity! It is thesis international not until this last problem of internalized blame is dealt with that two millennia of reforms can have any real deterrent value. Bibliography Annonymous (2000). Improving Productivity! The Historical Development of the Offense of Rape. http:canadiancrimanallaw.com/articles/srticles/rape.htm.

Boritch, Helen. Fallen Women: Female Crime and business plan Criminal Justice in Canada, ITP Nelson (Toronto: 1997). Brundage, James A. Implied Consent to Intercourse pp. 245-256, Consent and productivity Coercion to Sex and berkeley phd thesis Marriage in productivity Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Apa Referencing! Cohen, David. Improving Productivity! Consent and Sexual Relations in thesis development Classical Athens pp. 5-16, Consent and Coercion to Sex and improving productivity Marriage in where is the thesis located research Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993).

The Criminal Code and Other Selected Statutes of Canada, Edmond Cloutier (Ottawa: 1948). Garley, Kenneth David William. A Trust Betrayed: Sexual Assault in Dating/Courtship Relations and the Response of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.:1989). Hall, Ruth and Selma James and Judit Kertesz, The Rapist Who Pays the improving productivity, Rent, Falling Wall Press (Bristol : 1984). Johnson, Ida M. and Robert Sigler, Forced Sexual Intercourse in brief essay Intimate Relationships, Ashgate-Dartmouth (Aldershot:1997). Justinian (trans.) (circa 550) The Digest of Roman Law: Theft, Rapine, Dammage and Insult, C.F. Kolbert ed..Penguin Books (Middlesex, England: 1979) Ontario Women?s Directorate (2000). Sexual Assault Dispelling the Myths. http:www.womanabuseprevention.com/html/sexual_assault.html. R. v. White (1986), Canadian Criminal Cases, 1-24 C.C.C. (3d) Russell, Diana E.H., The Politics of Rape:The Victim?s Perspective, Stein and Day Publishers (New York: 1975).

Treemar?s 1980 Criminal Code and Miscellaneous Statutes, The Carswell Company ltd. (Toronto: 1980). Wemple, Suzanne F. Consent and improving Dissent to business, Sexual Intercourse in Germanic Societies from the Fifth to the Tenth Century pp. 227-244, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Improving! Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Feminist Crim. When the words ?women? and ?crime? are spoken, the this, first two words to come to many minds are ?sexual assault?. According to most statistics, more than half of improving all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000). In some segments of the population that number rises to 83 percent (Ibid.). While these numbers are high, the numbers of convictions for apa referencing for essays sexual assault are not.

According to information presented by Helen Boritch, 10 percent of women can expect to be sexually assaulted in productivity any given year, while only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224) . Brief! There is a very large discrepency of numbers. The vast majority of sexual assaults go unreported. Improving! The vast majority of is the statement located research paper sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows (Ibid. Improving! pp.212-213). Perhaps the reason that so many sexual assaults go unreported is because of this overriding fact (Ontario Woman?s Directorate). Sexual assault within families was until recently legal in Canada.

The thinking went as such: The husband cannot be guilty of rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for apa referencing by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract (Hall, James and Kertesz 1984, p.20). Productivity! The authorities believed that common law provided for the lawful rape of graduate custom paper a wife by her husband. While this is a patently false proposition, by the 18th century, it had become the official line (Ibid. p.xvi). I didn?t feel that I had been raped. I felt more that I was stupid because I went out with a white fraternity guy. ..so I blamed myself for going out with him. Productivity! Also I didn?t think of it as rape because I knew him and because I consented to go. At the time I thought rape was a man coming out of the bushes and attacking you, so somebody you knew couldn?t rape you (Russell 1975, p.134). For a woman to in a, see her husband as a rapist and to continue to live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on productivity, their husbands for economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. One solution for these women is not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the phd thesis eecs, right to say no, to improving productivity, be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71).

Crim (Deviancy) : Is there a point in my life when I considered myself to be deviant, or others considered me to be deviant? If so, how was the situation resolved? People are always telling me that I am ?weird?. I disagree with them. I believe that I am one of the least deviant people I know. I am very old fashioned though, so maybe that?s why I get the weird label. Nevertheless, there are few times in my life when I consider myself to be a ?deviant?. My self-concept appears to follow a dialectical pattern. I consider myself to be part of a group, and identify with that group and its values. I increasingly find myself uncomfortable with some of the things which that group does or talks about.

At some point an incident occurs, and I become isolated from the graduate, group. I then identify with a new group, and the process starts over. In other words, my membership in the first group can be considered a thesis. The thesis consists of that group?s world-view, which I share in. The crisis is the antithesis, it is the stage at which the cognitive dissonance that occurred within the thesis comes out into the open. Finally the new group is the improving, synthesis.

In the synthesis, the world-view that I held in the thesis group is largely gone, as are the troubles of the antithesis. The most memorable dialectical shift in brief this my life occurred in 1990-1991. In 1990, I was part of the dominant white clique at my junior high school, in suburban Richmond. While everyone had got along in elementary school, we all divided along racial lines when we got to high school. Improving! The Chinese kids all went and spent time together, and even the Chinese kids that could not speak Chinese, went. The East-Indian kids did as the Chinese did, and the white kids followed suit. There was not anything malicious about any of it. Well, that is not entirely true.

Much of our time in the white group was spent making fun of kids in the East Indian and Chinese groups. However, we were not entirely racist, all the black kids in our school were part of our group. Our group had their own ?territory?, drama and the arts were ours, as well as physical education, while we gave the East-Indian kids shop class, and the Chinese kids, computer science. The rest of the classes were required, so we could not split them up as easily, though we did manage some how. By 1990, I was firmly ensconced in this group. I had few complaints about for essays it, I am quite good at making fun of people, so I was a valuable asset to the collective. Improving Productivity! In the summer of 1990, an business plan template for mac incident happened which upset my place within the group. On July 11th of productivity that year, a group of armed Mohawks got into a shooting war with the business template, Quebec provincial police.

My group hated French immersion kids, so it seemed obvious to me which side we would come down on. I did not worry. Much to my surprise, the general attitude among the white kids was that the government should send in tanks, and get rid of the ?Indians?. Productivity! It had not occurred to me until that point that I am half-?Indian?. My family came down firmly on thesis development, the side of the Mohawks. Productivity! Most of my male cousins who were old enough went off to join one blockade or another, and at least one got himself sent to prison for his troubles. Essay This! We went out to improving productivity, the reserve more often. Previously we had gone there for berkeley phd thesis the winter ceremonies, or for birthday parties. This time we were going out there to ?plan things?. Back at home amongst my friends, I found myself increasingly isolated. Improving Productivity! I got into more and more fights, both verbal and physical.

People that had been part of international development my group ? though not friends per se, walked past me like they did not know me. I started spending time with the black kids and the girls, and while they were not as overtly racist as the productivity, white boys, they were still racist. Young boys tend not to hide things, while young girls ? at least in that group- seem to believe that in order to be ?nice? it is for essays their duty to hide their opinions. By the end of the improving, summer I found myself completely shut out of the white group. Apa Referencing! I was the one of only two native kids at my school, so there was no chance of improving productivity joining the native clique. The other native kid had lighter skin, so he began to pretend that he was Italian. I would say that ?I can?t blame him? but in appeared reality I hated him and consider him to be a two-faced traitor. I spent more time on the reserve and with my younger cousins. With them, all the anger that had developed from being isolated could be vented destructively. It was o.k. in that group to hate the productivity, police and the government.

It was o.k. to brief, through rocks at police cars and buildings as well as other things that can not be mentioned here. In fact, not only was it o.k. amongst the improving productivity, new clique, but it was accepted and appeared essay approved of by the adults around us. The point at improving which I switched allegiances entirely from white society to native society was at where is the statement paper a family barbecue. The barbecue was at an uncle?s house. Improving! He was on the white side of my family. Everyone at the barbecue was white but me. Most of them were family, though there were a few family friends there. My parents stayed at business for mac home. That day happened to be the same day that the army advanced on native positions around Montreal.

Raw footage of the attack was broadcast on live television. I was glued to the news, and improving was very upset. Graduate Custom! I asked everyone else to come see what was happening. Because they were family I assumed that they would take my side. The group became very upset too, but at the natives.

One of my uncles friends went on a rant and started saying that all those ?Indians? want out of the crisis is money to buy liquor. That is amongst the more polite things that he said. I noticed that several of improving productivity my aunts and statement in a research paper uncles agreed with him. My grandparents refused to say a word in my defense. When I did open my mouth to yell at him and improving give him the usual ?shpeel? about oppression et. al., I was hushed up. I got up, and left. I walked home from there and told my parents. My father (he is very white) got into a loud argument over the phone with my uncle and my grandparents.

My mother yelled at me for going to the barbecue in the first place. It was after the barbecue that I decided that I would completely abandon ?white? culture in favor of native (Salish) culture, and berkeley phd thesis eecs religion. In a pique of melodrama I went to the living room and threw my bible and little plastic Canadian flag into the fireplace. I have since changed since then, I know have a European wife, and white friends, and while I am no Christian, I certainly would not burn a perfectly good bible today. However, I still align myself with the productivity, native cause, and have abandoned any pretenses of Canadian citizenship. It is difficult to business template for mac, understand which theory of deviancy applied to me in that situation. Perhaps demonology applied to improving, me, I did become a heathen, though that was after the fact (Gomme, p.41). If I was not possessed by the dark forces of the thesis statement located research paper, ?fallen one?, maybe I was the product of my environment (Ibid., p.43). However, my environment was a townhouse complex which was at least one quarter Jewish, and was smack in the center of suburban Vancouver. If environment played any role in my formation, I would have joined the Lion?s Club, or become a Freemason.

Two theories of deviance hold the most possibility for explaining my situation. The first is containment theory. Containment theory is the improving, theory of inner and outer forces pushing and pulling someone toward deviance (Ibid., p.81). Gomme writes that: Social forces that push and pull people toward deviant behavior include?membership in an ethnic minority, restricted access to legitimate opportunities (Gomme, p.81). These external social forces included my peers and essay my extended family. Productivity! On the one hand, the white side of apa referencing family, and my white friends ostracized me, and improving openly attacked me, while on business, the other hand, the native part of improving my family, allowed me to vent my frustrations, and provided friends, and a ready target for teenage anger. I would also consider that my access to ?legitimate opportunities? was hampered by apa referencing for essays the activities of the improving, whites around me. By ostracizing me, and making school unpleasant, the whites prevented me from achieving the scholastic success that was due. They also prevented me from pursuing the social relationships that I had established over four or more years. This legitimate frustration sought me to seek success in phd thesis eecs the native community and to attempt to form social bonds with natives.

Internal forces that constrain an individual from deviancy include, ?a positive self-concept, a strong ego, an intense sense of personal responsibility, and a high frustration threshold? (Gomme, p.81). Improving Productivity! I know for berkeley eecs a fact that I had none of these qualities. More often than not, a poor self-concept, and weak ego, led me to follow the crowd, and go along with whatever the group told me to do. As for improving productivity personal responsibility and apa referencing the ability to improving, be frustrated, I was suspect that I was an average teenager, and therefore, both of these things were absent. Containment theory appears to be a perfect fit. I was pushed into deviancy by the people around me. There are other theories that may be a better fit.

I will discount social control theory, because of its reliance on apa referencing for essays, the concept of deterrence (Ibid., p.89). I do not believe that there was either a general or a specific deterrence factor to improving productivity, being native. Business Plan Template! Up until 1990, being native was an curiosity, like being double jointed; it could be trotted out at parties to impress and entertain people. At that time, there was almost an incentive to be exotic. Incentive does not apply in my case though. Labeling theory has some interesting possibilities. The Oka crisis was an act of primary deviance (Gomme, p.100). If the Canadian State was to defend a burial ground in improving productivity ? say, France ? from conversion into a golf course, it would be considered to be legitimate. However, because the Mohawks lacked many of the legitimate venues that a Country would have in lobbying another on the international stage, they were forced into an act of appeared essay this violence ? a blockade. Afterwards they were attacked, and used force to defend themselves ? something that any country would do. However because the Mohawk country is improving not recognized, what they did was considered to be an act of terrorism, and they were punished for it in those terms.

As for me, the development, primary act of deviance was defending the productivity, Mohawks in the Oka crisis. While the apa referencing, majority of my peers were attacking the Mohawks, I came to productivity, their defense. My first act of defense was primary deviance because it was isolated, and did not result in international development ?continuous negative social reaction? (Ibid.). Because I did not consider that act of primary deviance to be deviant, I would not be self-identified as a deviant. Gomme writes about what happened next: The application of derogatory labels and the severing of connections to conventional sphere intensify the construction of a deviant identity by productivity forcing the devalued person to seek out others in similar situations who can provide more favorable reflections of the appeared brief, self. (Gomme, p.101). This description matches my situation to a tee. I was labeled as an improving productivity ?Indian? (trust me, as a native, that is an insult), and my social connections were severed.

I sought out appeared essay new social situations in which I would be accepted and my anger approved of. Improving Productivity! As I wrote at the start of this paper, I do not consider myself to be a deviant ? in any sense of the in a, term. Labeling theory requires that I identify with my deviance. I do not, and did not. My main goal in life is to modernize native society, and help guide it toward independence.

If I accepted native society as it is, I suppose that I could be considered deviant in the labeling theory sense. However, my allegiance to native society, is a biological one, that recognizes my membership in it as a fact of biology. My formal association with native life began because I was pushed into it. When that force was removed I formed new friendships with whites. It is because of this that I suspect that the improving productivity, best explanation for my period of deviance is contained in containment theory. I would draw a comparison between my situation and that of people described in ?Normalcy and Visibility?.

While I am not often mistaken as Anglo-Saxon white, I do have a passing resemblance to a straight-haired version of a Jewish stereotype; I have also passed as Catalonian, Mexican, and Greek. Appeared Brief! People do not know that I am native until I tell them; I am racially ambiguous. The article gives one major relevant factor to living with an invisible disability. Productivity! The first was that people had the option of maintaining a ?semblance of normalcy? (Thorne 1993, p.9). I my case, I have the option of passing as white. This is disturbingly important in this country. For example , until recently I worked in a West Side grocery store. This store had an custom up market clientele. Among the items the store sold were bags and cards with native designs on them. After a while began to notice that in spite of this native friendly image that the store had, even middle-class natives could not enter the store without being considered to be a shoplifter by improving productivity the management. My co-workers also occasionally told stories in which natives were attacked or demeaned.

If I were to reveal my identity, I would face being excluded from international development these conversations. Productivity! If I was excluded from these conversations, I would face being excluded from their social circle in general, and graduate custom any future options for advancement that arise from being a part of the productivity, ?in? group. Essay! I decided to keep my mouth shut, and get a raise instead. If I was visibly more native that option would not have been open to improving productivity, me. Deviance in my case is for mac not really deviance on productivity, my part. Eecs! When I did have a spell of deviant activity, it was caused by external forces. When those external forces were removed, the deviancy ended. Improving Productivity! This deviancy is in some ways voluntary, because I can hide it. However, I do not believe that by engaging in a profound act of where is the located paper self-denial can be a reasonable choice, so the voluntary choice is somewhat less real. I have found many other people in similar situations. Improving! There are quite a few natives that can pass in white society, and where is the thesis research paper do so, however, they maintain a true allegiance to their nation.

I have found this common thread among many other natives: they had a lot more white friends, until opinions hardened against our peoples. While we hold the improving, same western liberal views that we have always had, we no longer see Canada, or our white liberal peers, as friends but enemies, and dangerous ones at that; and it is not something that we chose. Bibliography Gomme, Ian. The Shadow Line: Deviance and Crime in Canada, Harcourt Brace Jovonovich (Tornto: 1993). Thorne, S.E. (1993).

Normalcy and Visibility. In Social Explanations of Criminal and Deviant Behaviour, Brian Burtch Ed., Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.: 2000). Crim 135: Essay 2 The major argument in favour of curtailing judicial independence and prosecutorial discretion is that the justice system needs to be more accountable, more consistent, and more predictable. Each of these counts against the justice system is based on the mistaken assumption that the justice system needs to be a rational and efficient corporate body. That is to say, that the justice system must act as a single entity with the rasion d?etre of apa referencing fighting, controlling, and deterring crime. The advocates of legal straightjackets have failed to improving, prove their prima facie case. The justice system has no need to be a single solid structure with automated systems of judges, lawyers and parole officers. In the strictly constructed systems of our less-democratic cousins, lawyers, judges and their ilk serve only to diagnose the criminal for the sole purpose of placing them in a category of offender, prisoner, and essay parolee.

The primary fault of the argument in favour of improving productivity judicial and prosecutorial constraints is that it carries in itself the tacit assumption of guilt. Apa Referencing! By merely categorizing a citizen as an offender under the improving, criminal code, the custom, most authoritarian and improving productivity unaccountable element of the justice system, the custom paper, police, has effectively acted as judge jury and executioner. The citizen, who becomes labeled as an offender under the productivity, criminal code is shunted off to plan for mac, a holding cell, where, another police official determines if they are to be released. This police official would, at this stage in the current system use subjective criteria to determine if the improving, offender was a significant risk and should be released; in a constrained system, the crime would determine the availability of release automatically. In the constrained system, the belligerent, and indigent, flasher would go free; while the tenured professor whose failing student wrongfully accused him of rape would be sent before a judge. Is The In A Paper! Upon reaching the judge, the improving, charges wold determine the bail-after all, consistency is the modus vivendi of the constrained system.

Griffiths and Verdun-Jones note that those people that have been denied bail and appear at essay their trial in state custody are more likely to be found guilty, and, when found so, they are more likely than other convicted citizens to receive a harsh sentence. Beside the clear difficulty encountered by imprisoned people in productivity mounting a defense against the state's accusations, there is a secondary problem of facing a jury of their peers while in custody. To the average citizen, the appearance of one of their wayward neighbours in chains is likely to prejudice them against him or her. In a future system of 'consistent' justice it is likely that those offences where the punishment is most severe, the indictable offences, that the citizen is phd thesis eecs likely to improving, be held in custody; and, it is those same indictable offences, to be tried before a jury, where the accussed's status as a prisoner is most likely to be held against them. While the accussed's status as a prisoner is not a de jure proclamation of their guilt, to the average citizen of paper a western liberal democracy, the presence of some person that has been forcibly removed from society is a de facto statement that they are dangerous. In the model state of consistency that certain legal reformers foresee, the police, the justices, prosecutors, and judges would 'apply' the productivity, law according to a strict set of appeared essay rules. The state's agents will act with no prejudice, no leeway, no derogation and no derivation and improving productivity no mercy. The police would presumably lay every applicable charge against every accused person that is brought to their attention. Apa Referencing For Essays! Not only would a person be brought to justice for forcible rape, but also for improving productivity equally abhorrent crimes such as assault and battery, littering, loitering in a public park, attempted murder, reckless endangerment, unlawful confinement, jaywalking, speeding, creating a disturbance, resisting arrest, and any other possible offence related to the crime and paper the flight from justice.

Griffiths and Verdun-Jones have noted that in the recently more open atmosphere of plea-bargaining, police have become more consistent appliers of each and every conceivable law. Improving! Not only has a person been charged with one crime, but also of every other alternative charge available. In the process of international development plea bargaining, a great deal of trust is needed between the defense counsel and the crown. This trust often resembles collusion. In the process of plea bargaining the multiple -though mutually exclusive- charges against an offender are often reduced to a single charge in exchange for a guilty plea and reciprocal sentencing recommendation. In reality, the accused are bargaining away irrelevant charges for improving the single charge that they would have faced anyway, in short, the accused gains nothing from a system of bargaining based on located, consistent policing. There is, however, nothing consistent about plea-bargaining. Plea-bargaining is at the heart of prosecutorial discretion. Prosecutorial discretion would go the way of improving inconsistent policing and it would be abolished. Consistency in prosecution requires that each and every accused be treated identically.

In order for each accused to be seen to business for mac, be treated identically, they must have each and every charge dealt with in an open court of productivity record. Inconsistency is not a problem with the police, prosecutors, or parole board members. Inconsistency is business for mac what enables the police, prosecutors, and productivity parole board members to consider the human factor of the crime. I f police were to 'throw the book' at every criminal, the system what bog down with minor crimes. Furthermore, while some acts may technically be crimes, they may not have been enforced in twenty or thirty years. A possible problem of thesis development inconsistency is with judges. Sentencing may vary across the country - though there is very little evidence to improving productivity, say if it does or does not. There are sentencing guidelines, but there are no uniform statistics on sentencing which would allow the public to determine if these sentencing guidelines are being followed. When sentencing is brought to brief this, the public's attention, it is only in the most extreme cases where a particularly lenient sentence has been given out. Therefore the best solution for inconsistent sentencing is to produce and publish uniform statistics on sentencing in order to determine of sentencing guidelines are being followed. Any other reform of the judicial sentencing process before these statistics were produced and improving productivity before their impact was observed on the judicial branch would be premature.

It is possible that many judges that have handed out lenient or severe sentences did not realize that they were significantly out of line with the Canadian mainstream. Conclusion Discretion is not a problem, perception is. The police need discretion in appeared order to enforce laws commensurate with the improving productivity, changes in appeared brief essay this community values. Police also need the ability to exercise their discretion in order to enforce laws as they are best able to do and to not get swamped with petty crimes, while resources are needed to deal with serious offences. Improving! Prosecutors need the ability to exercise discretion in order to plea bargain. Without the ability to plea bargain, prosecutors may find that they send far too much time prosecuting ancillary legal offences while the main crime is not given their full attention.

The only reform necessary, is appeared brief essay not technically a reform, but is instead a fine-tuning of the current system to allow it to function better, and that is the production and publication of improving productivity uniform statistics on sentencing. Communications 131 Review: Neil Postman?s Amusing Ourselves to Death Robert Jago 200015294 Neil Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death focuses on the change from what he calls a 'typographic' society to a televisual society. This change involves the where is the thesis in a, decline of rational, linear thought which is based on the book, to disjointed, a-historical, and non-inferential thought which is based on the standards of television. Postman's prima facie argument is that the improving productivity, medium of communications affects forms of thought. Apa Referencing! His first argument is based entirely on conjecture (though later in the book Postman does cite a study by Gavriel Solomon, p.152 footnote 4). Improving Productivity! Postman argues that television and its predecessors (the telegraph, the photograph) changed people's modes of thought through operant conditioning. Appeared Brief Essay This! Television and electronic communications in general force people to understand only the immediate and to forget the past. Several of Postman's axioms are questionable, and his data is open to competing interpretations. Improving! Most importantly, Postman's study of the electronic society focused on it in an immature stage of appeared development. Modern electronic culture is quite different from the one that Postman studied. Neil Postman's stated purpose for improving productivity his book is to, show that a great media-metaphor shift has taken place in America, with the result that the content of much of our public discourse has become dangerous nonsense(p.16).

To that end, his book opens with a glimpse at development the United States of the early nineteen-eighties and an explanation of his use of the word metaphor. For Postman the media metaphor is a metaphor that draws analogies between aspects of the media and improving aspects of society. Postman states that in the literate age, metaphors abounded. Alice in wonderland, became a metaphor for a person wandering in 'a world of semantic nonsense' and this trying to make sense out of it; Athens became a metaphor for intellectual excellence and so on. In the twentieth century, the improving, printed word added very little in terms of metaphor. Terms such as Orwellian, thought police, but very little else transferred over from the printed page into middle class speech. The metaphor of the later twentieth century was to be dictated by thesis paper television. Improving! Modes of thought mimicked television production standards.

Postman charts the transition from the typographic mind, through the berkeley eecs, 'peek - a - boo' world and into the 'now. this' world of television. The larger scale of the medium metaphor is what Postman refers to as resonance. Postman states that resonance is metaphor writ large. Improving! What Postman appears to mean here is that resonance is the stuff of myths, when social customs and norms, and idiosyncrasies become confused with nature. Just as one is seen as peculiar to question the effects of the construction of mountains, one is thesis development seen as equally peculiar to question such social constructs as [Noam Chomsky notwithstanding] contemporary English word usage and grammar.

After first explaining his proposition on how the improving productivity, dominant medium of communications affects forms of thought, Postman uses the paper, remainder of the first part of his book to improving, describe decline of the printed word in America. He begins with describing 'typographic' America at its peak. Postman describes a country -though not a nation- where the ability to read was nearly universal among men, and, where foreign reading materials were abundant (P. 34). Phd Thesis! The way in which he describes the empowerment that the average person may have felt is interesting for my third argument [that Postman contrasted typographic America with the wrong era of the electronic age].

By 1772, Jacob Duche could write: 'The poorest labourer upon the shore of the Delaware thinks himself entitled to deliver his sentiment in matters of religion or politics with as much freedom as the gentleman or scholar. ' (P. 33) The printing press dominated the minds of typographic Americans. Their modes of thought mirrored the construction of books and pamphlets. Books were linear, impersonal, rational, and historical. Improving! The written word was never read 'live'. People's minds functioned in these same ways. Plan For Mac! People were rational and thought historically and improving therefore linearly. Graduate Custom! Public discourse in typographic America was fundamentally rational and improving intelligent. Advertising and politics were based on reasoned argument [for the most part]. According to Postman, the change in public discourse occurred because of the change in apa referencing for essays the media available to the public.

The first major change that Postman notes is the productivity, invention of the telegraph. While it is business template for mac interesting to productivity, note that the industrial revolution, and eecs the rise of the improving productivity, urban centres occurred at roughly the same time as the invention of the telegraph, it is the later event that most effected the way that people think and behave. Following the is the thesis located in a, telegraph came the photograph. The telegraph changed the meaning of improving intelligence and information. In preliterate days, intelligence was synonymous with memory. In the typographic age, intelligence became synonymous with rationality. With the electronic age heralded in by the telegraph, intelligence became the for essays, ability to sift through large amounts of data. News in productivity typographic society consisted of useful facts and information. Where Is The Statement Located In A Research Paper! Postman describes a type of apathy ratio, what he calls an 'information-action ratio' (P.69).

In typographic America, efficacy as seen through individual responses to 'news' was significantly higher than it is in modern televisual America. The telegraph made trivia in place of news. Improving Productivity! Surely people in Finland could finally know the day to day events that occurred in Lorado Texas, but, why would they want to? According to Postman, the telegraph made the United States one nation [this was also coincident with the Civil War and the United States' great era of wars of conquest]. The telegraph allowed people on phd thesis eecs, the Pacific and the Atlantic shores to know the improving productivity, minutiae of graduate custom each others every day lives. While the telegraph trivialized the public space with useless information and 'factoids' the photograph came along to act as a magnifying glass for these details. The photograph increased the impact of the proliferating factoids, by giving them a face and a presence greater than a thousand words. By the time the improving productivity, photograph and the telegraph had become ascendant, the public discourse had irrevocably changed. Advertising became irrelevant, irrational, and the first slogans were developed [following shortly after such election slogans 'fifty-four forty or fight' or 'Tippacannoe and Tyler too' or the Democratic Party's anti-Republican song 'Nigger Doodle Dandy'].The era of the photograph and the telegraph are what Postman calls 'the peek-a-boo world'. Part two of the book focuses on the particular ills of the televisual age.

The greatest ill, and one that Neil Postman had focused on in the past, is the decline in education in for essays favour of entertainment. Improving Productivity! A prime example for Postman is 'The Voyage of the Mimi' series. This series is a study that involves a great deal of time on behalf of apa referencing children in order to study whales and navigation among other things. None of these things are relevant to education in any traditional sense of the word. Postman's analysis of that particular series is that it is an example of the education changing in order to meet the needs of television. While there are more books in print in the television age, they do not have the impact of their fewer but more serious predecessors.

As was the improving productivity, case with the Voyage of the Mimi series, books seem to have become 'audio-visual aids'. Books have lost their seriousness. Books in the modern context no longer command the attention that they once did. The printed word in the modern context is a visual aid, it celebrates the dominant medium and is constructed around television's conventions. For example, a glance at any of the Fin de Siecle 'best 100 [or 1'000 et al.] lists that currently proliferate, would show what books are considered to be of substance to this society. Paper! In the Globe and Mail's list of the best history books are, a picture book, Atlas of World History, and ESPN Sport Century.

Among the best seller lists are a book of lists, a book by a television writer, a book by a faded hockey star, a book by a movie writer, a book of trivia. While there are more books in print today than ever before, it is productivity likely that they are to be gems such as ESPN Sport Century, as opposed to Walden or the Native Son. Thesis International! Postman concludes his book by analyzing this 'dangerous' lack of substance brought on by the conventions of the television age. Postman uses two of productivity major metaphors of the decline of western society. the first is the Orwellian. Today the totalitarian state is confined to only a few fourth rate and declining states such as Myanmar and Belarus and so its position as primary threat to Western Liberty has given way. In the place of the Orwellian thought police and big brother is brief essay this Aldous Huxley's 'Brave New World'. The brave new world of Postman's interpretation is one where television has taken the place of improving Huxley's 'Soma' [an ecstacy like drug]. People have forsaken their liberty and for essays democracy in favour of simple and constant pleasures. Postman concludes that television has created a Brave New World where the statescraftsmen are given free hand by a public more interested in their leader's private affairs than their economic policies. This new world where seriousness is mocked, and where depth of imagination, and attention span have gone into steep decline is one that has put democracy and freedom in grave danger.

Postman proposes that the productivity, solution to the current state of affairs is to inoculate the populous through education. Template! People would be educated to understand the television epistemology, and to not just become media savvy, but to become aware of the myths that surround the dominant medium. The current dominant medium in the United States and Canada is television. Other media, such as radio, and productivity print are complementary to television and have very little independent sway over societal mores. Postman's analysis could only take into account society up to the mid 1980's. That society lacked the internet, and such venues as digital cable and inexpensive satellite dishes. Postman derides libertarians for attacking government censorship but failing to phd thesis, take on the oligarchy of the big-three networks. In his discussion of the typographic age, Postman describes the empowerment of the improving productivity, common man by his ability to converse and understand every subject of importance.

Postman takes especial note of Benjamin Franklin's views on the importance of the pamphlet. Each of these points noted by Postman can lead to a different final conclusion if extrapolated into berkeley eecs, the internet age. To begin with, the modern era of improving between seventy and five-hundred television channels should have been easily foreseen by Postman. He noted the apa referencing, lack of attention by the general public, and productivity how that brief attention span was created by television. The television of Postman's study was, by current standards, conservative, and for lack of a better word, 'deep'. The oligarchy of the three networks is gone, replaced by a constellation of specialty television networks [though production is now owned by a few industrial concerns].

Attention spans are even briefer, and every whim under the sun can be served by development its own television network. Contrary to Postman's original argument that the product of a populace obsessed by improving productivity entertainment is essay political apathy, entertainment can create political involvement. While Postman described the productivity, efficacy felt by the people of the typographic age, he failed to note that part of the efficacy was inspired by such public proceedings as the public hanging. Postman failed to realize that a public raised on appeared brief essay this, scripted spectacle, would be enraptured by live reality. In a world of instant communications, there is enough live spectacle to keep every audience entertained. This entertainment can be translated into efficacy through such means as instant television poll, something that Postman only productivity briefly touched on. Postman's description of the transition from literate to televised worlds and the coincident transformation of society from brief literate and rational to base and excitable is not entirely accurate. He fails to take into consideration other factors such as the second industrial revolution and the expansion of improving productivity liberty within countries which may explain the general decline in the public discourse.

Postman places the blame for the decline in rationality solely on the dominant medium of communications. Furthermore, Postman writes that people have lost the sense of efficacy vis a vis the state. Custom Paper! While people may be voting less, they may be participating more. Protest groups, lobby groups, special interest groups, petitions, and the like have proliferated in post-industrial society. People may have transferred their trust from the state to the epistemic community and they may have done this because of a new involving medium.

Bibliography Postman, Neil, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Buisness, Penguin Books (Toronto: 1986).

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The search for work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks. They don’t get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and graduate custom achievements. Cover letter templates and productivity builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against apa referencing for essays samples.

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Tell the phd thesis eecs potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of improving, time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the appeared brief essay this employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. Improving Productivity! Keep it brief – And the brief shorter the better. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. Improving Productivity! If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the apa referencing position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for productivity example—make it tell a story.

The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. Plan! With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and productivity its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to thesis development study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and productivity grammar checker and writing apps.

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