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Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. How does Billy develop a sense of belonging in 'The Simple Gift'? In Stephen Herrick's verse novel, The Simple Gift, the main . protagonist, Billy Luckett, is a sixteen year old runaway who feels that he needs to coming in mississippi, escape after being constantly rejected and alienated in his own town and home by key people and places. He is traumatised by his abusive father, alienated by all his peers at school and disconnected from the language neighbourhood where he has lived and coming of age in mississippi grown all his life. Billy gradually finds.
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It is as the result of what we assess the students’ achievement through written tests , and multiple-choice tests . Moreover, the MOET has a tendency to apply multiple-choice tests to assess the achievement. College , Education , High school 1040 Words | 4 Pages. Belonging Belonging can be interpreted in many different manners. It can be a person’s connection with people places, and even ideas. The material that will . Coming Thesis Statement. be encompassing this is the simple gift and as a related text Mr Cheng. In the financial analysis first part of the story Billy lacks connection in statement every aspect mentioned. In terms of people, Billy disowns his father for many reasons. His upbringing influenced what turned into speech hearing hate.
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Forward vs Deferred vs Forward+ Rendering with DirectX 11. Coming In Mississippi Statement? Forward+ with HLSL. Thesis Statement? In this article, I will analyze and compare three rendering algorithms: Forward Rendering Deferred Shading Forward+ (Tiled Forward Rendering) Forward rendering works by coming in mississippi thesis statement rasterizing each geometric object in the scene. Speech? During shading, a list of lights in the scene is iterated to coming of age in mississippi statement, determine how the geometric object should be lit. This means that every geometric object has to consider every light in yale dissertation readers reports the scene. Of course, we can optimize this by discarding geometric objects that are occluded or do not appear in the view frustum of the camera. We can further optimize this technique by discarding lights that are not within the of age in mississippi thesis statement, view frustum of the camera. If the range of the lights is known, then we can perform frustum culling on hearing the light volumes before rendering the of age in mississippi statement, scene geometry. Object culling and review financial analysis, light volume culling provide limited optimizations for this technique and light culling is often not practiced when using a forward rendering pipeline. It is more common to thesis, simply limit the number of lights that can affect a scene object.
For example, some graphics engines will perform per-pixel lighting with the closest two or three lights and per-vertex lighting on three or four of the next closes lights. In traditional fixed-function rendering pipelines provided by OpenGL and literature review financial, DirectX the number of dynamic lights active in the scene at any time was limited to about eight. Even with modern graphics hardware, forward rendering pipelines are limited to about 100 dynamic scene lights before noticeable frame-rate issues start appearing. Of Age In Mississippi? Deferred shading on the other hand, works by rasterizing all of the speech language, scene objects (without lighting) into a series of 2D image buffers that store the geometric information that is required to perform the lighting calculations in a later pass. The information that is stored into the 2D image buffers are: screen space depth surface normals diffuse color specular color and specular power.
The textures that compose the G-Buffer. Diffuse (top-left), Specular (top-right), Normals (bottom-left), and Depth (bottom-right). The specular power is stored in the alpha channel of the specular texture (top-right). The combination of these 2D image buffers are referred to as the Geometric Buffer (or G-buffer ) . Other information could also be stored into the image buffers if it is required for the lighting calculations that will be performed later but each G-buffer texture requires at least 8.29 MB of thesis statement texture memory at full HD (1080p) and 32-bits per pixel. After the G-buffer has been generated, the geometric information can then be used to compute the lighting information in the lighting pass. The lighting pass is performed by rendering each light source as a geometric object in the scene. Each pixel that is for the gatsby essay touched by thesis the light#8217;s geometric representation is shaded using the thesis for the great essay, desired lighting equation. The obvious advantage with the of age in mississippi thesis statement, deferred shading technique compared to review financial, forward rendering is that the expensive lighting calculations are only computed once per light per covered pixel.
With modern hardware, the deferred shading technique can handle about 2,500 dynamic scene lights at of age in mississippi statement, full HD resolutions (1080p) before frame-rate issues start appearing when rendering only opaque scene objects. One of the disadvantage of using deferred shading is that only review financial, opaque objects can be rasterized into the G-buffers. The reason for this is that multiple transparent objects may cover the same screen pixels but it is only possible to store a single value per pixel in of age the G-buffers. In the lighting pass the depth value, surface normal, diffuse and specular colors are sampled for the current screen pixel that is being lit. Since only a single value from each G-buffer is sampled, transparent objects cannot be supported in the lighting pass. To circumvent this issue, transparent geometry must be rendered using the standard forward rendering technique which limits either the essay, amount of transparent geometry in the scene or the number of dynamic lights in the scene.
A scene which consists of only opaque objects can handle about 2000 dynamic lights before frame-rate issues start appearing. Another disadvantage of deferred shading is that only a single lighting model can be simulated in the lighting pass. This is due to the fact that it is only possible to bind a single pixel shader when rendering the light geometry. This is usually not an issue for pipelines that make use of ubershaders as rendering with a single pixel shader is the norm, however if your rendering pipeline takes advantage of several different lighting models implemented in various pixel shaders then it will be problematic to switch your rendering pipeline to use deferred shading. Forward+  (also known as tiled forward shading )  is a rendering technique that combines forward rendering with tiled light culling to reduce the number of lights that must be considered during shading. Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? Forward+ primarily consists of two stages:
Forward+ Lighting. Default Lighting (left), Light heatmap (right). The colors in the heatmap indicate how many lights are affecting the tile. Black tiles contain no lights while blue tiles contain between 1-10 lights. The green tiles contain 20-30 lights. The first pass of the Forward+ rendering technique uses a uniform grid of tiles in screen space to partition the lights into per-tile lists.
The second pass uses a standard forward rendering pass to statement, shade the objects in the scene but instead of looping over every dynamic light in of age in mississippi thesis the scene, the current pixel#8217;s screen-space position is used to look-up the list of lights in statement the grid that was computed in the previous pass. The light culling provides a significant performance improvement over the standard forward rendering technique as it greatly reduces the coming thesis, number of redundant lights that must be iterated to correctly light the pixel. Both opaque and essay of media, transparent geometry can be handled in a similar manner without a significant loss of performance and handling multiple materials and lighting models is natively supported with Forward+. Since Forward+ incorporates the standard forward rendering pipeline into coming of age, its technique, Forward+ can be integrated into existing graphics engines that were initially built using forward rendering. Forward+ does not make use of G-buffers and does not suffer the yale dissertation readers, limitations of deferred shading.
Both opaque and transparent geometry can be rendered using Forward+. Using modern graphics hardware, a scene consisting of 5,000 6,000 dynamic lights can be rendered in real-time at in mississippi thesis statement, full HD resolutions (1080p). In the remainder of this article, I will describe the implementation of these three techniques: Forward Rendering Deferred Shading Forward+ (Tiled Forward Rendering) I will also show performance statistics under various circumstances to try to of media, determine under which conditions one technique performs better than the others. In the coming thesis statement, context of about of media this article, it is important to define a few terms so that the rest of the coming in mississippi thesis, article is great gatsby essay easier to understand. If you are familiar with the basic terminology used in graphics programming, you may skip this section. The scene refers to coming of age in mississippi statement, a nested hierarchy of thesis statement great essay objects that can be rendered. For example, all of the static objects that can be rendered will be grouped into a scene. Each individual renderable object is referenced in the scene using a scene node . Each scene node references a single renderable object (such as a mesh) and the entire scene can be referenced using the scene#8217;s top-level node called the root node . The connection of in mississippi statement scene nodes within the scene is thesis statement for the essay also called a scene graph . Since the of age thesis, root node is also a scene node, scenes can be nested to intermediate, create more complex scene graphs with both static and dynamic objects. A pass refers to of age thesis statement, a single operation that performs one step of speech hearing a rendering technique . Coming Of Age In Mississippi Statement? For example, the opaque pass is a pass that iterates over all of the objects in the scene and language hearing, renders only the opaque objects.
The transparent pass will also iterate over all of the objects in in mississippi thesis the scene but renders only the transparent objects. A pass could also be used for more general operations such as copying GPU resources or dispatching a compute shader. A technique is the combination of several passes that must be executed in yale readers a particular order to implement a rendering algorithm. Coming In Mississippi Thesis? A pipeline state refers to the configuration of the rendering pipeline before an object is rendered. Analysis? A pipeline state object encapsulates the following render state: Shaders (vertex, tessellation, geometry, and pixel) Rasterizer state (polygon fill mode, culling mode, scissor culling, viewports) Blend state Depth/Stencil state Render target.
DirectX 12 introduces a pipeline state object but my definition of the pipeline state varies slightly from the DirectX 12 definition. Forward rendering refers to a rendering technique that traditionally has only two passes: The opaque pass will render all opaque objects in the scene ideally sorted front to back (relative to the camera) in order to minimize overdraw. During the opaque pass, no blending needs to be performed. Coming Thesis? The transparent pass will render all transparent objects in the scene ideally sorted back to mathematics intermediate, front (relative to the camera) in order to support correct blending. During the transparent pass, alpha blending needs to coming of age thesis, be enabled to allow for statement semi-transparent materials to be blended correctly with pixels already rendered to the render target#8217;s color buffer. During forward rendering, all lighting is performed in the pixel shader together will all other material shading instructions. Deferred shading refers to a rendering technique that consists of three primary passes: The first pass is the coming thesis statement, geometry pass which is similar to the opaque pass of the forward rendering technique because only opaque objects are rendered in this pass. The difference is essay that the geometry pass does not perform any lighting calculations but only outputs the thesis statement, geometric and material data to statement great essay, the G-buffer that was described in the introduction.
In the lighting pass , the coming in mississippi thesis statement, geometric volumes that represent the lights are rendered into the scene and the material information stored in the G-buffer is used to compute the lighting for the rasterized pixels. The final pass is the transparent pass . This pass is identical to the transparent pass of the forward rendering technique. Yale Readers Reports? Since deferred shading has no native support for transparent materials, transparent objects have to be rendered in a separate pass that performs lighting using the standard forward rendering method. Forward+ (also referred to as tiled forward rendering ) is a rendering technique that consists of three primary passes: As mentioned in the introduction, the light culling pass is responsible for sorting the dynamic lights in coming of age thesis statement the scene into screen space tiles. A light index list is used to indicate which light indices (from the review analysis, global light list) are overlapping each screen tile. In the light culling pass, two sets of light index lists will be generated: Opaque light index list Transparent light index list. The opaque light index list is used when rendering opaque geometry and the transparent light index list is used when rendering transparent geometry. The opaque and coming of age thesis statement, transparent passes of the Forward+ rendering technique are identical to review, that of the standard forward rendering technique but instead of looping over all of the dynamic lights in in mississippi thesis statement the scene, only the lights in the current fragment#8217;s screen space tile need to be considered.
A light refers to one of the following types of lights: All rendering techniques described in this article have support for these three light types. Area lights are not supported. The point light and the spot light are simulated as emanating from a single point of origin while the directional light is considered to emanate from readers reports, a point infinitely far away emitting light everywhere in the same direction. Point lights and spot lights have a limited range after which their intensity falls-off to zero. The fall-off of the intensity of the light called attenuation . Point lights are geometrically represented as spheres, spot lights as cones, and directional lights as full-screen quads. Let#8217;s first take a more detailed look at of age in mississippi thesis statement, the standard forward rendering technique. Forward rendering is the simplest of the three lighting techniques and the most common technique used to review analysis, render graphics in of age thesis statement games. It is also the most computationally expensive technique for computing lighting and for this reason, it does not allow for a large number of dynamic lights to be used in the scene. Thesis Statement? Most graphics engines that use forward rendering will utilize various techniques to simulate many lights in the scene. In Mississippi Thesis Statement? For example, lightmapping and yale readers, light probes are methods used to pre-compute the lighting contributions from static lights placed in the scene and storing these lighting contributions in coming of age in mississippi thesis textures that are loaded at runtime.
Unfortunately, lightmapping and light probes cannot be used to simulate dynamic lights in the scene because the lights that were used to produce the lightmaps are often discarded at runtime. For this experiment, forward rendering is used as the ground truth to compare the other two rendering techniques. The forward rendering technique is also used to establish a performance baseline that can be used to compare the performance of the other rendering techniques. Essay Of Media? Many functions of the forward rendering technique are reused in the deferred and forward+ rendering techniques. For example, the coming, vertex shader used in forward rendering is also used for both deferred shading and forward+ rendering. Also the methods to speech, compute the final lighting and material shading are reused in all rendering techniques. In the next section, I will describe the coming of age in mississippi statement, implementation of the forward rendering technique. The vertex shader is common to all rendering techniques. In this experiment, only on yoga, static geometry is supported and there is no skeletal animation or terrain that would require a different vertex shader.
The vertex shader is as simple as it can be while supporting the required functionality in the pixel shader such as normal mapping. Before I show the vertex shader code, I will describe the coming of age thesis statement, data structures used by the vertex shader. Statement On Yoga? The AppData structure defines the data that is expected to be sent by the application code (for a tutorial on how to pass data from the application to a vertex shader, please refer to my previous article titled Introduction to DirectX 11). For normal mapping, in of age in mississippi addition to the normal vector, we also need to send the tangent vector, and yale readers, optionally the binormal (or bitangent ) vector. The tangent and binormal vectors can either be created by the 3D artist when the model is created, or they can be generated by the model importer.
In my case, I rely on the Open Asset Import Library  to generate the tangents and bitangents if they were not already created by the 3D artist. In the vertex shader, we also need to know how to transform the object space vectors that are sent by the application into view space which are required by the pixel shader. To do this, we need to send the world, view, and projection matrices to the vertex shader (for a review of the various spaces used in this article, please refer to coming of age statement, my previous article titled Coordinate Systems). Language? To store these matrices, I will create a constant buffer that will store the per-object variables needed by the vertex shader. Of Age Statement? Since I don#8217;t need to store the world matrix separately, I precompute the combined model, and view, and yale readers, the combined model, view, and projection matrices together in the application and send these matrices in a single constant buffer to the vertex shader.
The output from the coming in mississippi thesis, vertex shader (and consequently, the input to the pixel shader) looks like this: The VertexShaderOutput structure is financial used to pass the transformed vertex attributes to the pixel shader. Coming In Mississippi Statement? The members that are named with a VS postfix indicate that the vector is expressed in view space. I chose to do all of the lighting in literature review financial view space, as opposed to world space, because it is easier to work in view space coordinates when implementing the deferred shading and forward+ rendering techniques. The vertex shader is coming statement fairly straightforward and minimal. It#8217;s only yale dissertation readers reports, purpose is to transform the object space vectors passed by coming thesis statement the application into view space to be used by the pixel shader. The vertex shader must also compute the thesis for the great gatsby, clip space position that is consumed by the rasterizer. The SV_POSITION semantic is applied to the output value from the coming statement, vertex shader to specify that the value is used as the clip space position but this semantic can also be applied to an input variable of a pixel shader. When SV_POSITION is used as an input semantic to readers reports, a pixel shader, the value is the position of the pixel in screen space .
In both the deferred shading and the forward+ shaders, I will use this semantic to the get the screen space position of the current pixel. Of Age In Mississippi Thesis? You will notice that I am pre-multiplying the input vectors by the matrices. This indicates that the matrices are stored in column-major order by default. Prior to DirectX 10, matrices in HLSL were loaded in row-major order and input vectors were post-multiplied by the matrices. Since DirectX 10, matrices are loaded in column-major order by default. You can change the default order by specifying the row_major type modifier on the matrix variable declarations . The pixel shader will compute all of the analysis, lighting and shading that is used to determine the of age in mississippi statement, final color of a single screen pixel. The lighting equations used in this pixel shader are described in on yoga a previous article titled Texturing and coming statement, Lighting in DirectX 11 if you are not familiar with lighting models, then you should read that article first before continuing. Review Financial Analysis? The pixel shader uses several structures to do its work.
The Material struct stores all of the information that describes the surface material of the object being shaded and the Light struct contains all of the of age, parameters that are necessary to describe a light that is placed in the scene. The Material struct defines all of the properties that are necessary to describe the surface of the object currently being shaded. Since some material properties can also have an associated texture (for example, diffuse textures, specular textures, or normal texture), we will also use the material to indicate if those textures are present on thesis the object. The GlobalAmbient term is used to describe the ambient contribution applied to all object in the scene globally. Technically, this variable should be a global variable (not specific to a single object) but since there is only a single material at of age statement, a time in the pixel shader, I figured it was a fine place to put it. The ambient , emissive , diffuse , and specular color values have the same meaning as in statement for the great gatsby essay my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in DirectX 11 so I will not explain them in detail here.
The Reflectance component could be used to indicate the amount of reflected color that should be blended with the diffuse color. This would require environment mapping to be implemented which I am not doing in this experiment so this value is not used here. The Opacity value is used to determine the of age statement, total opacity of an object. This value can be used to make objects appear transparent. Statement On Yoga? This property is used to render semi-transparent objects in the transparent pass. If the of age in mississippi thesis statement, opacity value is less than one (1 being fully opaque and speech hearing, 0 being fully transparent), the object will be considered transparent and will be rendered in the transparent pass instead of the opaque pass. The SpecularPower variable is used to determine how shiny the object appears. Specular power was described in my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in DirectX 11 so I won#8217;t repeat it here. The IndexOfRefraction variable can be applied on objects that should refract light through them. Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? Since refraction requires environment mapping techniques that are not implemented in this experiment, this variable will not be used here.
The HasTexture variables defined on lines 29-38 indicate whether the mathematics 2 past papers, object being rendered has an associated texture for those properties. If the parameter is coming of age true then the corresponding texture will be sampled and the texel will be blended with the corresponding material color value. The BumpIntensity variable is used to scale the thesis statement on yoga, height values from a bump map (not to be confused with normal mapping which does not need to be scaled) in order to soften or accentuate the apparent bumpiness of an object#8217;s surface. In most cases models will use normal maps to add detail to the surface of an coming of age in mississippi thesis, object without high tessellation but it is also possible to use a heightmap to do the same thing. If a model has a bump map, the material#8217;s HasBumpTexture property will be set to true and in this case the mathematics intermediate 2 past, model will be bump mapped instead of normal mapped. The SpecularScale variable is used to scale the thesis statement, specular power value that is read from literature review financial, a specular power texture. Since textures usually store values as unsigned normalized values, when sampling from the texture the value is read as a floating-point value in the range of of age [0..1].
A specular power of 1.0 does not make much sense (as was explained in my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in DirectX 11) so the reports, specular power value read from the texture will be scaled by SpecularScale before being used for the final lighting computation. The AlphaThreshold variable can be used to coming in mississippi thesis statement, discard pixels whose opacity is for the below a certain value using the #8220;discard#8221; command in the pixel shader. This can be used with #8220;cut-out#8221; materials where the object does not need to be alpha blended but it should have holes in the object (for example, a chain-link fence). The Padding variable is used to explicitly add eight bytes of padding to the material struct. Although HLSL will implicitly add this padding to coming in mississippi thesis statement, this struct to make sure the size of the struct is a multiple of 16 bytes, explicitly adding the padding makes it clear that the size and alignment of this struct is identical to its C++ counterpart. The material properties are passed to the pixel shader using a constant buffer. This constant buffer and buffer register slot assignment is used for all pixel shaders described in review financial analysis this article. The materials have support for eight different textures.
Not all scene objects will use all of the thesis, texture slots (normal and bump maps are mutually exclusive so they can probably reuse the same texture slot assignment). Mathematics Intermediate 2 Past Papers? It is coming of age in mississippi statement up to the 3D artist to determine which textures will be used by the models in the scene. The application will load the textures that are associated to a material. A texture parameter and thesis gatsby essay, an associated texture slot assignment is declared for each of these material properties. In every pixel shader described in this article, texture slots 0-7 will be reserved for of age thesis statement these textures. The Light struct stores all the information necessary to define a light in the scene.
Spot lights, point lights and directional lights are not separated into yale dissertation reports, different structs and of age, all of the properties necessary to define any of those light types are stored in a single struct. The Position and Direction properties are stored in both world space (with the WS postfix) and in view space (with VS postfix). Of course the Position variable only statement for the essay, applies to point and spot lights while the Direction variable only applies to spot and directional lights. I store both world space and view space position and coming in mississippi, direction vectors because I find it easier to work in world space in the application then convert the world space vectors to view space before uploading the lights array to the GPU. This way I do not need to maintain multiple light lists at the cost of additional space that is required on the GPU. But even 10,000 lights only require 1.12 MB on the GPU so I figured this was a reasonable sacrifice. But minimizing the size of the light structs could have a positive impact on caching on analysis the GPU and improve rendering performance.
This is further discussed in the Future Considerations section at the end of this article. In some lighting models the diffuse and specular lighting contributions are separated. Coming In Mississippi Thesis Statement? I chose not to separate the diffuse and yale, specular color contributions because it is rare that these values differ. Instead I chose to of age thesis, store both the diffuse and specular lighting contributions in literature financial analysis a single variable called Color . The SpotlightAngle is the half-angle of the spotlight cone expressed in degrees. Working in degrees seems to be more intuitive than working in radians.
Of course, the spotlight angle will be converted to radians in the shader when we need to compute the cosine angle of the spotlight and the light vector. The Range variable determines how far away the light will reach and still contribute light to of age in mississippi thesis statement, a surface. Literature Review Analysis? Although not entirely physically correct (real lights have an of age thesis statement, attenuation that never actually reaches 0) lights are required to have a finite range to implement the deferred shading and forward+ rendering techniques. The units of this range are scene specific but generally I try to adhere to on yoga, the 1 unit is thesis 1 meter specification. For point lights, the range is the literature, radius of the sphere that represents the light and for spotlights, the range is the length of the cone that represents the light. Directional lights don#8217;t use range because they are considered to be infinitely far away pointing in of age in mississippi thesis the same direction everywhere. The Intensity variable is used to modulate the computed light contribution. By default, this value is 1 but it can be used to make some lights brighter or more subtle than other lights. Lights in the scene can be toggled on and off with the Enabled flag. Lights whose Enabled flag is speech hearing false will be skipped in the shader. Lights are editable in this demo.
A light can be selected by clicking on it in the demo application and its properties can be modified. Coming Of Age Thesis? To indicate that a light is currently selected, the Selected flag will be set to true . When a light is selected in the scene, its visual representation will appear darker (less transparent) to indicate that it is influence currently selected. The Type variable is used to indicate which type of light this is. It can have one of the following values: Once again the coming of age in mississippi thesis statement, Light struct is explicitly padded with 8 bytes to papers, match the struct layout in C++ and to make the of age in mississippi, struct explicitly aligned to 16 bytes which is 2 past required in HLSL. In Mississippi Thesis Statement? The lights array is accessed through a StructuredBuffer . Most lighting shader implementations will use a constant buffer to thesis for the great, store the lights array but constant buffers are limited to 64 KB in size which means that it would be limited to about 570 lights before running out of constant memory on coming of age in mississippi the GPU. Structured buffers are stored in texture memory which is limited to the amount of texture memory available on thesis great gatsby essay the GPU (usually in coming of age in mississippi thesis statement the GB range on desktop GPUs). Texture memory is also very fast on most GPUs so storing the lights in a structured buffer did not impose a performance impact. In fact, on yale dissertation reports my particular GPU (NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680) I noticed a considerable performance improvement when I moved the lights array to a structure buffer.
The pixel shader for coming in mississippi thesis statement the forward rendering technique is slightly more complicated than the vertex shader. If you have read my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in DirectX 11 then you should already be familiar with most of the statement for the great gatsby essay, implementation of this shader, but I will explain it in detail here as it is the basis of all of the rendering algorithms shown in this article. First, we need to gather the material properties of the thesis statement, material. Mathematics Papers? If the material has textures associated with its various components, the textures will be sampled before the lighting is of age statement computed. After the material properties have been initialized, all of the lights in the scene will be iterated and mathematics intermediate papers, the lighting contributions will be accumulated and modulated with the material properties to produce the final pixel color. The [earlydepthstencil] attribute before the function indicates that the of age thesis statement, GPU should take advantage of early depth and stencil culling .
This causes the depth/stencil tests to be performed before the pixel shader is dissertation readers reports executed. Coming Of Age In Mississippi? This attribute can not be used on shaders that modify the pixel#8217;s depth value by outputting a value using the SV_Depth semantic. Since this pixel shader only statement on yoga, outputs a color value using the SV_TARGET semantic, it can take advantage of early depth/stencil testing to provide a performance improvement when a pixel is rejected. Most GPU#8217;s will perform early depth/stencil tests anyways even without this attribute and adding this attribute to the pixel shader did not have a noticeable impact on performance but I decided to keep the attribute anyways. Since all of the lighting computations will be performed in coming of age view space, the eye position (the position of the camera) is always (0, 0, 0). This is a nice side effect of influence of media working in view space; The camera#8217;s eye position does not need to be passed as an additional parameter to the shader. Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? On line 24 a temporary copy of the material is created because its properties will be modified in the shader if there is an associated texture for the material property. Since the thesis statement, material properties are stored in a constant buffer, it would not be possible to directly update the materials properties from the constant buffer uniform variable so a local temporary must be used. The first material property we will read is the diffuse color. The default diffuse color is the diffuse color assigned to the material#8217;s DiffuseColor variable. If the material also has a diffuse texture associated with it then the coming of age in mississippi thesis, color from the diffuse texture will be blended with the material#8217;s diffuse color.
If the material#8217;s diffuse color is black (0, 0, 0, 0), then the material#8217;s diffuse color will simply be replaced by the color in the diffuse texture. The any hlsl intrinsic function can be used to find out if any of the color components is not zero. The pixel#8217;s alpha value is determined next. By default, the mathematics papers, fragment#8217;s transparency value is determined by the alpha component of the diffuse color. Of Age Statement? If the material has an opacity texture associated with it, the red component of the opacity texture is yale dissertation readers reports used as the alpha value, overriding the alpha value in the diffuse texture. In most cases, opacity textures store only a single channel in coming the first component of the color that is thesis statement on yoga returned from the Sample method.
In order to read from a single-channel texture, we must read from the red channel, not the alpha channel. The alpha channel of a single channel texture will always be 1 so reading the alpha channel from the opacity map (which is coming of age thesis statement most likely a single channel texture) would not provide the value we require. The ambient and emissive colors are read in a similar fashion as the diffuse color. The ambient color is also combined with the yale dissertation readers reports, value of the material#8217;s GlobalAmbient variable. Next the specular power is computed. If the coming in mississippi thesis, material has an associated specular power texture, the red component of the on yoga, texture is sampled and scaled by the value of the material#8217;s SpecularScale variable.
In this case, the value of the SpecularPower variable in coming of age thesis statement the material is replaced with the scaled value from the texture. If the statement on yoga, material has either an associated normal map or a bump map, normal mapping or bump mapping will be performed to compute the normal vector. If neither a normal map nor a bump map texture is associated with the material, the input normal is used as-is. The DoNormalMapping function will perform normal mapping from the of age, TBN (tangent, bitangent/binormal, normal) matrix and the normal map. An example normal map texture of the lion head in the Crytek Sponza scene.  Normal mapping is pretty straightforward and language hearing, is explained in more detail in a previous article titled Normal Mapping so I won#8217;t explain it in detail here. Basically we just need to sample the normal from the statement, normal map, expand the normal into the range [-1..1] and transform it from tangent space into view space by post-multiplying it by thesis statement the TBN matrix. Bump mapping works in a similar way, except instead of storing the normals directly in the texture, the bumpmap texture stores height values in the range [0..1]. The normal can be generated from the height map by computing the gradient of the height values in both the U and V texture coordinate directions.
Taking the cross product of the gradients in in mississippi thesis statement each direction gives the normal in texture space. Post-multiplying the resulting normal by the TBN matrix will give the normal in view space. The height values read from the bump map can be scaled to produce more (or less) accentuated bumpiness. Language Hearing? Bumpmap texture (left) and the corresponding head model (right).  If the of age in mississippi statement, material does not have an associated normal map or a bump map, the language, normal vector from the vertex shader output is used directly. Now we have all of the data that is required to compute the lighting. The lighting calculations for the forward rendering technique are performed in the DoLighting function. In Mississippi Thesis Statement? This function accepts the following arguments: lights : The lights array (as a structured buffer) mat : The material properties that were just computed eyePos : The position of the camera in view space (which is always (0, 0, 0)) P : The position of the point being shaded in view space N : The normal of the of media, point being shaded in view space.
The DoLighting function returns a LightingResult structure that contains the diffuse and specular lighting contributions from all of the lights in the scene. The view vector ( V ) is computed from the coming thesis statement, eye position and the position of the shaded pixel in view space. The light buffer is iterated on line 439. Since we know that disabled lights and lights that are not within range of the point being shaded won#8217;t contribute any lighting, we can skip those lights. Otherwise, the appropriate lighting function is on yoga invoked depending on the type of light. Each of the various light types will compute their diffuse and specular lighting contributions. Since diffuse and specular lighting is computed in the same way for every light type, I will define functions to coming in mississippi thesis statement, compute the diffuse and specular lighting contributions independent of the light type. The DoDiffuse function is very simple and only needs to know about the language hearing, light vector ( L ) and the surface normal ( N ). The diffuse lighting is thesis statement computed by essay about influence taking the dot product between the light vector ( L ) and of age in mississippi thesis, the surface normal ( N ). The DoDiffuse function expects both of these vectors to be normalized. The resulting dot product is then multiplied by the color of the light to compute the diffuse contribution of the intermediate 2 past papers, light. Next, we#8217;ll compute the specular contribution of the light. The DoSpecular function is used to compute the specular contribution of the light.
In addition to the light vector ( L ) and the surface normal ( N ), this function also needs the view vector ( V ) to compute the specular contribution of the light. Since the light vector L is the vector pointing from the of age statement, point being shaded to the light source, it needs to be negated so that it points from the light source to the point being shaded before we compute the reflection vector. The resulting dot product of the reflection vector ( R ) and the view vector ( V ) is raised to the power of the value of the statement on yoga, material#8217;s specular power variable and modulated by the color of the light. It#8217;s important to remember that a specular power value in the range (0#8230;1) is not a meaningful specular power value. Coming Of Age Thesis Statement? For a detailed explanation of specular lighting, please refer to my previous article titled Texturing and Lighting in yale dissertation readers reports DirectX 11. Attenuation is the fall-off of the intensity of the light as the light is further away from the point being shaded. Coming Statement? In traditional lighting models the attenuation is computed as the reciprocal of the sum of three attenuation factors multiplied by influence the distance to the light (as explained in Attenuation): Constant attenuation Linear attenuation Quadratic attenuation. However this method of computing attenuation assumes that the fall-off of the light never reaches zero (lights have an infinite range).
For deferred shading and forward+ we must be able to represent the coming in mississippi, lights in mathematics intermediate 2 past the scene as volumes with finite range so we need to use a different method to compute the attenuation of the light. One possible method to compute the coming of age thesis, attenuation of the light is to perform a linear blend from 1.0 when the point is closest to the light and 0.0 if the point is at yale readers, a distance greater than the range of the light. However a linear fall-off does not look very realistic as attenuation in reality is statement more similar to the reciprocal of a quadratic function. I decided to literature analysis, use the smoothstep hlsl intrinsic function which returns a smooth interpolation between a minimum and maximum value. HLSL smoothstep intrinsic function. The smoothstep function will return 0 when the distance to coming in mississippi statement, the light ( d ) is statement on yoga less than ¾ of the range of the light and 1 when the distance to the light is more than the range. Of course we want to reverse this interpolation so we just subtract this value from 1 to get the attenuation we need. Optionally, we could adjust the smoothness of the attenuation of the coming statement, light by parameterization of the 0.75f in the equation above. A smoothness factor of 0.0 should result in the intensity of the light remaining 1.0 all the way to the maximum range of the light while a smoothness of 1.0 should result in the intensity of the light being interpolated through the entire range of the light. Variable attenuation smoothness. Now let#8217;s combine the diffuse, specular, and attenuation factors to compute the lighting contribution for each light type.
Point lights combine the attenuation, diffuse, and specular values to determine the final contribution of the light. On line 400-401, the diffuse and specular contributions are scaled by the attenuation and the light intensity factors before being returned from the function. In addition to the attenuation factor, spot lights also have a cone angle. In this case, the intensity of the light is scaled by the dot product between the light vector ( L ) and the direction of the spotlight. If the angle between light vector and the direction of the thesis, spotlight is coming in mississippi thesis less than the spotlight cone angle, then the point should be lit by the spotlight. Otherwise the spotlight should not contribute any light to the point being shaded.
The DoSpotCone function will compute the intensity of the light based on the spotlight cone angle. First, the 2 past papers, cosine angle of the spotlight cone is computed. If the of age thesis statement, dot product between the 2 past, direction of the spotlight and the light vector ( L ) is less than the coming in mississippi thesis, min cosine angle then the contribution of the light will be 0. Mathematics Intermediate 2 Past? If the dot product is greater than max cosine angle then the contribution of the spotlight will be 1. The spotlights minimum and maximum cosine angles. It may seem counter-intuitive that the max cosine angle is in mississippi a smaller angle than the min cosine angle but don#8217;t forget that the cosine of 0 is 1 and the cosine of 90 is statement for the great gatsby 0. The DoSpotLight function will compute the spotlight contribution similar to that of the thesis statement, point light with the addition of the spotlight cone angle. Directional lights are the review financial, simplest light type because they do not attenuate over the distance to the point being shaded. Now we have the coming thesis statement, material properties and thesis statement, the summed lighting contributions of coming of age in mississippi all of the lights in the scene we can combine them to perform final shading. Review Financial Analysis? On line 113 the lighting contributions is computed using the DoLighting function that was just described. Coming Of Age In Mississippi Statement? On line 115, the material#8217;s diffuse color is modulated by the lights diffuse contribution. If the material#8217;s specular power is lower than 1.0, it will not be considered for final shading.
Some artists will assign a specular power less than 1 if a material does not have a specular shine. In this case we just ignore the specular contribution and the material is considered diffuse only (lambert reflectance only). Thesis Statement Gatsby? Otherwise, if the material has a specular color texture associated with it, it will be sampled and combined with the material#8217;s specular color before it is modulated with the light#8217;s specular contribution. The final pixel color is the of age statement, sum of the ambient, emissive, diffuse and specular components. The opacity of the pixel is determined by the alpha value that was determined earlier in statement on yoga the pixel shader. The deferred shading technique consists of three passes: The g-buffer pass will fill the g-buffer textures that were described in the introduction. The lighting pass will render each light source as a geometric object and compute the lighting for coming of age in mississippi thesis statement covered pixels. The transparent pass will render transparent scene objects using the standard forward rendering technique. The first pass of the deferred shading technique will generate the G-buffer textures.
I will first describe the essay about influence, layout of the G-buffers. The layout of the G-buffer can be a subject of an entire article on this website. The layout I chose for thesis statement this demonstration is based on simplicity and necessity. It is not the essay about, most efficient G-buffer layout as some data could be better packed into smaller buffers. There has been some discussion on packing attributes in the G-buffers but I did not perform any analysis regarding the coming of age thesis, effects of using various packing methods. The attributes that need to mathematics intermediate papers, be stored in the G-buffers are: The Depth/Stencil texture is stored as 32-bits per pixel with 24 bits for the depth value as a unsigned normalized value (UNORM) and 8 bits for the stencil value as an unsigned integer (UINT). The texture resource for the depth buffer is created using the R24G8_TYPELESS texture format and the depth/stencil view is created with the D24_UNORM_S8_UINT texture format. When accessing the depth buffer in the pixel shader, the coming of age in mississippi thesis, shader resource view is created using the R24_UNORM_X8_TYPELESS texture format since the stencil value is unused. The Depth/Stencil buffer will be attached to the output merger stage and will not directly computed in the G-buffer pixel shader. The results of the vertex shader are written directly to on yoga, the depth/stencil buffer.
Output of the coming in mississippi thesis, Depth/Stencil Buffer in the G-buffer pass. The light accumulation buffer is used to store the final result of the lighting pass. This is the same buffer as the back buffer of the screen. Dissertation? If your G-buffer textures are the same dimension as your screen, there is no need to allocate an additional buffer for the light accumulation buffer and the back buffer of the screen can be used directly. The light accumulation buffer is coming of age statement stored as a 32-bit 4-component unsigned normalized texture using the R8G8B8A8_UNORM texture format for both the texture resource and the shader resource view. The light accumulation buffer stores the emissive and ambient terms. Thesis For The Great? This image has been considerably brightened to make the scene more visible. Statement? After the papers, G-buffer pass, the light accumulation buffer initially only stores the in mississippi statement, ambient and emissive terms of the lighting equation. Thesis Great? This image was brightened considerably to make it more visible. You may also notice that only the fully opaque objects in the scene are rendered.
Deferred shading does not support transparent objects so only the opaque objects are rendered in the G-buffer pass. As an coming in mississippi statement, optimization, you may also want to accumulate directional lights in the G-buffer pass and skip directional lights in the lighting pass. Since directional lights are rendered as full-screen quads in the lighting pass, accumulating them in the g-buffer pass may save some shader cycles if fill-rate is an essay about influence of media, issue. I#8217;m not taking advantage of coming of age this optimization in this experiment because that would require storing directional lights in a separate buffer which is inconsistent with the way the forward and forward+ pixel shaders handle lighting. The diffuse buffer is stored as a 32-bit 4-component unsigned normalized (UNORM) texture. Since only opaque objects are rendered in deferred shading, there is literature financial no need for the alpha channel in this buffer and it remains unused in in mississippi statement this experiment. Both the texture resource and the shader resource view use the intermediate 2 past papers, R8G8B8A8_UNORM texture format. The Diffuse buffer after the g-buffer pass. The above image shows the result of the of age in mississippi, diffuse buffer after the G-buffer pass. Similar to the light accumulation and the diffuse buffers, the specular color buffer is stored as a 32-bit 4-component unsigned normalized texture using the R8G8B8A8_UNORM format. The red, green, and blue channels are used to store the specular color while the alpha channel is used to store the specular power.
The specular power value is usually expressed in the range (1#8230;256] (or higher) but it needs to review, be packed into the range [0#8230;1] to be stored in the texture. To pack the coming of age statement, specular power into the texture, I use the method described in a presentation given by Michiel van der Leeuw titled #8220;Deferred Rendering in Killzone 2#8221; . In that presentation he uses the mathematics intermediate, following equation to pack the specular power value: This function allows for packing of specular power values in the range [1#8230;1448.15] and provides good precision for values in the normal specular range (1#8230;256). Coming In Mississippi? The graph below shows the progression of the packed specular value. The result of thesis for the great packing specular power. Coming? The horizontal axis shows the original specular power and speech language, the vertical axis shows the packed specular power.[/math] And the result of the specular buffer after the thesis, G-buffer pass looks like this. The results of the specular buffer after the G-buffer pass. The view space normals are stored in mathematics intermediate a 128-bit 4-component floating point buffer using the R32G32B32A32_FLOAT texture format. A normal buffer of this size is in mississippi thesis statement not really necessary and I could probably have packed the X and Y components of the normal into a 32-bit 2-component half-precision floating point buffer and recomputed the z-component in the lighting pass. For this experiment, I favored precision and simplicity over efficiency and since my GPU is not constrained by texture memory I used the largest possible buffer with the highest precision. Mathematics 2 Past Papers? It would be worthwhile to investigate other texture formats for the normal buffer and analyze the quality versus performance tradeoffs.
My hypothesis is that using a smaller texture format (for example R16G16_FLOAT ) for the normal buffer would produce similar quality results while providing improved performance. The result of the normal buffer after the coming in mississippi thesis, G-buffer pass. The image above shows the result of the normal buffer after the G-buffer pass. The total G-buffer layout looks similar to intermediate 2 past papers, the table shown below. Layout of the G-buffer. The pixel shader for the G-buffer pass is very similar to the pixel shader for the forward renderer. The primary difference being no lighting calculations are performed in the G-buffer pass. Collecting the material properties are identical in the forward rendering technique so I will not repeat that part of the shader code here. To output the G-buffer data to the textures, each G-buffer texture will be bound to a render target output using PixelShaderOutput structure. Since the of age in mississippi thesis statement, depth/stencil buffer is bound to statement great gatsby essay, the output-merger stage, we don#8217;t need to output the depth value from the pixel shader. Now let#8217;s fill the G-buffer textures in the pixel shader.
Once all of the material properties have been retrieved, we only need to save the properties to the appropriate render target. The source code to read all of the material properties has been skipped for brevity. Of Age In Mississippi Thesis? You can download the source code at the end of this article to see the complete pixel shader. With the yale, G-buffers filled, we can compute the final shading in the light pass. In the next sections, I will describe the method used by Guerrilla in Killzone 2 and I will also describe the in mississippi, implementation I used and explain why I used a different method. Literature? The primary source of inspiration for the lighting pass of the deferred shading technique that I am using in this experiment comes from coming thesis statement, a presentation called #8220; Deferred Rendering in Killzone 2 #8221; presented by Michiel van der Leeuw at the Sony Computer Entertainment Graphics Seminar at Palo Alto, California in August 2007 . In Michiel#8217;s presentation, he describes the lighting pass in four phases: Clear stencil buffer to 0, Mark pixels in front of the far light boundary, Count number of lit pixels inside the thesis statement, light volume, Shade the lit pixels. I will briefly describe the last three steps. I will then present the method I chose to use to implement the thesis statement, lighting pass of the deferred shading technique and explain why I chose a different method than what was explained in Michiel#8217;s presentation.
According to Michiel#8217;s presentation, in order to determine which pixel are lit, you first need to about, render the back faces of the light volume and mark the pixels that are in-front of the far light boundary. Then count the number of pixels that are behind the front faces of the light volume. And finally, shade the pixels that are marked and behind the front faces of the light volume. Coming Statement? In the gatsby, first phase, the pixels that are in front of the back faces of the thesis, light volume will be marked in the stencil buffer. To do this, you must first clear the stencil buffer to 0 then configure the pipeline state with the following settings: Bind only the vertex shader (no pixel shader is required) Bind only the depth/stencil buffer to the output merger stage (since no pixel shader is bound, there is no need for essay influence a color buffer) Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to of age in mississippi thesis statement, FRONT to render only the back faces of the light volume Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the papers, depth function to GREATER_EQUAL Enable stencil operations Set stencil reference to 1 Set stencil function to ALWAYS Set stencil operation to REPLACE on depth pass. And render the light volume. The image below shows the coming of age in mississippi statement, effect of this operation. Render back faces of light volume. Write to stencil on depth pass. The dotted line of the light volume is essay influence culled and only the back facing polygons are rendered.
The green volumes show where the stencil buffer will be marked with the stencil reference value. The next step is to count the pixels inside the coming of age in mississippi thesis statement, light volume. The next phase is to count the number of thesis statement on yoga pixels that were both marked in the previous phase and are inside the light volume. This is done by rendering the front faces of the light volume and counting the number of of age in mississippi thesis statement pixels that are both stencil marked in the previous phase and behind the front faces of the light volume. In this case, the pipeline state should be configured with: Bind only the vertex shader (no pixel shader is hearing required) Bind only the depth/stencil buffer to the output merger stage (since no pixel shader is bound, there is no need for a color buffer) Configure the Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to BACK to render only the front faces of the light volume Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the depth function to LESS_EQUAL Enable stencil operations Set stencil reference to 1 Set stencil operations to KEEP (don#8217;t modify the coming, stencil buffer) Set stencil function to EQUAL. And render the light volume again with an occlusion pixel query to count the number of pixels that pass both the depth and stencil operations. The image below shows the effect of this operation. Render front faces of light volume. Count pixels that are marked and behind the front faces of the light volume.
The red volume in the image shows the pixels that would be counted in this phase. If the number of pixels rasterized is below a certain threshold, then the shading step can be skipped. If the number of rasterized pixels is literature review financial analysis above a certain threshold then the pixels need to coming of age in mississippi thesis statement, be shaded. The final step according to Michiel#8217;s method is to shade the pixels that are inside the light volume. To do this the reports, configuration of the pipeline state should be identical to the pipeline configuration of the count pixels phase with the addition of enabling additive blending, binding a pixel shader and coming of age thesis, attaching a color buffer to the output merger stage. Bind both vertex and pixel shaders Bind depth/stencil and light accumulation buffer to the output merger stage Configure the Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to BACK to render only the speech language hearing, front faces of the light volume Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the depth function to LESS_EQUAL Enable stencil operations Set stencil reference to 1 Set stencil operations to KEEP (don#8217;t modify the stencil buffer) Set stencil function to EQUAL Blend State: Enable blend operations Set source factor to ONE Set destination factor to ONE Set blend operation to ADD. The result should be that only the pixels that are contained within the light volume are shaded. The problem with the lighting pass described in of age thesis Michiel#8217;s presentation is that the pixel query operation will most certainly cause a stall while the CPU has to wait for the GPU query results to be returned. The stall can be avoided if the query results from the previous frame (or previous 2 frames) is reports used instead of the query results from the current frame relying on the temporal coherence theory . This would require multiple query objects to be created for each light source because query objects can not be reused if they must be persistent across multiple frames. Since I am not doing shadow mapping in my implementation there was no apparent need to perform the pixel occlusion query that is described in Michiel#8217;s presentation thus avoiding the potential stalls that are incurred from the query operation.
The other problem with the method described in Michiel#8217;s presentation is thesis that if the eye is inside the light volume then no pixels will be counted or shaded in the count pixels and shade pixels phases. When the eye is inside the light volume, the front faces of the light volume will be clipped by the view frustum. Literature Review Financial Analysis? The green volume shown in the image represents the pixels of the stencil buffer that were marked in the first phase. There is no red volume showing the pixels that were shaded because the front faces of the light volume are clipped by the view frustum. I tried to find a way around this issue by disabling depth clipping but this only prevents clipping of pixels in coming of age in mississippi statement front of the viewer (pixels behind the eye are still clipped). Literature Review? To solve this problem, I reversed Michiel#8217;s method: Clear stencil buffer to 1, Unmark pixels in front of the near light boundary, Shade pixels that are in front of the in mississippi thesis statement, far light boundary. I will explain the last two steps of my implementation and describe the hearing, method used to shade the pixels. In the first phase of my implementation we need to of age in mississippi statement, unmark all of the speech, pixels that are in front of the front faces of the light#8217;s geometric volume. This ensures that pixels that occlude the light volume are not rendered in the next phase.
This is done by first clearing the stencil buffer to in mississippi statement, 1 to mark all pixels and unmark the pixels that are in front of the speech hearing, front faces of the light volume. The configuration of the pipeline state would look like this: Bind only the vertex shader (no pixel shader is required) Bind only the depth/stencil buffer to the output merger stage (since no pixel shader is bound, there is no need for a color buffer) Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to BACK to render only the front faces of the light volume Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the of age thesis statement, depth function to GREATER Enable stencil operations Set stencil function to ALWAYS Set stencil operation to DECR_SAT on depth pass. And render the light volume. The image below shows the result of this operation. Unmark pixels in the stencil buffer where the pixel is in front of the front faces of the light volume.
Setting the stencil operation to DECR_SAT will decrement and clamp the mathematics, value in the stencil buffer to 0 if the depth test passes. Coming Of Age Thesis? The green volume shows where the stencil buffer will be decremented to 0. Consequently, if the eye is inside the light volume, all pixels will still be marked in the stencil buffer because the front faces of the light volume would be clipped by the viewing frustum and no pixels would be unmarked. In the yale readers reports, next phase the pixels in front of the coming of age in mississippi, back faces of the light volume will be shaded. In this phase the pixels that are both in front of the back faces of the about, light volume and not unmarked in the previous frame will be shaded. In this case, the configuration of the of age in mississippi statement, pipeline state would look like this: Bind both vertex and pixel shaders Bind depth/stencil and light accumulation buffer to the output merger stage Configure the Rasterizer State: Set cull mode to FRONT to render only the back faces of the light volume Disable depth clipping Depth/Stencil State: Enable depth testing Disable depth writes Set the depth function to GREATER_EQUAL Enable stencil operations Set stencil reference to 1 Set stencil operations to KEEP (don#8217;t modify the stencil buffer) Set stencil function to EQUAL Blend State: Enable blend operations Set source factor to ONE Set destination factor to ONE Set blend operation to ADD. You may have noticed that I also disable depth clipping in about of media the rasterizer state for this phase. Doing this will ensure that if any part of the light volume exceeds the far clipping plane, it will not be clipped. The image below shows the result of this operation.
The pixels in coming thesis statement front of the back faces of the light volume will be shaded. The red volume shows pixels that will be shaded in this phase. This implementation will properly shade pixels even if the viewer is inside the light volume. In the second phase, only pixels that are both in front of the essay about influence of media, back faces of the light volume and not unmarked in the previous phase will be shaded. Next I#8217;ll describe the pixel shader that is used to implement the deferred lighting pass. The pixel shader is only bound during the shade pixels phase described above. It will fetch the texture data from the G-buffers and use it to shade the pixel using the coming in mississippi thesis, same lighting model that was described in the Forward Rendering section. For The Gatsby? Since all of of age thesis our lighting calculations are performed in view space, we need to compute the view space position of the current pixel. We will use the the screen space position and the value in mathematics 2 past papers the depth buffer to compute the view space position of the current pixel. To do this, we will use the ClipToView function to convert clip space coordinates to view space and the ScreenToView function to convert screen coordinates to view space. In order to facilitate these functions, we need to know the screen dimensions and the inverse projection matrix of the camera which should be passed to the shader from the application in a constant buffer.
And to coming of age statement, convert the screen space coordinates to clip space we need to scale and shift the screen space coordinates into clip space then transform the statement great gatsby essay, clip space coordinate into view space by multiplying the coming in mississippi thesis, clip space coordinate by the inverse of the projection matrix. First, we need to normalize the screen coordinates by dividing them by readers the screen dimensions. This will convert the screen coordinates that are expressed in the range ([0#8230;SCREEN_WIDTH], [0#8230;SCREEN_HEIGHT]) into the range ([0#8230;1], [0..1]). In DirectX, the screen origin (0, 0) is the top-left side of the screen and the screen#8217;s y-coordinate increases from top to coming thesis statement, bottom. This is review analysis the opposite direction than the in mississippi, y-coordinate in clip space so we need to language, flip the y-coordinate in normalized screen space to get it in the range ([0#8230;1], [1#8230;0]). Then we need to coming in mississippi statement, scale the normalized screen coordinate by 2 to get it in the range ([0#8230;2], [2#8230;0]) and literature, shift it by -1 to get it in the range ([-1#8230;1], [1#8230;-1]).
Converting screen space coordinates to clip space. Now that we have the clip space position of the current pixel, we can use the ClipToView function to convert it into view space. This is done by multiplying the clip space coordinate by the inverse of the coming of age thesis, camera#8217;s projection matrix (line 195) and divide by the w component to remove the perspective projection (line 197). Now let#8217;s put this function to use in thesis our shader. The input structure to the deferred lighting pixel shader is identical to the output of the vertex shader including the position parameter that is bound to of age in mississippi, the SV_Position system value semantic. When used in a pixel shader, the value of the parameter bound to the SV_Position semantic will be the great gatsby, screen space position of the current pixel being rendered. We can use this value and the value from the in mississippi statement, depth buffer to compute the view space position. Since the about influence, G-buffer textures are the same dimension as the screen for the lighting pass, we can use the Texture2D.Load  method to fetch the texel from each of the G-buffer textures. The texture coordinate of the coming in mississippi thesis, Texture2D.Load method is an int3 where the literature review analysis, x and coming in mississippi, y components are the yale reports, U and V texture coordinates in non-normalized screen coordinate and the z component is the mipmap level to sample. When sampling the G-buffer textures, we always want to sample mipmap level 0 (the most detailed mipmap level).
Sampling from a lower mipmap level will cause the textures to appear blocky. If no mipmaps have been generated for the G-Buffer textures, sampling from a lower mipmap level will return black texels. The Texture2D.Load method does not perform any texture filtering when sampling the texture making it faster than the Texture2D.Sample method when using linear filtering. Once we have the screen space position and the depth value, we can use the ScreenToView function to convert the screen space position to view space. Before we can compute the lighting, we need to sample the other components from the G-buffer textures. On line 179 the coming of age in mississippi thesis, specular power is unpacked from the alpha channel of the specular color using the inverse of the literature analysis, operation that was used to pack it in coming thesis statement the specular texture in the G-buffer pass. In order to retrieve the correct light properties, we need to know the index of the current light in the light buffer. For this, we will pass the light index of the current light in a constant buffer.
And retrieve the hearing, light properties from the light list and compute the final shading. You may notice that we don#8217;t need to check if the light is enabled in the shader like we did in coming statement the forward rendering shader. If the light is not enabled, the financial, light volume should not be rendered by the application. We also don#8217;t need to check if the light is in of age statement range of the current pixel since the pixel shader should not be invoked on thesis statement for the great gatsby essay pixels that are out of range of the coming of age in mississippi statement, light. The lighting functions were already explained in the section on forward rendering so they won#8217;t be explained here again. On line 203, the diffuse and specular terms are combined and returned from the shader.
The ambient and emissive terms were already computed in the light accumulation buffer during the G-buffer shader. Thesis Essay? With additive blending enabled, all of the lighting terms will be summed correctly to compute final shading. Coming Statement? In the final pass, we need to essay influence of media, render transparent objects. The transparent pass for the deferred shading technique is identical to the forward rendering technique with alpha blending enabled. There is coming of age statement no new information to provide here. We will reflect on the performance of the transparent pass in the results section described later. Now let#8217;s take a look at the final technique that will be explained in this article; Forward+. Forward+ improves upon regular forward rendering by first determining which lights are overlapping which area in screen space. During the shading phase, only the lights that are potentially overlapping the current fragment need to be considered. I used the term #8220;potentially#8221; because the technique used to determine overlapping lights is not completely accurate as I will explain later. The Forward+ technique consists primarily of these three passes:
In the light culling pass, each light in the scene is sorted into screen space tiles. In the opaque pass, the light list generated from the light culling pass is used to compute the lighting for opaque geometry. Literature Review Financial? In this pass, not all lights need to thesis statement, be considered for lighting, only the lights that were previously sorted into 2 past, the current fragments screen space tile need to be considered when computing the lighting. Coming Thesis? The transparent pass is similar to the opaque pass except the light list used for computing lighting is slightly different. I will explain the difference between the light list for the opaque pass and the transparent pass in financial the following sections. Before light culling can occur, we need to compute the culling frustums that will be used to cull the lights into the screen space tiles. Since the culling frustums are expressed in coming view space, they only need to be recomputed if the dimension of the grid changes (for example, if the mathematics intermediate, screen is resized) or the size of a tile changes.
I will explain the in mississippi, basis of how the essay about, frustum planes for a tile are defined. The screen is divided into a number of square tiles. I will refer to coming, all of the screen tiles as the light grid . We need to specify a size for mathematics intermediate papers each tile. The size defines both the vertical and coming of age statement, horizontal size of a single tile. The tile size should not be chosen arbitrarily but it should be chosen so that a each tile can be computed by a single thread group in a DirectX compute shader .
The number of threads in a thread group should be a multiple of dissertation reports 64 (to take advantage of dual warp schedulers available on in mississippi thesis statement modern GPUs) and cannot exceed 1024 threads per thread group. Likely candidates for the dimensions of the thread group are: 8?8 (64 threads per thread group) 16?16 (256 threads per thread group) 32?32 (1024 threads per thread group) For now, let#8217;s assume that the thread group has a dimension of 16?16 threads. In this case, each tile for our light grid has a dimension of 16?16 screen pixels. 16?16 Thread Groups. The image above shows a partial grid of 16?16 thread groups. Each thread group is divided by statement on yoga the thick black lines and of age thesis, the threads within a thread group are divided by the thin black lines. A tile used for light culling is also divided in the same way. If we were to view the tiles at an oblique angle, we can visualize the culling frustum that we need to compute.
The above image shows that the camera#8217;s position (eye) is the origin of the frustum and the corner points of the tile denote the frustum corners. With this information, we can compute the planes of the tile frustum. A view frustum is composed of essay influence of media six planes, but to perform the light culling we want to pre-compute the four side planes for statement the frustum. The computation of the near and essay of media, far frustum planes will be deferred until the light culling phase. To compute the left, right, top, and bottom frustum planes we will use the following algorithm: Compute the four corner points of the thesis statement, current tile in screen space. Transform the screen space corner points to the far clipping plane in view space. Build the frustum planes from the eye position and statement for the great essay, two other corner points. Store the computed frustum in a RWStructuredBuffer . A plane can be computed if we know three points that lie on the plane . If we number the corner points of a tile, as shown in coming of age in mississippi thesis statement the above image, we can compute the frustum planes using the speech hearing, eye position and in mississippi statement, two other corner points in view space. For example, we can use the following points to compute the frustum planes assuming a counter-clockwise winding order:
Counter-Clockwise Winding Order. If we know three non-collinear points that lie in the plane (as shown in the above image), we can compute the normal to hearing, the plane : If is normalized then a given point that lies on the plane can be used to compute the signed distance from the origin to coming of age in mississippi, the plane: This is referred to analysis, as the coming thesis statement, constant-normal form of the plane  and can also be expressed as. Influence? Where and given that is in mississippi a point that lies in speech the plane. In the HLSL shader, we can define a plane as a unit normal and the distance to the origin . Given three non-collinear counter-clockwise points that lie in of age the plane, we can compute the plane using the thesis for the great, ComputePlane function in HLSL. And a frustum is defined as a structure of four planes. To precompute the grid frustums we need to invoke a compute shader kernel for each tile in the grid. For example, if the screen resolution is 1280?720 and the light grid is partitioned into 16?16 tiles, we need to compute 80?45 (3,600) frustums. If a thread group contains 16?16 (256) threads we need to dispatch 5?2.8125 thread groups to coming of age thesis statement, compute all of the frustums. Mathematics? Of course we can#8217;t dispatch partial thread groups so we need to round up to the nearest whole number when dispatching the compute shader.
In this case, we will dispatch 5?3 (15) thread groups each with 16?16 (256) threads and in the compute shader we must make sure that we simply ignore threads that are out of the screen bounds. The above image shows the thread groups that will be invoked to thesis, generate the tile frustums assuming a 16?16 thread group. Thesis On Yoga? The thick black lines denote the thread group boundary and of age in mississippi statement, the thin black lines represent the threads in a thread group. The blue threads represent threads that will be used to compute a tile frustum and the red threads should simply skip the frustum tile computations because they extend past the size of the screen. We can use the following formula to determine the dimension of the dispatch: Where is the total number of threads that will be dispatched, is the screen width in pixels, is the screen height in pixels, is the size of the thread group (in our example, this is essay influence 16) and in mississippi thesis, is the number of thread groups to execute. Speech Language Hearing? With this information we can dispatch the compute shader that will be used to precompute the grid frustums. By default, the size of a thread group for the compute shader will be 16?16 threads but the application can define a different block size during shader compilation. And we#8217;ll define a common structure to store the common compute shader input variables. Of Age Statement? See  for a list of the system value semantics that are available as inputs to essay influence of media, a compute shader.
In addition to coming in mississippi statement, the system values that are provided by HLSL, we also need to know the total number of threads and yale dissertation reports, the total number of thread groups in the current dispatch. Unfortunately HLSL does not provide system value semantics for of age in mississippi these properties. We will store the required values in a constant buffer called DispatchParams . The value of the numThreads variable can be used to ensure that a thread in the dispatch is not used if it is out of bounds of the screen as described earlier. To store the result of the computed grid frustums, we also need to create a structured buffer that is large enough to store one frustum per tile. This buffer will be bound to the out_Frustrum RWStructuredBuffer variable using a uniform access view. In the compute shader, the first thing we need to do is determine the screen space points of the language, corners of the coming in mississippi statement, tile frustum using the current thread#8217;s global ID in the dispatch. To convert the global thread ID to the screen space position, we simply multiply by the size of a tile in the light grid. Speech Hearing? The z-component of the screen space position is -1 because I am using a right-handed coordinate system which has the camera looking in the -z axis in view space. Statement? If you are using a left-handed coordinate system, you should use 1 for mathematics intermediate the z-component.
This gives us the screen space positions of the of age in mississippi thesis, tile corners at the far clipping plane. Next we need to convert the screen space positions into view space using the ScreenToView function that was described in the section about the deferred rendering pixel shader. Using the view space positions of the tile corners, we can build the frustum planes. And finally we need to thesis statement on yoga, write the frustum to global memory. We must be careful that we don#8217;t access an array element that are out of bounds of the allocated frustum buffer. Now that we have the precomputed grid frustums, we can use them in the light culling compute shader. Of Age Thesis? In the next step of the literature financial, Forward+ rendering technique is to cull the lights using the grid frustums that were computed in the previous section. The computation of the of age thesis, grid frustums only needs to be done once at the beginning of the application or if the essay influence of media, screen dimensions or the size of the tiles change but the light culling phase must occur every frame that the camera moves or the of age in mississippi thesis, position of speech language hearing a light moves or an object in in mississippi thesis the scene changes that affects the contents of the depth buffer.
Any one of these events could occur so it is generally safe to perform light culling each and every frame. The basic algorithm for performing light culling is as follows: Compute the min and max depth values in view space for the tile Cull the lights and record the lights into a light index list Copy the light index list into global memory. The first step of the algorithm is to compute the papers, minimum and of age in mississippi, maximum depth values per tile of the thesis statement essay, light grid. The minimum and maximum depth values will be used to compute the near and far planes for our culling frustum. Min and coming of age in mississippi thesis statement, Max Depth per Tile (Opaqe) The image above shows an example scene. The blue objects represent opaque objects in the scene. The yellow objects represent light sources and the shaded gray areas represent the tile frustums that are computed from the minimum and maximum depth values per mathematics intermediate 2 past papers, tile. Statement? The green lines represent the tile boundaries for the light grid. Yale Readers Reports? The tiles are numbered 1-7 from top to bottom and coming of age in mississippi statement, the opaque objects are numbered 1-5 and the lights are numbered 1-4. The first tile has a maximum depth value of 1 (in projected clip space) because there are some pixels that are not covered by opaque geometry. Thesis Statement Great Gatsby Essay? In this case, the culling frustum is of age in mississippi statement very large and may contain lights that don#8217;t affect the geometry.
For example, light 1 is contained within tile 1 but light 1 does not affect any geometry. At geometry boundaries, the clipping frustum could potentially be very large and influence of media, may contain lights that don#8217;t effect any geometry. The minimum and maximum depth values in tile 2 are the same because object 2 is directly facing the camera and coming of age thesis, fills the entire tile. This won#8217;t be a problem as we will see later when we perform the yale dissertation reports, actual clipping of the light volume. Object 3 fully occludes light 3 and thus will not be considered when shading any fragments. The above image depicts the minimum and maximum depth values per tile for opaque geometry. For transparent geometry, we can only thesis statement, clip light volumes that are behind the maximum depth planes, but we must consider all lights that are in front of all opaque geometry.
The reason for this is that when performing the depth pre-pass step to generate the depth texture which is used to determine the minimum and maximum depths per tile, we cannot render transparent geometry into the depth buffer. If we did, then we would not correctly light opaque geometry that is behind transparent geometry. The solution to this problem is described in an article titled #8220;Tiled Forward Shading#8221; by yale dissertation reports Markus Billeter, Ola Olsson, and Ulf Assarsson . Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? In the light culling compute shader, two light lists will be generated. The first light list contains only the lights that are affecting opaque geometry. The second light list contains only the yale dissertation readers reports, lights that could affect transparent geometry. When performing final shading on opaque geometry then I will send the first list and coming of age thesis, when rendering transparent geometry, I will send the essay about, second list to the fragment shader. Depth Bounds for Opaque and Transparent Geometry. Before I discuss the light culling compute shader, I will discuss the method that is used to build the light lists in the compute shader. The data structure that is used to store the per-tile light lists is described in the paper titled #8220;Tiled Shading#8221; from Ola Olsson and Ulf Assarsson . Ola and Ulf describe a data structure in two parts.
The first part is the light grid which is a 2D grid that stores an offset and a count of values stored in a light index list . This technique is of age thesis similar to that of an index buffer which refers to the indices of vertices in an vertex buffer. Light List Data Structure. The size of the light grid is based on thesis statement gatsby essay the number of screen tiles that are used for light culling. The size of the light index list is based the expected average number of overlapping lights per tile. For example, for of age thesis a screen resolution of 1280?720 and a tile size of thesis statement great gatsby 16?16 results in a 80?45 (3,600) light grid. Assuming an coming thesis statement, average of 200 lights per tile, this would require a light index list of 720,000 indices. Each light index cost 4 bytes (for a 32-bit unsigned integer) so the light list would consume 2.88 MB of GPU memory.
Since we need a separate list for transparent and hearing, opaque geometry, this would consume a total of 5.76 MB. Although 200 lights may be an of age in mississippi thesis, overestimation of the average number of overlapping lights per tile, the about, storage usage is not outrageous. To generate the light grid and the light index list, a group-shared light index list is first generated in the compute shader. A global light index list counter is used to keep track of the current index into the global light index list. The global light index counter is atomically incremented so that no two thread groups can use the same range in the global light index list. Once the thread group has #8220;reserved#8221; space in the global light index list, the group-shared light index list is copied to the global light index list. The following pseudo code demonstrates this technique. On the first three lines, the index of the current tile in the grid is defined as t . The local light index list is defined as i and the tile frustum that is coming of age used to perform light culling for the current tile is defined as f . Lines 4, 5, and 6 loop through the global light list and cull the lights against the current tile#8217;s culling frustum. If the light is inside the frustum, the light index is added to the local light index list. On line 7 the for the great gatsby, current index in the global light index list is incremented by the number of lights that are contained in the local light index list.
The original value of the coming of age in mississippi thesis, global light index list counter before being incremented is stored in the local counter variable c . On line 8, the light grid G is updated with the current tile#8217;s offset and readers, count into in mississippi thesis, the global light index list. And finally, on line 9 the local light index list is copied to the global light index list. The light grid and the global light index list is then used in on yoga the fragment shader to perform final shading. To perform frustum culling on coming of age in mississippi thesis statement the light volumes, two frustum culling methods will be presented: The culling algorithm for yale spheres is fairly straightforward. The culling algorithm for cones is slightly more complicated. Coming In Mississippi Thesis Statement? First I will describe the of media, frustum-sphere algorithm and then I will describe the cone-culling algorithm. We have already seen the of age thesis, definition of the culling frustum in the previous section titled Compute Grid Frustums.
A sphere is defined as a center point in view space, and a radius. A sphere is considered to be #8220;inside#8221; a plane if it is fully contained in the negative half-space of the plane. If a sphere is completly #8220;inside#8221; any of the frustum planes then it is outside of the frustum. We can use the readers reports, following formula to determine the signed distance of a sphere from in mississippi thesis statement, a plane : Where is the signed distance from the about influence of media, sphere to coming of age in mississippi thesis, the plane, is the center point of the sphere, is the unit normal to the plane, and is the distance from the dissertation, plane to the origin. If is less than where is the radius of the sphere, then we know that the of age in mississippi thesis statement, sphere is fully contained in the negative half-space of the plane. Then we can iteratively apply SphereInsidePlane function to determine if the language hearing, sphere is contained inside the culling frustum. Since the sphere is described in of age view space, we can quickly determine if the light should be culled based on its z-position and the distance to the near and far clipping planes. If the sphere is either fully in mathematics papers front of the near clipping plane, or fully behind the coming in mississippi thesis, far clipping plane, then the light can be discarded.
Otherwise we have to check if the light is within the bounds of the culling frustum. The SphereInsideFrustum assumes a right-handed coordinate system with the camera looking towards the negative z axis. In this case, the far plane is approaching negative infinity so we have to check if the sphere is further away (less than in the negative direction). For a left-handed coordinate system, the zNear and zFar variables should be swapped on line 268. To perform frustum-cone culling, I will use the technique described by Christer Ericson in his book titled Real-Time Collision Detection . A cone can be defined by its tip , a normalized direction vector , the height of the cone and statement great, the radius of the in mississippi statement, base . 2 Past? T is the of age in mississippi thesis, tip of the cone, d is the mathematics intermediate papers, direction, h is the height and of age thesis, r is the radius of the base of the cone. In HLSL the cone is defined as. To test if a cone is completely contained in the negative half-space of essay about influence a plane, only two points need to be tested. The tip of the cone The point that is on the base of the cone that is farthest away from the plane in the direction of. Coming Thesis? If both of these points are contained in the negative half-space of any of the frustum planes, then the language, cone can be culled.
To determine the point that is farthest away from the of age, plane in the direction of we will compute an intermediate vector which is parallel but opposite to and perpendicular to essay of media, . is obtained by stepping from the tip along the cone axis at a distance and of age in mississippi thesis, then along the mathematics intermediate papers, base of the cone away from the positive half-space of the plane at a factor of . If is zero, then the cone axis is parallel to of age, the plane normal and will be a zero vector. This special case does not need to be handled specifically because in this case the equation reduces to: Which results in the correct point that needs to be tested. Dissertation Readers Reports? With points and computed, we can test both points if they are in the negative half-space of the plane. Coming? If they are, we can conclude that the light can be culled. To test to see if a point is in the negative half-space of the speech, plane, we can use the following equation: Where is the signed distance from the point to the plane and is the point to be tested. Coming In Mississippi? If is negative, then the point is contained in the negative half-space of the plane.
In HLSL, the function PointInsidePlane is used to test if a point is inside the thesis gatsby, negative half-space of coming of age thesis a plane. And the ConeInsidePlane function is used to test if a cone is fully contained in the negative half-space of intermediate a plane. The ConeInsideFrustum function is used to test if the cone is in mississippi thesis contained within the clipping frustum. This function will return true if the cone is inside the frustum or false if it is fully contained in the negative half-space of any of the clipping planes. First we check if the cone is clipped by the near or far clipping planes. Otherwise we have to check the four planes of the culling frustum. If the cone is in the negative half-space of any of the clipping planes, the function will return false. Now we can put this together to define the yale dissertation, light culling compute shader.
The purpose of the light culling compute shader is to update the global light index list and the light grid that is required by the fragment shader. Two lists need to be updated per frame: Light index list for opaque geometry Light index list for transparent geometry. To differentiate between the two lists in the HLSL compute shader, I will use the prefix o_ to refer to the opaque lists and t_ to refer to transparent lists. Both lists will be updated in the light culling compute shader. First we will declare the coming thesis statement, resources that are required by the light culling compute shader. Thesis Statement Great Gatsby Essay? In order to read the depth values that are generated the depth pre-pass, the resulting depth texture will need to be sent to the light culling compute shader. The DepthTextureVS texture contains the result of the depth pre-pass. The in_Frustums is the structured buffer that was computed in the compute frustums compute shader and was described in the section titled Grid Frustums Compute Shader.
We also need to keep track of the index into the global light index lists. The o_LightIndexCounter is the current index of the global light index list for opaque geometry and the t_LightIndexCounter is the current index of the global light index list for transparent geometry. Although the light index counters are of type RWStructuredBuffer these buffers only contain a single unsigned integer at index 0. The light index lists are stored as a 1D array of unsigned integers but the light grids are stored as 2D textures where each texel is a 2-component unsigned integer vector. The light grid texture is created using the R32G32_UINT format. To store the min and max depth values per coming thesis, tile, we need to declare some group-shared variables to about influence, store the minimum and maximum depth values. The atomic increment functions will be used to make sure that only one thread in of age thesis statement a thread group can change the mathematics 2 past, min/max depth values but unfortunately, shader model 5.0 does not provide atomic functions for floating point values. To circumvent this limitation, the depth values will be stored as unsigned integers in group-shared memory which will be atomically compared and updated per thread. Since the frustum used to perform culling will be the same frustum for all threads in a group, it makes sense to keep only one copy of the frustum for all threads in a group. Only thread 0 in coming statement the group will need to copy the speech language hearing, frustum from the global memory buffer and we also reduce the coming statement, amount of local register memory required per thread.
We also need to declare group-shared variables to create the temporary light lists. We will need a seperate list for opaque and transparent geometry. The LightCount will keep track of the number of lights that are intersecting the current tile frustum. The LightIndexStartOffset is the offset into the global light index list. This index will be written to the light grid and is used as the starting offset when copying the local light index list to thesis statement gatsby, global light index list. The local light index list will allow us to coming of age thesis, store as many as 1024 lights in a single tile. This maximum value will almost never be reached (at least it shouldn't be!). Keep in mind that when we allocated storage for the global light list, we accounted for intermediate 2 past papers an average of 200 lights per tile.
It is of age thesis statement possible that there are some tiles that contain more than 200 lights (as long as it is not more than 1024) and some tiles that contain less than 200 lights but we expect the average to be about 200 lights per tile. As previously mentioned, the estimate of an average of 200 lights per tile is probably an overestimation but since GPU memory is not a limiting constraint for yale dissertation this project, I can afford to be liberal with my estimations. To update the local light counter and the light list, I will define a helper function called AppendLight . Unfortunately I have not yet figured out how to in mississippi, pass group-shared variables as arguments to a function so for now I will define two versions of the same function. One version of the function is used to update the light index list for opaque geometry and the other version is for transparent geometry. The InterlockedAdd function guarantees that the thesis statement great gatsby essay, group-shared light count variable is only updated by a single thread at a time. This way we avoid any race conditions that may occur when multiple threads try to increment the of age in mississippi, group-shared light count at essay about influence of media, the same time. The value of the of age statement, light count before it is incremented is stored in the index local variable and used to update the light index in the group-shared light index list. The method to statement for the gatsby, compute the minimum and maximum depth range per of age in mississippi thesis, tile is about of media taken from the presentation titled DirectX 11 Rendering in Battlefield 3 by coming in mississippi statement Johan Andersson in 2011 . Thesis Statement? Other components of the light culling compute shader were inspired in coming of age in mississippi thesis statement part by the articles titled Forward+: A Step Toward Film-Style Shading in Real Time by Takahiro Harada  and Tiled Shading by Ola Olsson and Ulf Assarsson .
The first thing we will do in the light culling compute shader is read the depth value for the current thread. Each thread in the thread group will sample the depth buffer only once for the current thread and thus all threads in a group will sample all depth values for intermediate papers a single tile. Since we can only coming statement, perform atomic operations on integers, on essay of media line 100 we reinterrpret the bits from the floating-point depth as an unsigned integer. Since we expect all depth values in the depth map to be stored in the range [0. Coming In Mississippi Thesis Statement? 1] (that is, all positive depth values) then reinturrpreting the float to an int will still allow us to correctly perform comparissons on literature review analysis these values.
As long as we don't try to preform any arithmetic operations on the unsigned integer depth values, we should get the correct minimum and maximum values. Of Age Thesis Statement? Since we are setting group-shared variables, only yale reports, one thread in the group needs to set them. In fact the HLSL compiler will generate a race-condition error if we don't restrict the writing of these variables to a single thread in statement the group. To make sure that every thread in the group has reached the same point in the compute shader, we invoke the mathematics intermediate 2 past, GroupMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync function. Coming Of Age Thesis Statement? This ensures that any writes to thesis, group shared memory have completed and the thread execution for all threads in a group have reached this point. Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? Next, we'll determine the minimum and maximum depth values for the current tile. The InterlockedMin and InterlockedMax methods are used to atomically update the uMinDepth and speech hearing, uMaxDepth group-shared variables based on coming of age statement the current threads depth value.
We again need to essay about influence of media, use the GroupMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync function to ensure all writes to group shared memory have been comitted and all threads in the group have reached this point in the compute shader. After the minimum and coming of age thesis, maximum depth values for yale reports the current tile have been found, we can reinterrpret the unsigned integer back to a float so that we can use it to compute the view space clipping planes for the current tile. On line 118 the minimum and maximum depth values as unsigned integers need to be reinterpret as floating point values so that they can be used to compute the correct points in view space. The view space depth values are computed using the ScreenToView function and extracting the z component of the position in view space. We only need these values to compute the near and far clipping planes in view space so we only need to know the distance from the viewer. When culling lights for transparent geometry, we don't want to use the minimum depth value from the depth map.
Instead we will clip the lights using the camera's near clipping plane. Thesis Statement? In this case, we will use the nearClipVS value which is the distance to the camera's near clipping plane in view space. Since I'm using a right-handed coordinate system with the camera pointing towards the negative z axis in view space, the minimum depth clipping plane is computed with a normal pointing in statement for the the direction of the negative z axis and the distance to of age in mississippi statement, the origin is -minDepth . We can verify that this is correct by using the constant-normal form of papers a plane: By substituting , and we get: Which implies that is a point on the minimum depth clipping plane. If every thread in the thread group checks one light in the global light list at the same time, then we can check 16x16 (256) lights per iteration of the for-loop defined on line 132. The loop starts with and is incremented for each iteration of the loop. This implies that for , each thread in coming of age statement the thread group will check every 256 th light until all lights have been checked. For 10,000 lights, the for thesis statement gatsby loop only needs 40 iterations (per thread) to check all lights for a tile. First we'll check point lights using the SphereInsideFrustum function that was defined earlier. Coming Of Age? On line 142 a sphere is statement defined using the position and range of the light. Thesis Statement? First we check if the light is within the thesis statement, tile frustum using the near clipping plane of the camera and the maximum depth read from the of age statement, depth buffer. If the literature review financial analysis, light volume is in this range, it is added to the light index list for transparent geometry.
To check if the light should be added to the global light index list for opaque geometry, we only coming of age in mississippi, need to check the minimum depth clipping plane that was previously defined on line 128. If the light is review within the culling frustum for transparent geometry and in front of the minimum depth clipping plane, the index of the light is added to the light index list for opaque geometry. Next, we'll check spot lights. Checking cones is almost identical to checking spheres so I won't go into any detail here. The radius of the base of the spotlight cone is coming in mississippi thesis not stored with the light so it needs to essay influence, be calculated for the ConeInsideFrustum function. To compute the radius of the base of the cone, we can use the tangent of the spotlight angle multiplied by of age in mississippi thesis the height of the cone. And finally we need to check directional lights.
This is by far the intermediate 2 past papers, easiest part of this function. Of Age In Mississippi Thesis? There is no way to reliably cull directional lights so if we encounter a directional light, we have no choice but to add it's index to the light index list. To ensure that all threads in the thread group have recorded their lights to the group-shared light index list, we will invoke the GroupMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync function to synchronize all threads in essay influence the group. After we have added all non-culled lights to the group-shared light index lists we need to of age in mississippi thesis statement, copy it to the global light index list. First, we'll update the intermediate papers, global light index list counter. We will once again use the InterlockedAdd function to increment the coming of age in mississippi, global light index list counter by the number of lights that were appended to the group-shared light index list. On lines 194 and 198 the light grid is literature financial updated with the offset and light count of the global light index list. To avoid race conditions, only the first thread in the thread group will be used to update the global memory. Of Age Thesis? On line 201, all threads in about the thread group must be synced again before we can update the global light index list.
To update the opaque and transparent global light index lists, we will allow all threads to of age in mississippi, write a single index into speech language hearing, the light index list using a similar method that was used to iterate the light list on lines 132-183 shown previously. At this point both the light grid and the global light index list contain the necessary data to be used by the pixel shader to coming in mississippi statement, perform final shading. The last part of the on yoga, Forward+ rendering technique is final shading. This method is no different from the standard forward rendering technique that was discussed in statement the section titled Forward Rendering - Pixel Shader except that instead of looping through the entire global light list, we use the light index list that was generated in the light culling phase. In addition to the properties that were described in the section about standard forward rendering, the Forward+ pixel shader also needs to take the light index list and the light grid that was generated in 2 past papers the light culling phase. When rendering opaque geometry, you must take care to bind the light index list and light grid for opaque geometry and when rendering transparent geometry, the coming of age in mississippi thesis, light index list and light grid for transparent geometry. Of course this seems obvious but the only differentiating factor for the final shading pixel shader is the light index list and light grid that is bound to the pixel shader stage. Most of the code for this pixel shader is identical to that of the forward rendering pixel shader so it is omitted here for brevity.
The primary concept here is thesis statement for the great essay shown on line 298 where the tile index into the light grid is coming in mississippi thesis computed from the screen space position. Using the tile index, the start offset and light count is read from the light grid on lines 301 and 302. In the for-loop defined on line 306 loops over the light count and reads the light's index from the light index list and essay, uses that index to retrieve the light from the global light list. Forward+ with 10,000 lights. Now let's see how the performance of the coming thesis, various methods compare. Experiment Setup and Performance Results. To measure the performance of the various rendering techniques, I used the Crytek Sponza scene  on readers reports an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680 GPU at a screen resolution of 1280x720 . The camera was placed close to the world origin and the lights were animated to coming statement, rotate in a circle around the world origin.
I tested each rendering technique using two scenarios: Large lights with a range of 35-40 units Small lights with a range of thesis statement on yoga 1-2 units. Having a few (2-3) large lights in in mississippi the scene is a realistic scenario (for example key light, fill light, and back light ). These lights may be shadow casters that set the mood and create the ambient for the scene. Having many (more than 5) large lights that fill the analysis, screen is of age statement not necessarily a realistic scenario but I wanted to see how the various techniques scaled when using large, screen-filling lights. Having many small lights is a more realistic scenario that might be commonly used in games. Many small lights can be used to simulate area lights or bounced lighting effects similar to the effects of global illumination algorithms that are usually only simulated using light maps or light probes as described in the section titled Forward Rendering. Thesis For The Essay? Although the demo supports directional lights I did not test the performance of of age thesis rendering using directional lights. Directional lights are large screen filling lights that are similar to mathematics 2 past, lights having a range of 35-40 units (the first scenario). Of Age Statement? In both scenarios lights were randomly placed throughout the scene within the boundaries of the scene.
The sponza scene was scaled down so that its bounds were approximately 30 units in hearing the X and Z axes and 15 units in the Y axis. Each graph displays a set of curves that represent the various phases of the rendering technique. The horizontal axis of the curve represents the in mississippi statement, number of lights in the scene and the vertical axis represents the running time measured in statement on yoga milliseconds. Each graph also displays a minimum and coming, maximum threshold. Thesis Statement Great Essay? The minimum threshold is coming of age in mississippi displayed as a green horizontal line in essay about influence of media the graph and represents the ideal frame-rate of 60 Frames-Per Second ( FPS ) or 16.6 ms. The maximum threshold is displayed as a red horizontal line in the graph and of age in mississippi thesis, represents the lowest acceptable frame-rate of 30 FPS or 33.3 ms. Let us first analyze the performance of the forward rendering technique using large lights. The graph below shows the language, performance results of the forward rendering technique using large lights. Forward Rendering (Light Range: 35-40 Units)
The graph displays the two primary phases of the forward rendering technique. The purple curve shows the opaque pass and the dark red curve shows the transparent pass. Coming Of Age In Mississippi? The orange line shows the total time to render the scene. As can be seen by this graph, rendering opaque geometry takes the intermediate, most amount of time and increases exponentially as the coming of age in mississippi statement, number of lights increases. The time to render transparent geometry also increases exponentially but there is statement gatsby much less transparent geometry in the scene than opaque geometry so the of age in mississippi statement, increase seems more gradual. Even with very large lights, standard forward rendering is intermediate able to render 64 dynamic lights while still maintaining frame-rates below the maximum threshold of 30 FPS. With more than 512 lights, the frame time becomes immeasurably high. From this we can conclude that if the coming thesis, scene contains more than 64 large visible lights, you may want to consider using a different rendering technique than forward rendering. Forward rendering performs better when the scene contains many small lights.
In this case, the rendering technique can handle twice as many lights while still maintaining acceptable performance. After more than 1024 lights, the frame time was so high, it was no longer worth measuring. Forward Rendering (Light Range: 1-2 Units) We see again that the most amount of time is spent rendering opaque geometry which is not surprising. The trends for both large and small lights are similar but when using small lights, we can create twice as many lights while achieving acceptable frame-rates. Next I'll analyze the performance of the deferred rendering technique. The same experiment was repeated but this time using the deferred rendering technique.
Let's first analyze the performance of using large screen-filling lights. The graph below shows the mathematics intermediate papers, performance results of coming of age statement deferred rendering using large lights. Deferred Rending (Large Lights) Rendering large lights using deferred rendering proved to be only marginally better than forward rendering. Since rendering transparent geometry uses the speech hearing, exact same code paths as the forward rendering technique, the performance of of age in mississippi statement rendering transparent geometry using forward versus deferred rendering are virtually identical. As expected, there is no performance benefit when rendering transparent geometry. The marginal performance benefit of rendering opaque geometry using deferred rendering is primarily due to the reduced number of redundant lighting computations that forward rendering performs on thesis occluded geometry. Redundant lighting computations that are performed when using forward rendering can be mitigated by using a depth pre-pass which would allow for early z-testing to reject fragments before performing expensive lighting calculations. Deferred rendering implicitly benefits from early z-testing and stencil operations that are not performed during forward rendering. Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? The graph below shows the intermediate 2 past, performance results of deferred rendering using small lights. Deferred Rending (Small Lights) The graph shows that deferred rendering is capable of in mississippi thesis statement rendering 512 small dynamic lights while still maintaining acceptable frame rates.
In this case the time to render transparent geometry greatly exceeds that of rendering opaque geometry. If rendering only opaque objects, then the deferred rendering technique is capable of rendering 2048 lights while maintaining frame-rates below the minimum acceptable threshold of 60 FPS. Rendering transparent geometry greatly exceeds the thesis statement, maximum threshold after about 700 lights. The same experiment was repeated once again using tiled forward rendering. First we will analyze at the performance characteristics using large lights. The graph below shows the performance results of tiled forward rendering using large scene lights. Forward Plus (Large Lights) The graph shows that tiled forward rendering is not well suited for of age in mississippi thesis statement rendering scenes with many large lights. Rendering 512 screen filling lights in the scene caused issues because the demo only accounts for having an average of 200 lights per tile. Dissertation Reports? With 512 large lights the 200 light average was exceeded and many tiles simply appeared black. Thesis Statement? Using large lights, the light culling phase never exceeded 1 ms but the opaque pass and the transparent pass quickly exceeded the maximum frame-rate threshold of 30 FPS.
The graph shows the performance of tiled forward rendering using small lights. Forward Plus (Small Lights) Forward plus really shines when using many small lights. In this case we see that the light culling phase (orange line) is the primary bottleneck of the rendering technique. Even with over 16,000 lights, rendering opaque (blue line) and transparent (purple line) geometry fall below the minimum threshold to achieve a desired frame-rate of of media 60 FPS. The majority of the frame time is consumed by the light culling phase. Now lets see how the three techniques compare against each other. Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis? First we'll look at how the three techniques compare when using large lights. The graph below shows the performance of the three rendering techniques when using large lights. Rendering Techniques (Large Lights) As expected, forward rendering is the most expensive rendering algorithm when rendering large lights.
Deferred rendering and tiled forward rendering are comparable in performance. Of Media? Even if we disregard rendering transparent geometry in the scene, deferred rendering and tiled forward rendering have similar performance characteristics. If we consider scenes with only in mississippi, a few large lights there is still no discernible performance benefits between forward, deferred, or forward plus rendering. If we consider the memory footprint required to perform forward rendering versus deferred rendering versus tiled forward rendering then traditional forward rendering has the smallest memory usage. Yale? Regardless of the thesis, number of lights in the scene, deferred rendering requires about four bytes of GPU memory per pixel per speech language, additional G-buffer render target.
Tiled forward rendering requires additional GPU storage for the light index list and of age statement, the light grid which must be stored even when the scene contains only a few dynamic lights. Deferred Rendering (Diffuse, Specular, Normal @ 1280x720): +11 MB Tiled Forward Rendering (Light Index List, Light Grid @ 1280x720): +5.76 MB. The additional storage requirements for literature review financial deferred rendering is based on an additional three full-screen buffers at 32-bits (4 bytes) per pixel. The depth/stencil buffer and the light accumulation buffers are not considered as additional storage because standard forward rendering uses these buffers as well. The additional storage requirements for coming of age thesis tiled forward rendering is based on two light index lists that have enough storage for an average of essay about of media 200 lights per tile and coming thesis statement, two 80x45 light grids that store 2-component unsigned integer per grid cell. If GPU storage is a rare commodity for the target platform and there is no need for many lights in the scene, traditional forward rendering is still the best choice. The graph below shows the performance of the three rendering techniques when using small lights. Rendering Techniques (Small Lights)
In the case of small lights, tiled forward rendering clearly comes out as the winner in terms of rendering times. Up until somewhere around 128 lights, deferred and tiled forward rendering are comparable in statement for the gatsby performance but quickly diverge when the scene contains many dynamic lights. Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis? Also we must consider the fact that a large portion of the deferred rendering technique is consumed by rendering transparent objects. If transparent objects are not a requirement, then deferred rendering may be a viable option. Even with small lights, deferred rendering requires many more draw calls to render the geometry of the light volumes. Using deferred rendering, each light volume must be rendered at least twice, the first draw call updates the stencil buffer and the second draw call performs the lighting equations. If the graphics platform is very sensitive to mathematics intermediate 2 past papers, excessive draw calls, then deferred rendering may not be the best choice. Coming Of Age Statement? Similar to the scenario with large lights, when rendering only thesis statement for the great, a few lights in the scene then all three techniques have similar performance characteristics.
In this case, we must consider the additional memory requirements that are imposed by deferred and tiled forward rendering. Again, if GPU memory is of age scarce and there is no need for yale many dynamic lights in coming in mississippi thesis statement the scene then standard forward rendering may be a viable solution. Financial? While working on this project I have identified several issues that would benefit from consideration in the future. General Issues: Size of the light structure Forward Rendering: Depth pre-pass View frustum culling of visible lights Deferred Rendering: Optimize G-buffers Rendering of directional lights Tiled Forward Rendering Improve light culling. For each of the coming of age statement, rendering techniques used in this demo there is only a single global light list which stores directional, point, and spotlights in essay influence a single data structure. In order to store all of the coming in mississippi, properties necessary to perform correct lighting, each individual light structure requires 160 bytes of GPU memory. If we only store the absolute minimum amount of information needed to describe a light source we could take advantage of improved caching of the light data and potentially improve rendering performance across all rendering techniques. This may require having additional data structures to on yoga, store only the relevant information that is needed by in mississippi either the compute or the fragment shader or creating separate lists for directional, spot, and point lights so that no redundant information that is not relevant to the light source is stored in the data structure.
This implementation of the forward rendering technique makes no attempt to optimize the forward rendering pipeline. Culling lights against the view frustum would be a reasonable method to improve the rendering performance of the forward renderer. Performing a depth pre-pass as the first step of the forward rendering technique would allow us to take advantage of early z-testing to eliminate redundant lighting calculations. When creating the implementation for speech language the deferred rendering technique, I did not spend much time evaluating the performance of deferred rendering dependent on the format of the coming of age in mississippi thesis, G-buffer textures used. The layout of the G-buffer was chosen for yale dissertation readers simplicity and ease of use. For example, the G-buffer texture to store view space normals uses a 4-component 32-bit floating-point buffer. Storing this render target as a 2-component 16-bit fixed-point buffer would not only reduce the buffer size by 75%, it would also improve texture caching. The only coming of age in mississippi thesis, change that would need to be made to speech hearing, the shader is the method used to pack and unpack the coming thesis, normal data in the buffer. To pack the normal into the G-buffer, we would only yale dissertation readers reports, need to cast the normalized 32-bit floating-point x and y values of the normal into 16-bit floating point values and store them in the render target. Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? To unpack the normals in the lighting pass, we could read the 16-bit components from the buffer and compute the z-component of the normal by applying the following formula: This would result in the z-component of the normal always being positive in the range . This is usually not a problem since the normals are always stored in view-space and if the normal's z-component is negative, then it would be back-facing and back-facing polygons should be culled anyways.
Another potential area of improvement for the deferred renderer is the handling of directional lights. Currently the yale dissertation, implementation renders directional lights as full-screen quads in the lighting pass. This may not be the best approach as even a few directional lights will cause severe overdraw and could become a problem on fill-rate bound hardware. In Mississippi Statement? To mitigate this issue, we could move the lighting computations for thesis directional lights into the G-buffer pass and accumulate the lighting contributions from directional lights into the light accumulation buffer similar to how ambient and emissive terms are being applied. Coming Thesis Statement? This technique could be further improved by performing a depth-prepass before the G-buffer pass to allow for early z-testing to hearing, remove redundant lighting calculations. One of the advantages of using deferred rendering is that shadow maps can be recycled because only coming of age in mississippi statement, a single light is being rendered in the lighting pass at dissertation reports, a time so only one shadow map needs to be allocated. Moving the of age in mississippi, lighting calculations for intermediate 2 past directional lights to the G-buffer pass would require that any shadow maps used by the directional lights need to be available before the of age, G-buffer pass. This is only a problem if there are a lot of shadow casting directional lights in the scene. If using a lot of shadow-casting directional lights, this method of performing lighting computations of directional lights in the G-buffer pass may not be feasible.
As can be seen from the experiment results, the light culling stage takes a considerable amount of time to perform. If the performance of the light culling phase could be improved then we could gain an overall performance improvement of the tiled forward rendering technique. Mathematics Papers? Perhaps we could perform an early culling step that eliminates lights that are not in the viewing frustum. This would require creating another compute shader that performs view frustum culling against all lights in the scene but instead of culling all lights against 3,600 frustums, only the view frustum needs to be checked. This way, each thread in the dispatch would only of age thesis, need to check a very small subset of the lights against the view frustum. After culling the mathematics intermediate papers, lights against the larger view frustum, the per-tile light culling compute shader would only have to check the lights that are contained in the view frustum. Another improvement to the light culling phase may be achievable using sparse octrees to store a light list at each node of the octree. A node is thesis statement split if the nodes exceeds some maximum threshold for light counts.
Nodes that don't contain any lights in the octree can be removed from the octree and would not need to be considered during final rendering. DirectX 12 introduces Volume Tiled Resources  which could be used to implement the sparse octree. Thesis? Nodes in the octree that don't have any lights would not need any backing memory. In Mississippi Thesis? I'm not exactly sure how this would be implemented but it may be worth investigating. Another area of improvement for the tiled forward rendering technique would be to improve the accuracy of the light culling. Frustum culling could result in a light being considered to literature financial, be contained within a tile when in fact no part of the light volume is contained in the tile. Tile Frustum Culling (Point Light) As can be seen in the above image, a point light is highlighted with a red circle. The blue tiles in the image show which tiles detect that the circle is contained within the frustum of the tile. Of course the tiles inside the of age in mississippi thesis statement, red circle should detect the point light but the tiles at the corners are false positives.
This happens because the sphere cannot be totally rejected by any plane of the tile's frustum. If we zoom-in to the top-left tile (highlighted green in the video above) we can inspect the top, left, bottom, and right frustum planes of the statement, tile. Of Age? If you play the video you will see that the sphere is partially contained in all four of the tile's frustum planes and thus the light cannot be culled. In a GDC 2015 presentation by Gareth Thomas  he presents several methods to improve the accuracy of tile-based compute rendering. He suggests using parallel reduction instead of atomic min/max functions in the light culling compute shader. Mathematics Intermediate Papers? His performance analyses shows that he was able to achieve an 11 - 14 percent performance increase by using parallel reduction instead of atomic min/max. In order to improve the accuracy of the light culling, Gareth suggests using an axis-aligned bounding box (AABB) to approximate the tile frustum.
Using AABB's to approximate the size of the tile frustum proves to be a successful method for in mississippi thesis reducing the number of false positives without incurring an expensive intersection test. To perform the sphere-AABB intersection test, Gareth suggests using a very simple algorithm described by James Arvo in the first edition of the Graphics Gems series . Another issue with tile-based light culling using the min/max depth bounds occurs in tiles with large depth discontinuities, for example when foreground geometry only partially overlaps a tile. Mathematics 2 Past Papers? The blue and green tiles contain very few lights. In this case the of age in mississippi statement, minimum and maximum depth values are in yale readers reports close proximity. The red tiles indicate that the tile contains many lights due to a large depth disparity. In Gareth Thomas's presentation  he suggests splitting the frustum in two halves and computing minimum and maximum depth values for each half of the split frustum. This implies that the light culling algorithm must perform twice as much work per tile but his performance analysis shows that total frame time is reduced by about 10 - 12 percent using this technique. Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? A more interesting performance optimization is a method called Clustered Shading presented by Ola Olsson, Markus Billeter, and Ulf Assarsson in their paper titled Clustered Deferred and about influence of media, Forward Shading .
Their method groups view samples with similar properties (3D position and normals) into clusters. Lights in the scene are assigned to clusters and the per-cluster light lists are used in final shading. In their paper, they claim to be able to handle one million light sources while maintaining real-time frame-rates. Other space partitioning algorithms may also prove to be successful at improving the performance of tile-based compute shaders. For example the use of Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) trees to split lights into the leaves of a binary tree. When performing final shading, only the lights in the leaf nodes of the BSP where the coming of age, fragment exists needs to be considered for mathematics intermediate 2 past lighting. Another possible data structure that could be used to reduce redundant lighting calculations is of age statement a sparse voxel octree as described by Cyril Crassin and Simon Green in thesis statement OpenGL insights . Instead of using the coming in mississippi statement, octree to store material information, the data structure is used to intermediate, store the in mississippi, light index lists of lights contained in each node.
During final shading, the light index lists are queried from the octree depending on the 3D position of the fragment. In this article I described the implementation of three rendering techniques: Forward Rendering Deferred Rendering Tiled Forward (Forward+) Rendering. I have shown that traditional forward rendering is about well suited for in mississippi statement scenarios which require support for multiple shading models and semi-transparent objects. Forward rendering is essay about influence also well suited for scenes that have only in mississippi thesis, a few dynamic lights. The analysis shows that scenes that contain less than 100 dynamic scene lights still performs reasonably well on commercial hardware. Forward rendering also has a low memory footprint when multiple shadow maps are not required.
When GPU memory is hearing scarce and of age statement, support for many dynamic lights is not a requirement (for example on mobile or embedded devices) traditional forward rendering may be the best choice. Literature Analysis? Deferred rendering is best suited for scenarios that don't have a requirement for of age statement multiple shading models or semi-transparent objects but do have a requirement of many dynamic scene lights. Speech Language Hearing? Deferred rendering is well suited for of age in mississippi many shadow casting lights because a single shadow map can be shared between successive lights in the lighting pass. Deferred rendering is not well suited for devices with limited GPU memory. Speech Hearing? Amongst the three rendering techniques, deferred rendering has the largest memory footprint requiring an additional 4 bytes per pixel per thesis statement, G-buffer texture ( 3.7 MB per language, texture at a screen resolution of 1280x720). Tiled forward rendering has a small initial overhead required to dispatch the of age in mississippi thesis, light culling compute shader but the performance of tiled forward rendering with many dynamic lights quickly supasses the performance of both forward and deferred rendering.
Tiled forward rendering requires a small amount of additional memory. Approximately 5.7 MB of 2 past papers additional storage is required to store the coming in mississippi, light index list and light grid using 16x16 tiles at a screen resolution of literature review 1280x720. Tiled forward rendering requires that the target platform has support for compute shaders. It is possible to coming of age in mississippi, perform the light culling on the CPU and pass the light index list and light grid to the pixel shader in the case that compute shaders are not available but the performance trad-off might negate the benefit of review analysis performing light culling in the first place. Tiled forward shading supports both multi-material and semi-transparent materials natively (using two light index lists) and both opaque and semi-transparent materials can benefit from the performance gains offered by tiled forward shading. Although tiled forward shading may seem like the of age in mississippi statement, answer to life, the universe and intermediate 2 past papers, everything (actually, 42 is), there are improvements that can be made to this technique. Clustered deferred rendering  should be able to perform even better at the expense of of age statement additional memory requirements. Perhaps the memory requirements of clustered deferred rendering could be mitigated by the use of sparse volume textures  but that has yet to be seen. The source code (including pre-built executables) can be download using the yale readers, link below.
The zip file is almost 1GB in size and contains all of the of age in mississippi, pre-built 3rd party libraries and the Crytek Sponza scene   T. Saito and T. Takahashi, 'Comprehensible rendering of 3-D shapes', ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 197-206, 1990.  T. Harada, J. Yale Readers Reports? McKee and J. Yang, 'Forward+: Bringing Deferred Lighting to the Next Level', Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 0, no. 0, pp.
1-4, 2012.  T. Harada, J. Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? McKee and J. Yang, 'Forward+: A Step Toward Film-Style Shading in statement for the great gatsby Real Time', in coming thesis statement GPU Pro 4, 1st ed., W. Engel, Ed. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 2013, pp. 115-135.  M. Billeter, O. Olsson and U. Assarsson, 'Tiled Forward Shading', in GPU Pro 4, 1st ed., W. Engel, Ed. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 2013, pp. 99-114. Statement On Yoga?  O. Olsson and U. Assarsson, 'Tiled Shading', Journal of Graphics, GPU, and in mississippi thesis, Game Tools, vol. 15, no. Speech Hearing? 4, pp. 235-251, 2011.  Unity Technologies, 'Unity - Manual: Light Probes', Docs.unity3d.com, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://docs.unity3d.com/Manual/LightProbes.html. [Accessed: 04- Aug- 2015].  Assimp.sourceforge.net, 'Open Asset Import Library', 2015. [Online].
Available: http://assimp.sourceforge.net/. [Accessed: 10- Aug- 2015].  Graphics.cs.williams.edu, 'Computer Graphics Data - Meshes', 2015. [Online]. Available: http://graphics.cs.williams.edu/data/meshes.xml. [Accessed: 12- Aug- 2015].  M. Coming Of Age? van der Leeuw, 'Deferred Rendering in Killzone 2', SCE Graphics Seminar, Palo Alto, California, 2007.  Msdn.microsoft.com, 'Compute Shader Overview (Windows)', 2015. [Online]. Language? Available: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ff476331(v=vs.85).aspx. [Accessed: 04- Sep- 2015]. Coming Of Age Thesis?  C. Ericson, Real-time collision detection. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005.  J. Andersson, 'DirectX 11 Rendering in Battlefield 3', 2011.  G. Literature? Thomas, 'Advancements in Tiled-Based Compute Rendering', San Francisco, California, USA, 2015.  J. Arvo, 'A Simple Method for Box-Sphere Intersection Testing', in Graphics Gems, 1st ed., A. Glassner, Ed.
Academic Press, 1990.  O. Olsson, M. In Mississippi Statement? Billeter and U. Assarsson, 'Clustered Deferred and Forward Shading', High Performance Graphics, 2012. Influence?  C. Coming Statement? Crassin and S. Green, 'Octree-Based Sparse Voxelization Using the GPU Hardware Rasterizer', in OpenGL Insights, 1st ed., P. Cozzi and C. Riccio, Ed. Speech? CRC Press, 2012, p. Chapter 22.  Mediacollege.com, 'Three Point Lighting', 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.mediacollege.com/lighting/three-point/. [Accessed: 02- Oct- 2015]. 15 thoughts on “ Forward vs Deferred vs Forward+ Rendering with DirectX 11 ” Thanks Peter. I worked a long time on this article. hi i have read the article. there is a question about clip space z coordinate for coming in mississippi thesis this code. screenSpace = float4( IN.dispatchThreadID.xy * BLOCK_SIZE, -1.0f, 1.0f ); // Top right point. screenSpace = float4( float2( IN.dispatchThreadID.x + 1, IN.dispatchThreadID.y ) * BLOCK_SIZE, -1.0f, 1.0f ); #8230;.. to construct frustum(far plane) then call ScreenToView function. the near plane mapped to -1 , far plan mapped to 1, i confused with it. The -1 is the z-coordinate in #8220;clip-space#8221; (or normalized device coordinate space) that will be converted to the #8220;far clip plane#8221; in view space. Influence Of Media? Since I#8217;m working with a right-handed coordinate system, the resulting far plane in view space is in the -Z axis.
Is it possible to get a printer friendly (like PDF) version of this so I can read it better? Hi, how does this forward plus technique compares to forward plus sample code from amd sdk ? The forward+ technique from AMD is identical to this technique. There are some variations that were explored by coming thesis statement Takahiro Harada like 2.5D (A 2.5D Culling for Forward+ (SIGGRAPH ASIA 2012)) that I did not research. But my implementation is similar to thesis great, Harada#8217;s implementation of coming thesis Forward+ (which is also similar to the implementation of Ola Olsson and Ulf Assarsson Tiled Shading (2011). This is an amazing piece of work, thank you! There aren#8217;t many (any?) other tutorial-style descriptions of forward+ rendering elsewhere, so this is really valuable. This is an outstanding paper, truly! Given the thesis gatsby, impressive competition put forth by Forward+ (w/ tiles), can you speculate on possible reasons why it has taken a backseat to deferred rendering implementations? Epic article! As a blogger I can understand how much effort you put into coming thesis statement, it.
And I can say this is one of the best works on the subject. You definitely have a talent your explanations are very clear. I know you have another blog where you share dx12 findings (http://3dgep.blogspot.de/) so I#8217;m really waiting for a full article about statement great essay new api :). Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement? Thanks for your feedback. I have been writing short blog posts on Blogger (http://3dgep.blogspot.com) but have been neglecting them lately due to work load but I do plan an adding some new entries soon about using dynamic descriptor heaps (GPU visible heaps that hold descriptors for GPU resources).
Keep an for the great essay, eye out for coming of age thesis new posts! Great work, you#8217;ve really put your heart into writing this article. Thank you! Great work! I would like to know how did you update the group shared variable o_LightIndexStartOffset? I looked into your shader code but I cannot find where it is updated.
It seems like you just use it directly for append the light index into index list. Please correct me if you did set this variable somewhere. Yes, I don#8217;t show the application code but I#8217;m clearing this buffer to yale reports, 0 every frame before using it to of age statement, perform light culling.
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Free Essays on of age thesis Description Of A Night Sky. “More Night than Day; Virginia Woolf’s Love for Mary Datchet” In Virginia Woolf’s “ Night and Day”, we, as the reader, can examine various feminist themes throughout the language, novel. Even though, “ Night and of age thesis, Day” is one of her more conventional novels, many of the thesis, issues fly in the face of coming of age, traditional. A Gap of thesis great gatsby, Sky Anna Hope’s short story “A gap of sky ” is coming of age thesis statement about a young girl named Ellie. She is flowing in between expectations and desires. The story is a portrait of what drugs can do to a person, told through the description of what the city looks like, and Ellie’s own thoughts. Statement Great Gatsby! Without the support. Romeo and Juliet: Night - Rejoice or Rebel? Romeo and Juliet: Night - Rejoice or Rebel? Night can be seen in coming in mississippi two contrasting ways.
The first can be summarized as a time for celebration and love. The second, and most commonly associated with night , is a time of statement for the gatsby essay, darkness and horror. Two shining examples of the different emotions and reactions. ?A. Nemtin, A-339 A BLIZZARD UNDER BLUE SKY Text analysis The story I would speak about is written by Pam Houston. Pam Houston (born January 9, 1962, Trenton, New Jersey) is an American author of stories, novels and essays. Houston's stories have been selected for volumes of Best American Short Stories.
Van Gogh's Starry Night and Salvador Dali's Persistence of Time: Comparison. of Two Visuals Sept. 23, 2012 English 112-95 The focus of this paper is to make a comparison and highlight contrasts between Van Gogh's 'Starry Night ' and Salvador Dali's 'Persistence of time'. While Gogh's theme formed the basis of of age in mississippi thesis statement, expressionism in twentieth century, Dali initially became a leader. Nelson EH101.39 November 19, 2009 “Friday Night Lights” When the novel “Friday Night Lights” is compared to the movie, there are some differences. The novel “Friday Night Lights” is a classic and is a prominent sports novel for language its time. The movie “Friday Night Lights” is a memorable movie for all sports. Writers The Sky is Gray - Literary Criticism At some point in the life of every individual, that person will become a victim of circumstance.
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Starry Night was created at coming, a psychiatric clinic, so Van Gogh has many different thoughts than others. I like his starry night because it is in fact the product of a reflective and idea-driven man who was profoundly interested. as beautifully written and funny. In A Blizzard Under Blue Sky , the exhilaration comes from sharing a winter adventure in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, while the beauty of the writing is thesis statement for the great exemplified by this magical description of snow: [it] stopped being simply white and became translucent. Artist Deconstruction: A Starry Night. Artist Deconstruction: A Starry Night Artist Deconstruction: A Starry Night If there is one thing in this life that cannot be escaped, it is in mississippi thesis statement art. Art takes over our visual and audio senses as well.
Tennyson use Description to intermediate Develop the Story of the thesis, Lady of Shalott? Tennyson uses a great deal of description in this poem to convey the changes that the yale dissertation, protagonist goes through and the emotions she feels. Many different types of description are used, sensory and setting descriptions play a major. works I have chosen to connect this poem too are these two short stories: “Marriage is of age in mississippi thesis statement a Private Affair”, (pp 373-377) and “The Bride Comes to essay influence Yellow Sky ”; (pp482-489) demonstrating the element of “Conflict” in the short stories. My impression of Anne Bradstreet’s poem is that of coming in mississippi thesis statement, a beautiful tribute. ?A Gap of Sky A) Youth. It is a time, a state in life in which a person, who is not a child but still not an adult yet, is forced through many changes, physically as well as mentally. Age and responsibility are growing proportionally as well as the expectations from parents, school, friends and intermediate 2 past papers, more.
How Does Hardy Describe Nature and What Possible Interpretations Could These Descriptions Have? deepest feelings for Bathsheba Everdene. In this essay, I will be discussing how Hardy describes nature and what possible interpretations could these descriptions have. At the start of the chapter, Hardy talked about the time of year, giving the audience an overall background on the setting. Coming Thesis! It was the. ?This passage recounts the unnamed protagonist’s experience of essay, taking a taxi at coming in mississippi, night and as the story progresses and tension steadily rises, conveys the protagonist’s unease and growing fear of the taxi driver. Ultimately, for the reader, this ends with the realization that the yale dissertation reports, paranoia is coming in mississippi thesis mutual and. ?Symbolism of Night as Darkness and Evil Under the shroud of thesis gatsby, darkness and evil during the long nights in the memoir, Night , by Elie Wiesel, Jewish prisoners are in coming of age constant fear of review analysis, what their next day will bring. The Jewish prisoners band together and talk to one another to hold on to those last remnants.
the tiger. The chorus serves as an coming in mississippi thesis statement, introduction to the main message with it. Tyger! Tyger! Burning bright,( 4 syllables) In the forests of the night , (5 syllables) What immortal hand or eye ( 6 syllables) Could frame thy fearful symmetry (8 syllables) When reading the first stanza for the first. and the analysis, other for needing to describe an experience he’s having. The weight of the struggle, and the two personas identities can be witnessed in description leading up to, and the clouds themselves: “barefoot, palms, washed-out creation,” certainly these are words with religious implications; but also. the first day ?in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth' and created light, thus separating the night from the day.
On the second day the sky is created and ?then god made the sky and he separated the waters above from the statement, waters below' The third day God separated land from the waters. Comparison of dissertation readers reports, 6 Children's Books with Reoccurring Themes. poor to coming of age buy a baby blanket. Influence! As her last creation, Sophie spins a glorious cloth of silk and magic, weaving in snippets of fragrant pine, wisps of night , old lullabies, and playful snowflakes. Coming Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement! Too tired to go on, Sophie knits her own heart into thesis on yoga the finished blanket, creating a beautiful, mysterious. associated with modernist literature such as, stream of consciousness, multiple points of view, indecorous content, and a retreat from narrative descriptions of externality replacing this with a focus on emphasizing interiority.
In this essay however, the focus will be on the aspects pertaining to the. bottomless. The only occupants of the Earth was darkness and silence, surrounding the of age thesis statement, water in the beginning of Earth. In Christian myth, the description of the beginning is strikingly similar to that of the Chinese and influence, Babylonian. The reoccurring idea of darkness, shapelessness, and nothingness . April 22, 2014 The Night the Sky Opened Up I remember the night sky opened up as I stepped out of the of age thesis statement, smoke filled room to literature review financial analysis clear my mind and lungs. The whiskey was running deep in my veins that night , blocking out the coming statement, chill of the wind as it blew through the gaps between the buttons on my suit.
Solzhenitsyn’s purpose is to illustrate one thing, which being the ills of these labor camps. Throughout the novel he goes into short, to great essay the point descriptions of the weather, poor food rations, guard behavior, and living conditions in coming of age in mississippi thesis a manner that is not so complimentary towards the camp. “There was. remember it all quite well, the mathematics intermediate papers, summer nights , light breeze in coming in mississippi thesis statement the air, the smell of fresh cut grass. Palm trees rustling, with the crickets singing. Stars! Oh the stars how they shown at night . Crystal clear days, sun out most of the year, with not a cloud in the sky . How I was so lucky to have grown up. PSYC 110 Midterm Exam Purchase here http://devrycourse.com/psyc110midtermexam Product Description Question 1.1. (TCOs 1, 2) Participants in research early in psychology’s history might have been asked to view a chair and describe its color, shape, texture, and other. Descriptions of places and literature, the effects of climate in the Rime of the Ancient Mariner. ?Some readers think the descriptions of places and the effects of climate are the most memorable parts of the poem. What do you think the descriptions of settings and coming of age thesis, weather conditions contribute to the poem?
There can be little doubt that ‘The Rime of the statement great gatsby essay, Ancient Mariner’ is made tremendously. “angel” possibly shows the poet’s positive infatuation with what’s taking place . • “blue surface of thine airy surge” basically a reference to the sky , the use of the word “surge” further builds the chaotic image. • The simile yet again personifies an aspect of nature, using the word “bright”. It was a terrible time through which I was living. The war raged about us. By day the sound of cannon and rifle shots was almost continuous, and the nights were mysteriously filled with sparks and sudden explosions that seemed to come from some unknown depths. I do not remember that tumult quite clearly. “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands” (Psalm 19:1–4). Of Age In Mississippi Thesis Statement! The book Psalms is written by King David, and in hearing this verse he is talking about how the of age statement, heavens proclaim the glory of God, but does it really? Yes, the sky really does proclaim the glory of God; there are.
Starry Night is hearing a beautiful painting, representational in the type of of age thesis statement, art. The size of the painting is 29 in. by 36 ? in., and oil on canvas were the materials used. Van Gogh is using an expressive quality and an emotionalism viewpoint. Statement For The Great Gatsby! On the left side of the in mississippi statement, painting, there is a group of literature review, black lines. Share Price Movement on British Sky Broadcasting. Share Price Movement on British Sky Broadcasting Student ID: 672824 Teacher’s Name: Oksana Dalton Submit date: 25th April Contents Page 1. Introduction 3 2. Background of British Sky Broadcasting 3 3. Description of Share price movement 4 . time frames, and therefore signal the use of the preterite. ayer (yesterday) anteayer (the day before yesterday) anoche (last night ) desde el primer momento (from the first moment) durante dos siglos (for two centuries) el otro dia (the other day) en ese. how it came to coming of age statement the United States, and intermediate, one or two locations in coming in mississippi thesis statement the United States where members of your group live. Be creative in your fictional descriptions , and accurate with your facts. Research the course text, the yale, Internet, or the University Library for information about your chosen group. Of particular.
Night by Elie Wiesel Part I: Literary Terms 1. Foreshadowing: • “ Night . No one Prayed, so that the night would pass Quickly. The stars were only sparks of the fire which devoured us. Should that fire die out one day, there would be nothing left in the sky but dead stars, dead eyes.” (18) -Elie. T.S.Eliots Preludes: a Critical Appreciation. stream of consciousness. Part I is thirteen lines, part II ten, part III fifteen and part IV sixteen. The somewhat abstracted and fragmented description of of age in mississippi statement, Preludes appears frequently in Eliot's poetry, and although it can be hard to review financial analysis discern the purpose of each individual image, they add up to a. ?Vincent Van Gogh’s artwork ‘starry night ’ is a classic example of the post impressionism movement. Post-impressionist were artist who rebelled against the limitations of impressionism. They developed person styles that focus on emotional, structural, symbolic and coming thesis, spiritual elements they felt were missing.
In Calligrapher’s Night , art liberates the main character and provides her with identity. It is in this identity that Rikkat Kunt is anchored and secured; it is her identity as an artist. Thesis Statement Essay! Even though it took a while for her to realize her destiny as a calligrapher, her true identity is based on her art. “Flying At Night ”: A Poets Understanding of Life as it is In a world as large and busy as our own, it is often hard for humanity to coming in mississippi comprehend the many mysteries that are present in our lives. In reality many of these mysteries will remain unanswered until the end of time, however. ?A gap of sky We are free to choose our own destiny. Or are we? Especially as a teenager you search for answers to everything. Nowadays, young people are exposed to an insane amount of mathematics intermediate papers, pressure. The expectations are higher than ever. You have to wear the right clothes, be fit and have lots of friends.
The Night Trilogy Written by in mississippi thesis statement Elie Wiesel, The Night Trilogy is a collection of yale readers, three novels, Night , Dawn, and The Accident. In Night , the author gives somewhat autobiographically account of his experiences in a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. The other novels describe some of the coming thesis, experiences. Komanuyakaa drew upon influence his own experiences in Vietnam, expressing his hardship over a thirty-one lines. However, the poem is also a universal and real description of the pain that comes about for a soldier when remembering the horror of war. Statement! He creates the poem's tone by using flashbacks to the war, thereby.
Singsong Night It was an icy cold winter and a thick blanket of snow. The snow looked like blissful vanilla twilight, reminiscent of those warm, chocolate cupcakes with creamy vanilla frosting that my mother used to make for my brother and I before it happened. By “it”, I mean when my parents decided. Comparing Two Short Stories and One Poem. the story “The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky ,” by Stephen crane. Thesis Statement For The Great Essay! I will discuss how the three compare using characters and how the authors are descriptive in their writings and draw their readers into the stories or poem. Coming Thesis! In the literature review analysis, story “The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky ” and “A Rose for Emily” the authors. talks business with men down the road. Her husband returns from his successful business deal, and they decide to go in town to celebrate later that night . Henry goes off to work, and Elisa returns to her chrysanthemums. She's interrupted by the arrival of a male tinkerer looking for statement work. Elisa and mathematics 2 past, the.
stanza first talks about “eye of heaven” (5) and of age, “gold complexion”. (6) The “eye of heaven” (5) is a symbol for the sun, as it is like an eye in the sky . Therefore, the first two lines of the yale readers, second stanza is about the imperfection of summer for its sometimes too hot because of the sunshine, and sometimes. Stylistic Analysis of the Poem Meeting at Night The Love Song of Hair Dyal Rudyard Kipling Alone upon the housetops to of age thesis statement the North I turn and about influence, watch the thesis statement, lightnings in the sky -- The glamour of thy footsteps in the North. Come back to me, Beloved, or I die. Below my feet the still bazar is laid-- Far, far below the weary camels lie-- The camels. 63] Pestilences extinguished, the world becomes smaller, for a long time the lands will be inhabited peacefully. People will travel safely through the sky , land and seas : then wars will start up again This quatrain is considered to be the quatrain which indicate the start of WW-III. The scenario described. “Show How the Pairing of That Eye, the dissertation, Sky and Eva Luna Gave You an Understanding of How Authors Tim Winton and Isabelle Allende Can Present Similar Ideas in Different Ways.” Tim Winton and coming, Isabel Allende have written stories that are worlds apart, however, the two texts that have been studied, That Eye, The Sky , and mathematics papers, Eva Luna explore the themes of imagination and storytelling, trauma within a family, religion and faith and the endurance of suffering, together. Coming In Mississippi Statement! The discussion.
The Great Gatsby - Objective Correlative. moths among the whisperings and the champagne and thesis, the stars” (p. 43). At Gatsby’s party there are always many people that come and coming of age in mississippi statement, go throughout the night . Everyone there is a relative stranger, Once there they (the guests) were introduced by about influence of media somebody who knew Gatsby and after that they conducted themselves. energy. Coming Thesis Statement! In the third line he praises the speckled colours on a thrushes’ egg. He compares the ‘eggs of a thrush’ to the speckled and cloud patterned sky , a simile.
In the next two lines, he shows his delight at the wonderful sound of the thrushes song in the woods and compares its effect to lightning. There is an irregular rhyme scheme with very few rhymes. There are half rhymes; ‘bubbled’ and ‘doubled,’ and full rhymes; ‘light’ and ‘ night .’ The structure is very irregular. There are 4 stanzas, each with a different number of 2 past, lines and thesis statement, syllables. The first stanza ends with ‘not four’. Book Review: Totalitarian Power in language Elie Wiesel's Night. Night essay In a totalitarian government there is only a few means by which the in mississippi thesis, government retains power. Dissertation! The most important one is of age thesis fear. In extreme conditions, fear can push people to do unimaginable things that normally would never cross their minds. Fear is the ultimate tool for controlling. Famous Paintings: the Starry Night.
The Starry Night is speech language perhaps Van Gogh's most popular painting. He completed the painting in June 1889, while undergoing treatment at the St. Remy de Provence mental asylum, a little over a year before his untimely and tragic suicide at the age of thirty seven. Van Gogh had voluntarily committed himself. ?A “Starry Night ” by Vincent Van Gogh is a mysterious painting in which Gogh paints a picture that has energetic colors and expressive. This painting can be described as shadowy but yet still stimulating. It can signify a variety of moods, objects, and atmosphere.
Van Gogh portrays a small French town.
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SparkNotes: Coming of Age in Mississippi: Themes
KFC says it has been making the in mississippi same mistake for decades €” but now it has a plan to beat Chick-fil-A. One year after KFC brought back Colonel Sanders, business is better than it had been in years. But the chain needs to accomplish one thing if it wants to truly come back: persuade Americans to trust its food. In the birthplace of this brand, KFC hasn't done well in decades, KFC's chief marketing officer, Kevin Hochman, told Business Insider during a visit to the chain's Louisville, Kentucky, headquarters. As the chain exploded internationally, sales stagnated and influence, locations rapidly shuttered in the US. KFC has lost more than 1,200 net restaurants in the US in of age in mississippi, the past 14 years, going from 5,472 locations in 2002 to 4,270 restaurants today. Then there's the issue of KFC's food. The chain has been plagued by rumors of using steroids to produce Frankenchicken, even as KFC fries its chicken fresh at each restaurant. At the thesis same time, business has been booming for its rival Chick-fil-A, which passed KFC as the No.
1 chicken chain in the US by coming sales in 2013 with half as many locations. To turn business around, KFC last year turned to the man who started it all: Colonel Harland Sanders. Speech! The chain is now undergoing a Re-Colonelization, reinventing its menu, remodeling restaurants, and retraining employees across the US. Sales are rising, with growth every quarter since the Colonel's return. Here's why KFC's controversial campaign to thesis bring back its founder's image worked €” and dissertation readers, what the chain still needs to do to coming of age in mississippi statement regain its spot as the top chicken chain in America. As Hochman tells it, KFC began a decades-long decline in literature financial, quality and coming in mississippi thesis, sales when Colonel Sanders died in 1980. The issues started with the brand when he died, Hochman told Business Insider, comparing the essay influence of media post-Sanders-era KFC to Apple after the death of its cofounder Steve Jobs. People think he was just our spokesperson, and thesis statement, some people don't even know he's real.
But, he's really the statement on yoga founder of our values and in mississippi, our recipes. Soon after the death of thesis, Sanders, the chain decided to coming of age thesis statement ditch the yale dissertation readers Colonel and its iconic red-and-white stripes from of age in mississippi marketing. It instead focused on ads featuring young customers, and it introduced a cartoon Colonel in the 1990s €” something executives today see as an reports embarrassing misstep. In 1991 the chain changed its name from Kentucky Fried Chicken to KFC to highlight nonfried products, but the move inspired rumors that the company genetically modified its chicken . Operations broke down internally, as the chain added menu options without considering the coming in mississippi effect the speech language changes would have on employees. Attention to bone-in chicken €” which remains the bulk of KFC's business €” was downplayed in favor of popcorn chicken and other new developments. Tellingly, one of the chain's most memorable recent products is the Double Down, a double-meat, pseudo-sandwich that KFC is now eager to erase from Americans' memories. In the 1990s, KFC bet big on of age in mississippi thesis being hip, running ads starring young customers and chasing trends. The chain even produced an ad featuring a rapping Colonel Sanders. For a while, it worked. Now, as millennial consumers bristle at pandering and authenticity is the catchphrase of the day, it doesn't sell. The consumer bulls--- meter couldn't be higher, Hochman said.
They know when you're being authentic and true. So the chain decided to return to essay influence its roots. In May 2015, KFC released an ad starring comedian Darrell Hammond as Colonel Harland Sanders. It attracted a quick reaction in the US €” not all of it positive. Of Age In Mississippi Thesis! Those who hated the thesis on yoga new campaign quickly emerged as the in mississippi thesis statement loudest voices on social media. So far the papers response has been about 80% positive, 20% hate it, Greg Creed, the CEO of KFC's parent company, Yum Brands, said at a conference a few weeks after the commercial ran. And I am actually quite happy that 20% hate it, because now they at least have an in mississippi thesis statement opinion.
Hochman told Business Insider that KFC knew bringing back a more traditional Sanders was a major risk but thought it necessary. We have to thesis for the essay have a point of coming of age in mississippi statement, view, Hochman said. Literature Review! We've been playing it safe for so many years €” some people will like it, some people won't like it, but at the end of the day if we're growing our business and we get more people into our brand, it's worth it. Jim Gaffigan as Colonel Sanders in an ad released on Super Bowl Sunday. KFC. The campaign required some tweaking. Hochman said many critics thought KFC was mocking the dead in wanting to poke fun at itself. Sometimes jokes got a little too meta and went over some consumers' heads, such as an ad in which a family of four (a longtime go-to for KFC commercials) eats a family meal in the Colonel's limousine. As the campaign has continued, with three comedians playing the Colonel in the past year, critics' voices have died down. One year in, it looks as if the campaign has gone from a controversy to a marketing success. Commercials starring Colonel Sanders have accumulated millions of views on YouTube, with the coming thesis Colonel's reintroduction in the No.
1 spot, reaching more than 7 million views . The British ad-tech company Unruly crowned the chain the language hearing most shared fast-food brand of the year . Perhaps most exciting for the brand, celebrities are increasingly talking about coming of age in mississippi statement KFC €” without the chain paying them to readers do so. Colonel Sanders wasn't a chef until 40. He franchised his first @kfc at 62. Don't ever stop dreaming. https://t.co/TgAFezuGMf. €” Steve Harvey (@IAmSteveHarvey) August 27, 2015. The thing that destroys me, Hochman said, was when people say KFC is disrespecting the Colonel. Hochman said he deeply researched Sanders (KFC has both a museum and an impressive archive) and spoke with as many people who knew Sanders as he could find. Just the opposite €” I'm trying to make him relevant again so that a Steve Harvey will tweet about him unprompted! While commercials have been the Colonel's most noticeable return to KFC, Sanders also dominates the statement company's multimillion-dollar remodeling efforts . More than 50 locations have already been remodeled, and there are plans to intermediate 2 past redesign 70% of the in mississippi thesis chain's US locations, or 3,000 restaurants, in the next three years. A remodeled KFC in Louisville, Kentucky. Kate Taylor.
In brand-new locations, the Colonel is everywhere: plastered on hearing the building's exterior, quoted on walls, and even displayed behind-the-scenes in the kitchen. KFC's chief development officer, Brian Cahoe, says the design and coming of age statement, new ads go hand-in-hand in revamping the brand's image and bringing customers back to KFC. Putting the Colonel front and financial, center seems to be yielding results for the chain. KFC told Business Insider that millennials' belief that the brand was relevant to them grew in the double digits since the new campaign began. KFC recently achieved its seventh consecutive quarter of sales growth at locations open at least a year, or same-store sales. Of Age In Mississippi Statement! In 2015 the papers brand grew system sales, the total sales of in mississippi thesis statement, all franchise and corporate locations, by thesis great gatsby 2% in thesis statement, the US. Simply bringing back the Colonel, however, can't save KFC. The Colonel's distinctive voice may help pierce the din of yale dissertation readers, endless marketing by of age thesis other brands, even for those who hated him. But now KFC needs to get Americans to speech hearing listen to coming of age statement what he is saying. KFC chef Bob Das demonstrating the process of making KFC chicken. Kate Taylor.
In April, KFC announced it was undergoing Re-Colonelization, which it describes as a public recommitment to quality involving national employee retraining and a new satisfaction guarantee. Customers were saying, 'Your food doesn't taste the essay influence same,' Jason Marker, KFC's US president, said in a press event announcing the program. We're not making the food the same way the Colonel had, and coming of age statement, we're not making food in what he described as 'the hard way.' Today marks the end of for the gatsby essay, that. If year one of Colonel Sander's revival at KFC was about rejoining the conversation, part two is making the conversation about thesis statement food. A piece of KFC chicken that a customer found, with a fried lung inside. The Daily Mail. Doing things the hard way €” we think that's our difference in comparison to McDonald's or most QSRs, or quick-service restaurants, said Hochman, who plans to double down on marketing the yale readers reports food story at coming of age in mississippi thesis, KFC.
We aren't serving stuff that's being cooked in a central kitchen, frozen, and then reheated. We're really making food. KFC chicken is not organic or antibiotic-free, but it is prepared by hand in thesis statement, every restaurant, never frozen (except in special circumstances, such as transport to Hawaii and coming in mississippi statement, Alaska), and made without artificial hormones or steroids. Despite this, the chain has been plagued with rumors about mutant chickens and general skepticism regarding food quality. That's where €” yet again €” the Colonel comes in. Internally at KFC, Colonel Sanders represents high-quality chicken and doing things the thesis for the essay hard way. The Colonel launched a Re-Colonelization program of his own at KFC in coming in mississippi, the 1970s, when he was disgusted by the brand's departure from his recipes.
KFC lore says that he would travel to restaurants around the US, testing gravy with a golden spoon. Literature! If he didn't like it, he would dump that gravy on the floor of the restaurant. If you aren't a KFC history buff, the Colonel-quality link is less clear. Re-Colonelization tries to make the connection, using the catchphrase Colonel Quality Guaranteed. Coming In Mississippi Thesis Statement! New ads further the thesis statement on yoga effort, with commercials with lyrics like the hard way is the way. KFC also launched a blog called Chicken Chattin', written under the Colonel Sanders name, with posts like The Great KFC Mutant Chicken Myth and KFC Colonel Sanders Pledge. Still, while the Colonel Sanders campaign may have grabbed customers' attention, getting Americans to believe a promise by coming of age statement a comedian dressed as Colonel Sanders that KFC sells genuine, real food might be more difficult.
I think it's going to take time, Hochman said. You can't just pivot from Double Downs to 'We make fried chicken in readers, the back of the house' overnight. Nashville hot chicken. Kate Taylor. New menu items far from the Double Down are also realigning KFC for thesis a food-focused future. The chain launched Nashville hot chicken, based on an iconic Nashville, Tennessee, dish, in January.
While some were skeptical of the product, sales were strong. Nashville, a city originally highly unimpressed by KFC's take on the spicy dish , ended up being one of the top markets of the chicken's sales, according to KFC. Still, the changes aren't enough. Re-Colonelization, with its employee retraining and attempts at improving customer service, needs to extend into KFC kitchens across the US for the chain to take on its biggest fried-chicken competitor. Chick-fil-A recently debuted a valet service in an effort to better serve busy parents. Influence! YouTube/The Texting Yoga Pants. While buckets of Original Recipe chicken can be prepared perfectly in KFC's test kitchen, ensuring that chicken is made the hard way at every KFC location is a much more difficult task. Unlike reheating frozen food (like McNuggets) or preparing food (like a Subway sandwich) in front of customers, there's a much wider margin for error when cooking is of age thesis statement put in the hands of employees.
Operations, quite frankly, has been broken for a long time, Hochman said. KFC's difficulties in maintaining quality are complicated by language hearing its biggest fried-chicken competitor. Chick-fil-A has some of the coming in mississippi thesis statement highest ratings for taste and customer service in the business €” a fact analysts say allows its locations to make triple the revenue of KFC restaurants. Chick-fil-A's dominance on a restaurant-by-restaurant basis can be traced in part to the chain's peculiar business model. The company accepts just 0.4% of franchisees, making it one of the most selective chains in essay influence of media, the industry.
Operators do not own or receive any equity in their business and can open only one location. The kitchen of coming of age in mississippi thesis, a remodeled KFC location. Kate Taylor. I don't necessarily subscribe to their religious beliefs, or their beliefs about the thesis statement world, but I think they find owners that are religious bent [who] tend to statement be more conservative, Hochman said. They can make sure that procedures get followed. I think that's a competitive advantage for speech hearing them. I don't know if it's an of age thesis statement advantage I would want, but it's certainly working for them from a business standpoint. Today, Chick-fil-A is pushing a more apolitical, inclusive message than it has in the past. F ranchisees are still encouraged, however, to statement on yoga become entrenched in their communities, including involvement in local churches €” a strategy that has helped build up the chain's loyal fan base over the years. It's difficult to pin down what sets Chick-fil-A employees apart (their pay is roughly equivalent to other chains' employees), though the company attributes its success to investing in training employees. With only one location per franchisee and a strongly cultivated company culture, that training may come more easily than at chains like KFC.
In essence, Chick-fil-A has developed a reputation for customer-service excellence. KFC has developed the opposite, with even the company acknowledging that customers no longer trust restaurants to delivery quality food, sparking Re-Colonelization. Another detail in the remodeled kitchen. Kate Taylor. KFC's operations problems need to be fixed for the chain to stay competitive with Chick-fil-A. As with everything today at of age in mississippi thesis, KFC, the on yoga company's game plan comes back to the Colonel. While Re-Colonelization at first seems like a consumer-focused quality pledge, it has far greater impact behind-the-scenes at coming of age in mississippi, KFC. Last year, pressure fryers across the country were recalibrated. The chain spent more than 100,000 worker-hours retraining more than 20,000 employees. KFC held 43 rallies across the US, attended by more than 97% of restaurant general managers, in addition to national training events at every KFC location in the US. Remodeled locations have blackboards to show customers the literature analysis name of the chef and the origin of the coming of age thesis chicken.
Kate Taylor. Perhaps more interesting are the financial subtle ways KFC is attempting to boost employee performance and customer service. Redesigned locations reportedly experience reduced turnover and encourage more applications; in of age, the kitchen, new signs encourage employees to essay about Make the Colonel proud. Blackboards at remodeled locations tell customers where the chicken comes from and identifies the chef who is cooking the chicken that day. Much of the brand's tech innovations are focused on in mississippi thesis statement employees, not customers, with digital innovations to help employees schedule shifts, restock, and even chart their distance from work to encourage timeliness. We've got an initiative right now where I'm trying to make it easier for our employees, Chris Caldwell, KFC's chief information officer, told Business Insider of the brand's tech developments that excited him most. Financial Analysis! Working in our restaurants isn't the easiest.
You have to coming in mississippi statement freshly prepare food €” you don't have a whole lot of time for administrative tasks. KFC says taste scores have substantially increased across locations in the past year, apparent proof that the about influence of media Re-Colonelization process is working by boosting not only customer interest but satisfaction. I'm not going to tell you, 'Things are fixed! Say anything bad about me! We're Teflon!' Hochman said. We're not.
We're still putting the of age in mississippi thesis statement pieces back together. It's a long road. KFC is still closing more locations than it is opening, though the company believes that will change in mathematics, the near future, with growing sales and more remodeled locations. After the coming of age in mississippi Colonel's success getting Americans' attention in the past year, however, KFC is doubling down on its roots. Speech Language! Now it will be left to employees across the of age US to yale dissertation readers reports make sure that the chain's chicken follows suit. SEE ALSO: KFC is fixing a mistake it has been making for years. NOW WATCH: Here€™s how many calories are in coming of age thesis statement, 6 of the most popular fast-food kids meals. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.
KFC says it has been making the same mistake for about influence of media decades €” but now it has a plan to beat Chick-fil-A. One year after KFC brought back Colonel. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.