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brevity essay Tiny Masters: An Artful Trick to driving essay topic Writing the john essay on canon law, Personal Essay. We’ve gone around the topic, table introducing ourselves, and now comes the awkward moment when I sound a bit like a door-to-door salesman peddling an unfamiliar doohickey that costs too much and nobody really needs anyway. “What is a personal essay?” I’ll begin. Students start shifting uneasily in their seats. Writing For Money. It’s that word, essay. So scholarly, so stiff, so self-important. And personal they’re probably thinking that means “writing about your mother.” I hurry through my notes. “Let’s not talk about what a personal essay is,” I say. “Let’s talk about what it can do.” It opens a window into someone else’s life and sensibility, I’ll explain. Reveals something about the world that we didn’t know. Engages us with a distinctive voice. Essay. Entertains with stories, surprises with imagery and wordplay, dazzles with ideas.
Conveys a deeper meaning. Now I can almost see thought balloons forming over their heads. Meaning? How are they supposed to find meaning? They don’t even know what they’ll write about college essays, yet. I have no idea what they’ll write about. Now we’re all feeling slightly nervous about the whole enterprise. “Fortunately, we’re not actually going to learn to be essayists,” I’ll announce. Drunk Essay Topic. “We’re going to become tiny masters.” That’s when we can relax and start writing. Essay For Money. Because it turns out and this is topic, true 100 percent of the john essay and feudal law, time we’re all tiny masters of drunk essay something . Essays On Environmental. The notion of tiny masters comes from author and New Yorker writer Susan Orlean, who once explained that she’s most interested in writing about people who are masters of their “tiny domains.” (She meant orchid thieves, 10-year-old boys, female bullfighters, Maui surfer girls, and drunk driving, The Shaggs, among others.) Adapting her approach to personal essays can help writers discover a rich subject near at hand something they already know a lot about, something that interests them. It helps shift the focus from named reality, writing exclusively about the self to writing about drunk essay topic, knowledge, ideas and processes.
As writers explore their mastery on the page, they instinctively begin playing with structure and john adams essay on canon law, making connections they never knew existed. Meaning begins emerging naturally from their drafts, pointing the driving essay, way to future revisions. This is how it works: * Make a list of essays on environmental health 10 things of which you’re a master. Include talents, skills, hobbies, qualities of character. Topic. I've created many lists over the years, and they surprise me every time: Making enchilada sauce. Building fires. Finding beach glass. Crossing rivers. College. Writing thank you notes. Collecting maps.
Procrastinating. Teaching tricks to my dog. * Choose a mastery that appeals and free-write about it. Describe how to do it, when you learned it, what you accomplish, where you do it whatever comes to mind. * Now write about a person connected with this mastery. Maybe it’s the person who taught you how to drunk driving do it, someone you’ve done it for, or someone who discouraged you from what be avoided writing a personal essay, doing it. Include details that capture the person’s personality or mannerisms. * Next, write about a particular scene or event that involves your mastery and/or your person. Look for opportunities to add dialogue and setting. By this point, writers usually have created a rough but promising first draft, even if it’s still in pieces. They’ve chosen something that’s important to them without worrying about whether it’s important enough. Stories, recollections, incidents and ideas start coalescing around their subject. Drunk Essay. Interrogating the draft reveals other connections and possibilities: Why this topic? What don’t I know?
What information or background would enlarge the story? Why do I even like doing this? What is this about? What is this about really ? The answer to that last question helps reveal meaning not meaning that’s imposed artificially, but meaning that surfaces as the story unfolds. Sarah realizes that she’s not really writing about making pies. She’s writing about breaking rules. Scott isn’t explaining how to make perfect navy bean soup; he’s explaining how to make a family. Writing. Heidi’s true subject isn’t fixing boat engines it’s her desire to please her father. Drunk Driving Essay. Kellen is not just describing his pleasure in playing the john and feudal, drums at high school; he’s reconciling himself to drunk essay loving something he’ll never be great at doing.
Once I’ve tricked students into drafting a personal essay, we can focus on the finer points of online studies tightening sentences, incorporating reflection, and drunk driving essay, crafting strong openings and closings. Does the structure they instinctively chose suit the subject? We’ll investigate alternatives. Online Studies. We’ll read examples from writers exploring their own miniature domains. We’ll figure out how to layer meaning by strengthening images and honing language. By the time students are immersed in heavy revision, there will be no need to drunk driving essay point out the obvious: They’re all becoming tiny masters of the personal essay.
Sherry Simpson’s newest collection of essays, The Accidental Explorer: Wayfinding in Alaska , was published in March 2008 by Sasquatch Books. She teaches creative nonfiction at the University of Alaska Anchorage and in the Rainier Writing Workshop in writing competitions for money Tacoma, Washington.
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Gospel Topics Essay: Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham. Note: The Mormon Church began publishing essays on essay topic a variety of historical and doctrinal issues. To see an overview of the articles, you can go here: Gospel Topic Essays: Fixing History? In this review of an article titled “Translation and streetcar desire Historicity of the Book of Abraham: A Gospel Topics Essay,” the entire article will be cited (all underlined), with my comments throughout. Here is the 5-part Viewpoint on Mormonism series broadcast during the week of December 1, 2014: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints embraces the book of Abraham as scripture. Before we go any further, I must comment on the word embraces . How can the Mormon Church leaders “embrace” the Book of Abraham?
After all, this book in the LDS canon is perhaps the biggest reason church members leave Mormonism. There is plenty of evidence to show the Book of Abraham is fraudulent, a false bill of sales, an invitation to join a Ponzi scheme, and so much worse. If the church “embraces” this book, then we must wonder why so very little has been said about it at General Conferences held since the 1970s. Rather, I believe this part of LDS scripture is an embarrassment to the church, so don’t be fooled by this statement. As far as the reference to the “ book” of Abraham, I’m not sure why the drunk essay topic, small letter “b” is used. The “Book” of Mormon is always capitalized. And although many sources on lds.org don’t capitalize the word “book,” others do. (For example, see here.) It is also capitalized in the explanatory note preceding the book in the LDS canon (“ A Translation of some ancient Records that have fallen into our hands from the catacombs of Egypt. The writings of Abraham while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus.”) The media traditionally capitalize it (i.e. see here and here). Even LDS apologists capitalize it. No explanation is given for making it lowercased, but in this article, I will retain the online studies, traditional capitalized “Book” of drunk essay Abraham and leave the underlined portions intact. This book, a record of the biblical prophet and online studies patriarch Abraham, recounts how Abraham sought the blessings of the priesthood, rejected the idolatry of his father, covenanted with Jehovah, married Sarai, moved to Canaan and Egypt, and received knowledge about the Creation.
The book of Abraham largely follows the biblical narrative but adds important information regarding Abraham’s life and driving topic teachings. This isn’t the first time where a church publication lifted the Book of Abraham to a lofty position. John Adams Law. A church manual boasts: The book of drunk driving essay Abraham is an evidence of the inspired calling of the Prophet Joseph Smith. It came forth at a time when the study of the ancient Egyptian language and culture was just beginning.
The scholars of the on environmental, 1800s had scarcely begun to explore the field of Egyptology, and yet, with no formal training in ancient languages and no knowledge of ancient Egypt (except his work with the Book of Mormon), Joseph Smith began his translation of the ancient manuscripts. His knowledge and ability came through the power and drunk driving topic gift of God, together with his own determination and faith. ( Pearl of john adams on canon and feudal law Great Price Student Manual Religion 327 , 2000, p. Drunk Driving Topic. 29). Another one states: In 1967 eleven fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri were rediscovered by Doctor Aziz S. Atiya, in the New York Metropolitan Museum of politics Art. Studies of them have confirmed that they are mainly ancient Egyptian funerary texts of the sort commonly buried with royalty and nobility and designed to guide them through their eternal journeyings. Driving Topic. This has renewed the question about the connection between the records and the book of Abraham. Joseph Smith did not explain the method of translating the book of Abraham, just as he did not explain fully how the essays on environmental health, Book of Mormon was translated. Drunk. Nevertheless, like the competitions, Book of Mormon, the book of Abraham is drunk driving essay topic its own evidence that it came about through the gift and online studies power of God ( Church History in the Fulness of Times: Religion 341-43 , p. 258). According to these manuals, Smith was inspired. Even though these are mainly Egyptian funerary texts and not writings from the patriarch Abraham, the reader is supposed to believe that “the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of God.”
So what do we do with the Book of Abraham? There are only two possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did receive authentic papyri that contained the writings of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really never had papyri with writings of Abraham. For the sake of argument, let’s assume the first possibility is essay correct and Smith did receive authentic papyri filled with the words of Abraham. Essay Writing Competitions For Money. If this is the case, then we still have two more possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did know how to translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics and put them into English, which we have today and found in the Book of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really did not know how to translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics. If Joseph Smith never had papyri with writings of drunk topic Abraham, we are left with three possibilities. Competitions. Joseph Smith was.
As the Gospel Topics essay explains, the Mormon Church continues to “embrace the book of Abraham as scripture.” In other words, a person must have faith that this book is authentic (#1 in the first scenario) and translatable by the hand of driving Joseph Smith (#1 in essays, the second scenario). If the drunk driving essay topic, second possibility in essay writing competitions, either scenario is correct, then the Book of Abraham is not what it is touted to be by LDS Church leaders. The book of Abraham was first published in 1842 and was canonized as part of the Pearl of Great Price in driving, 1880. The book originated with Egyptian papyri that Joseph Smith translated beginning in 1835. Many people saw the papyri, but no eyewitness account of the translation survives, making it impossible to reconstruct the process. Only small fragments of the long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smith’s possession exist today. Should Be Avoided When Essay. The relationship between those fragments and the text we have today is largely a matter of conjecture. Let’s provide a little background.
In July 1835 Joseph Smith met a traveling showman by the name of Michael H. Chandler who was displaying four Egyptian mummies in Kirtland, Ohio. Along with the mummies, Chandler possessed two rolls of papyri that contained a number of hieroglyphics, which he sold to the Mormons for $2,400. Drunk. The next day, Smith proclaimed that the manuscripts were actually written by none other than two Old Testament patriarchs: I commenced the translation of some of the characters or hieroglyphics, and much to our joy found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings of Joseph of Egypt, etc. Writing Competitions. ( History of the Church, 2:235–36.) To stumble on such an incredible find was, in itself, an amazing stroke of what Mormons would view as divine providence. Imagine for a moment what a discovery this would be if, in fact, Smith had really come across the writings of Abraham and Joseph.
They would be priceless, predating the Book of Genesis by driving, about five hundred years. If, as some LDS leaders believed, the Book of Abraham was actually written by the patriarch himself, they would be the only autograph manuscripts of biblical personalities currently available. For example, President Wilford Woodruff said, The Lord is Blessing Joseph with Power to what should be avoided writing a personal essay for college, reveal mysteries of the kingdom of God; to translate through the driving, urim and Thummim Ancient records Hyeroglyphics as old as Abraham or Adam. Writing A Personal Essay For College. . . Drunk. . Joseph the Seer has presented us some of the streetcar named desire reality, Book of Abraham which was written by his own hand but hid from the knowledged of man for the last four thousand years. . . . (Susan Staker, ed., Waiting for World’s End: The Diaries of Wilford Woodruff (Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books, 1993), 50-51. Ellipsis and spelling in original. For more information on this topic, see here.)
Of the two papyri, Smith chose to focus on the one he claimed was written by the patriarch Abraham, who, according to the text, supposedly held the essay topic, priesthood well before it was even formulated by streetcar essays reality, God in the days of the Levites. Drunk. In 1842 the Mormon periodical Times and Seasons printed everything that Smith was able to translate until that time. These were the 1 March, 15 March, and 16 May 1842 issues of the Times and essays politics Seasons. Circumstances would prohibit him from “translating” the rest of the Book of Abraham papyrus or the other papyrus that he called the Book of Joseph. Essay Topic. In 1851 Smith’s uncompleted translation was published as a part of the Pearl of should when essay Great Price . This was canonized in 1880, thus elevating the Book of Abraham to the level of topic LDS scripture. One of the major doctrines emanating from the Book of Abraham is the “curse of Cain.” Abraham 1:21-26 states, Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the on environmental, loins of Ham, and was a partaker of the blood of the Canaanites by birth. From this descent sprang all the Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land. The land of Egypt being first discovered by a woman, who was the daughter of Ham, and the daughter of drunk essay Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden; When this woman discovered the land it was under water, who afterward settled her sons in it; and thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the politics, curse in the land. Drunk Topic. Now the first government of Egypt was established by Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus, the daughter of Ham, and college essays it was after the manner of the government of drunk topic Ham, which was patriarchal.
Pharaoh, being a righteous man, established his kingdom and judged his people wisely and justly all his days, seeking earnestly to imitate that order established by the fathers in the first generations, in the days of the essays politics, first patriarchal reign, even in the reign of Adam, and also of Noah, his father, who blessed him with the blessings of the earth, and with the essay, blessings of wisdom, but cursed him as pertaining to the Priesthood. Smith used this passage in 1836 to claim that those with African heritage had inherited this “curse,” the what should writing a personal, impetus for topic, the later ban of streetcar named desire Blacks from the topic, LDS priesthood. Writing Competitions For Money. It wasn’t until 1978 when this stringent ban was lifted. Today, however, no changes have been made to drunk driving topic, this portion of LDS scripture and the entire book remains in the standard works canon. In 1966, eleven pieces of Smith’s original papyri were discovered in the Metropolitan Museum in New York, which were later turned over to the LDS Church. This discovery would be a major blow to the idea that the Book of Abraham should be considered authentic scripture from the patriarch. Thus, the online studies, Gospel Topics essay says that ““only small fragments of the long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smith’s possession exist today” and that there is a large segment of the scroll now missing. Drunk Driving Essay. Such an streetcar reality, assertion is essay topic simply not true.
Egyptologists have said that, if anything is missing, it is a minute fraction. When Smith’s “translation” of the Egyptian hieroglyphics is considered, we can see that he had no clue as to what he was doing. For instance, he took one backwards E letter—which, in the Egyptian, was part of a series of letters that mean “pool”—and turned this letter into essay competitions, 73 words (Abraham 1:13-14). In fact, this practice was common throughout his “translation.” Charles Larson states, On some occasions Joseph Smith separated a single Egyptian word to derive characters for his “translation,” while at other times he combined more than one Egyptian word into a single set of essay topic characters. In all cases his translation attributes a far more complex explanation to the Egyptian letters and words of Papyrus Joseph Smith XI than do professional Egyptologists, and Smith ascribes meanings to named desire reality, words which are totally unrelated to drunk, their actual denotation. Thus, Joseph Smith’s “translation” is completely incorrect in both method and content. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 96)
The content of the writing is not even close to what be avoided when essay, what Smith “translates,” a fact offered by drunk topic, David Persuitte: Papyrus No. XI and its associated pieces were actually a version of what is called the writing for money, Egyptian “Book of Breathings,” or a “Breathing Permit.” The papyri upon which it is found are sometimes called “Sen-Sen” papyri because of the Egyptian word for “breathing,” which occurs frequently in the text. The Book of Breathings represents an topic, attempt by the Egyptians to what essay for college application, consolidate those elements of their beliefs that were essential parts of their funeral rites. It was, in short, a sort of talisman that was buried with the dead to assure their well-being in the afterlife. ( Joseph Smith and driving topic the Origins of the Book of Mormon , 292). According to john adams law, Dr.
Robert Ritner from the University of Chicago, the Book of driving Breathings is, for all intents and purposes, intact; there are no substantial missing pieces. He stated, Assuming no reason that this particular Book of Breathings scroll must be expanded much beyond the surviving length, I have now read the entire document from the streetcar, beginning to the end and have made up what one could make out on drunk driving essay the poor copy of the final vignette. The most that is missing from college essays politics, this text is simply two columns of Egyptian hieratic and possibly a small vignette, but other than that there would be nothing more that would inflate its current length other than its current size. It is both unprecedented and unreasonable to assume that an intrusive text about a completely different matter, a narrative history about Abraham and his descendants, would have been inserted into a document whose beginning, middle, and end is devoted specifically to driving, the resurrection of an Egyptian priest. It would disrupt the document and have nothing to do with this content. ( The Lost Book of Abraham , quoted at 40 minutes) I’ll quote Dr. Ritner elsewhere in this paper, as he is an Egyptologist who is most willing to talk about this specific Book of Abraham issue.
As a scholar, he is not very impressed with the scholarship of the Mormon community, and the Gospel Topics essay did not convince him that the Book of Abraham is authentic. In a review of the streetcar desire essays, essay called “A Response to ‘Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham,'” Dr. Drunk Essay Topic. Ritner wrote: The recent web posting on the Book of Abraham by The Church of streetcar essays reality Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints (hereafter the LDS church) represents new reflection on drunk driving essay topic a document whose authenticity as verifiable history is now officially acknowledged to streetcar named, be in serious dispute. Thus the position paper concludes with a concession by noting (unnamed) modern scholarly opposition to the Book of Abraham, followed by a defense against any such scholarly debate: “The veracity and value of the book of drunk driving essay topic Abraham cannot be settled by scholarly debate concerning the book’s translation and historicity.” Rather, the truth of the book is sought in ways that cannot be verified externally, relying exclusively upon john adams on canon and feudal law, traditional faith: “a careful study of its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the drunk essay topic, Spirit.”
Such a declaration may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to accept it, but on closer reading, the LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Not a single opposing scholar is mentioned by name, nor are their reasons for rejecting the Book of Abraham. Yet the LDS paper attempts to engage in scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in essays health, the footnotes the same limited set of apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Provo. The significance of these apologetic publications will be discussed below. If scholarly dispute over translation and historicity is ultimately irrelevant, why bother to devote extended paragraphs to drunk driving, rebuttals of unmentioned objections on “Translation and the Book of Abraham,” “The Papyri,” and essay writing “The Book of drunk driving topic Abraham and the Ancient World”? According to Dr. Ritner, the “works cited” for this paper is not much different from the LDS scholars who have been attempting to defend their scripture over the years. This makes sense because, most likely, these same scholars are the ones who probably wrote the unattributed Gospel Topics essay in the first place! These Mormon scholars have created a number of theories have been proposed over the years to prop up the efficacy of the Book of Abraham. In fact, consider the essays health, “Hidden Meaning” theory, the “Mnemonic Device” theory, the “Any Egyptian Connection” theory, the “Scribes Did It” theory, the “Missing Black and Red Scroll” theory, the “Mistaken Identity” theory, the “Catalyst” Theory, and the “Nobody Really Understands Egyptian Anyway” theory. Some of these “theories” are as far-fetched as Bigfoot eating the Loch Ness Monster.
Not one of these theories has been able to hold up when the evidence is considered. (See chapter 11 (“The Intellectual Approaches”) in By His Own Hand Upon Papyru s by Charles Larson for explanations of each theory.) Instead of focusing on drunk driving topic missing pieces of the online studies, Book of Abraham (for which there is drunk driving little evidence), perhaps LDS scholars and apologists should be dealing with the problems caused by what we is available. Absolutely nothing that we have today provides any support for Smith’s LDS scripture. We do know some things about the translation process. Essays Politics. The word translation typically assumes an expert knowledge of multiple languages. Joseph Smith claimed no expertise in any language. Drunk Driving Topic. He readily acknowledged that he was one of the “weak things of the world,” called to speak words sent “from heaven.” Speaking of the translation of the essays on environmental health, Book of Mormon, the Lord said, “You cannot write that which is sacred save it be given you from me.” The same principle can be applied to the book of Abraham. The Lord did not require Joseph Smith to driving essay, have knowledge of Egyptian. By the gift and power of God, Joseph received knowledge about the life and teachings of Abraham. The LDS article explains how “Smith claimed no expertise in any language,” including Egyptian. By making this admission, the argument maintains that Smith must have been given divine revelation to make his Book of Abraham translation. After all, he had previously done this a few years before with the “reformed Egyptian” text of the named essays, Book of Mormon, which he claimed he did “by the gift and drunk essay power of God.” And voila, here are the same words being used in this essay to streetcar named desire essays, show how his divine inspiration (rather than his understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphics) allowing him to make his translation of the Book of Abraham.
Is this a coincidence? Hardly. Comparing the Book of Mormon to the Book of Abraham, Christian author H. Michael Marquardt states: Only part of the original 1829 manuscript of the Book of Mormon pages of the driving, dictated text is extent. We do not have the be avoided writing application, gold plates to determine how accurate Joseph Smith’s dictation from the Egyptian was.
But we do have the Egyptian papyri, Joseph Smith’s Egyptian Alphabet, and the Book of essay Abraham Translation Manuscripts. College Politics. These later manuscripts together with Joseph Smith’s journal and knowing when his scribes worked with him all place the dictation process in the last half of 1835. With all of this historical background we have enough information to examine Joseph Smith’s competence with the ancient Egyptian language. ( The Rise of driving topic Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 407.) Let’s consider how the LDS prophet was able to get away with this ploy. In Smith’s day few people could have been considered experts in the field of Egyptology. The famous Rosetta Stone, currently on essay display at the British Museum in London, was discovered accidentally in 1799 by Napoleon’s troops in Egypt. A number of scholars worked for years to decipher the drunk essay, stone, which contained hieroglyphic Egyptian, demotic Egyptian, and Greek characters. Finally, Jean Francois Champollion announced his results in 1822. Yet getting this information communicated to a general population would take many years before the Information Age took place. As Dr. Ritner explains:
In the 1840s in the United States, the online studies, ancient Egyptian language was virtually unknown. It had only been to be deciphered in drunk driving topic, 1822 and politics that knowledge simply had not crossed the Atlantic. So any interpretation given to an Egyptian document in 1842 or 45 or 50 or even 1860 would have been believable to a general audience. We would have no way of drunk driving topic comparing it with the competitions for money, actual truth ( The Lost Book of essay Abraham, 14 minutes in) By 1861, T. Deveria had noted a series of anachronisms and absurdities in the supposed translations and woodcut vignettes, and in 1912 a solicitation for professional opinions on the matter drew uniformly derisive assessments from A. H. Sayce, W. Essays Politics. M. F. Drunk Driving Essay. Petrie, J. H. Breasted, A. C. Mace, J. Peters, S. A. B. Mercer, E. Writing For Money. Meyer, and F. W. von Bissing Dr. Ritner did an extended study on the different papyri that were discovered in 1967. As far as Facsmilies 1 and drunk essay 2, he writes: Comparison of the surviving initial vignette of the Hor papyrus with Facsimile 1 proves beyond doubt, as the LDS web post agrees, that it was “the vignette that became facsimile 1.” However, neither Facsimile 1 nor 2 is politics a true copy, and both contain added forgeries, including the human-head and knife of the supposed “idolatrous priest of Elkenah” (Fig. 3 on Facsimile 1) as can be seen in drunk driving essay, the crude pencil additions to the original papyrus sheet as mounted and john on canon law “improved” for drunk driving essay topic, publication by the LDS church in 1842. NOTE: Go here to see an excellent portrayal of Facsimiles 1-3 by Infographics. In a video, he explained,
What this document really is is an extended prayer on behalf of a deceased Egyptian priest, which begins with an john essay and feudal law, invocation to the god of essay mummification, probably, certainly with a picture of the health, god of mummification, to ensure the priest’s continued existence into the next world, and then it’s followed by a series of statements where “Oh deified Horus, may you walk as you head down in life, may your ears function, may your eyes function, may the gods receive you.” Long series of essay topic invocations on essays health this, essentially assuring that this dead priest is able to function in death as he had in life, but now as part of a company of the ancient Egyptian gods. Abraham is not mentioned once. ( The Lost Book of drunk essay Abraham video, 38 minutes in) Smith’s papyrus was both torn and attached to a backing that held it in place. On the backing someone, possibly Smith, filled in online studies, areas that were missing. Drunk. An examination of Joseph Smith’s Facsimile No.
1 exposes a number of discrepancies between Smith’s interpretation and that of modern Egyptologists. Smith claimed that the facsimile portrays Abraham lying on an altar. Online Studies. Standing next to him is the drunk essay, idolatrous priest Elkanah who holds a knife in his hand. Smith claimed that Elkanah was attempting to essays, offer Abraham as a sacrifice. Below the altar are figures that Smith describes as idolatrous gods.
Smith named a bird that hovers above the driving essay, head of Abraham as the angel of the Lord. Richard A. Parker, once the chairman of the department of Egyptology at Brown University, disagreed with Smith’s assessment. He claimed: This is online studies a well-known scene from the Osiris mysteries, with Anubis, the jackal-headed god, on the left ministering to the dead Osiris on the bier. The pencilled(?) restoration is incorrect. Essay. Anubis should be jackal-headed. Adams. The left arm of driving essay topic Osiris is in reality lying at his side under him. The apparent upper hand is part of the wing of a second bird which is hovering over the erect phallus of Osiris (now broken away). The second bird is Isis and she is magically impregnated by the dead Osiris and then later gives birth to Horus who avenges his father and writing takes over his inheritance.
The complete bird represents Nephthys, sister to drunk, Osiris and Isis. Beneath the what when writing a personal essay, bier are the four canopic jars with heads representative of the four sons of Horus, human-headed Imseti, baboon-headed Hapy, jackal-headed Duamutef and falcon-headed Kebehsenuf. (Richard A. Parker, “The Joseph Smith Papyri: A Preliminary Report,” Dialogue 3, no. 2 (summer 1968): 86.) For a comparison of drunk topic Joseph Smith’s interpretation of Facsimile 1 compared to what it really was, click here. Other problems develop when Facsimile No. 2 is considered. This circular drawing supposedly verified the LDS teaching that God lives near a planet called Kolob. When A Personal Essay For College Application. Smith also claimed it gave reference to “grand Key-words of the Priesthood.” (Explanation of figure seven opposite Facsimile No. 2.) Key words are an essential part of the LDS temple ceremony. Drunk. Speaking specifically about Facsmilie 2, Dr.
Ritner states, Facsimile 2 derives from named desire essays reality, a separate burial, for an individual named Sheshonq. Large portions of topic this published “facsimile” were improperly inserted from writing competitions, unrelated papyri. All of Smith’s published “explanations” are incorrect, including the lone example defended by the new web posting. According to Egyptologist Stephen E. Thompson:
Facsimile 2 is a drawing of an Egyptian funerary amulet known as a hypocephalus, which was placed under the head of the mummy and was intended to protect the head of the deceased, provide him with the drunk essay topic, sun’s life-giving warmth, and to john essay on canon law, make it possible for him to join the sun god Re in his celestial boat, and thereby insure his continued, pleasant existence in the next life. (Stephen Thompson, “Egyptology and the Book of Mormon,” Dialogue 28, no. 1 (spring 1995): 149–50.) Thompson went on driving essay to say: Concerning Joseph Smith’s interpretations of the figures in this facsimile, it has been stated that “his explanations, are, in general, reasonable in light of modern Egyptological knowledge.” A comparison of Smith’s interpretations with current Egyptological scholarship shows that this statement is also incorrect. (Ibid., 150.) For a look at the translation of Facsimilie 2 by Smith versus what the what should essay application, Egyptian really said, click here. And for Facsimile 3, he writes, In Facsimile 3, Smith confuses human and animal heads and males with females. No amount of special pleading can change the drunk driving essay topic, female “Isis the great, the streetcar named essays, god’s mother” (Facsimile 3, Fig. 2) into the male “King Pharaoh, whose name is given in the characters above his hand,” as even the LDS author Michael D. Rhodes accepts. Here Smith also misunderstands “Pharaoh” as a personal name rather than a title meaning “king,” so he reads “king king” for a goddess’s name that he claims to have understood on drunk driving the papyrus!
For a look at Facsimile 3, click here. When the manuscript of the Book of Abraham became available in the 1960s, scholars were now able to john essay on canon, investigate whether or not Joseph Smith was indeed a prophet inspired by driving essay, God with the ability to translate another language. As it turns out, Smith had no clue about the Egyptian language. Marquardt writes, Joseph Smith’s work on his Book of online studies Abraham Egyptian alphabet, seven years later shows that he could not understand or interpret documents written anciently. Essay Topic. From examinations done by Egyptologists, their studies show that Smith had not the slightest idea what the Egyptian characters meant relating to should when writing a personal essay for college, names, places, and subject matter. Drunk Topic. These manuscript pages clearly show that Joseph Smith pretended to translate Egyptian records.
The claim that they had been written by the biblical Abraham is without a solid foundation. The manuscript pages show that Smith used the Bible like he did when he dictated the Book of essays on environmental Mormon text. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 406.) Egyptologists are unanimous that Smith’s “translation” was inaccurate and that his source was, in fact, of pagan origin, having nothing to do with the patriarch Abraham. As Charles Larson explains, Based on comparisons of the Metropolitan papyri to every available resource, including descriptions contemporary with Joseph Smith of the driving, so-called Abraham and Joseph scrolls, as well as to a number of original translation manuscripts and essays politics other notes of the time, the papyrus scroll Joseph Smith represented as containing “the writings of Abraham” was shown to essay topic, be merely a common pagan funeral papyrus of late date known as the Book of Breathings. The scroll thought to contain the “writings of Joseph of Egypt” was also identified as a typical late copy of the writing for money, Egyptian Book of the essay, Bead, which had been prepared for a woman named Ta-shert-Min. Neither scroll ever had anything to do with the biblical patriarchs Abraham or Joseph, except in the mind of streetcar named essays Joseph Smith. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 173-74.) He also wrote on page 175: Not a single word, thought, or concept from driving topic, Joseph Smith’s Book of Abraham, including his explanations of essays health his three facsimiles, is in any way related to the subject matter of the common Egyptian funeral texts from which they were supposedly translated. Dr.
Lanny Bell, who teaches Egyptology at Brown University, adds, From the evidence we have today, it’s quite safe to say that Joseph Smith did not have the Book of Abraham or the Book of Joseph in front of him in the form of these papyri because they bear no relationship to the context of these stories or his translation. Their findings are exactly the same as the topic, research given by Egyptologists going back to the 19 th century, including Dr. A. H. Writing. Sayce (Oxford University), Dr. W.M. Flinders Petrie (London University), Dr. James H. Breasted (University of Chicago), Dr.
Arthur C. Mace (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), Dr. John Peters (University of Pennsylvania), Dr. Edward Meyer (University of Berlin), Dr. Freidrick Freiheer Von Bissing (University of Munich), and Dr. Samnuel A. B. Mercer (Western Theological Seminary). (For these quotes, see What Every Mormon (and Non-Mormon) Should Know , written by Edmond C. Gruss and Lane A. Essay Topic. Thuet, pp. 162-164.) In fact, we know of no reputable Egyptologist (outside of the writing competitions for money, LDS Church’s John Gee) who has accepted Smith’s translation. On many particulars, the book of Abraham is consistent with historical knowledge about the ancient world. Some of this knowledge, which is discussed later in this essay, had not yet been discovered or was not well known in 1842. But even this evidence of ancient origins, substantial though it may be, cannot prove the drunk driving essay topic, truthfulness of the book of Abraham any more than archaeological evidence can prove the exodus of the john on canon and feudal, Israelites from Egypt or the drunk driving topic, Resurrection of the Son of God. The book of Abraham’s status as scripture ultimately rests on desire faith in the saving truths found within the book itself as witnessed by essay, the Holy Ghost.
This claim is very similar to one made in a 2000 church manual: The Prophet Joseph Smith never communicated his method of translating these records. As with all other scriptures, a testimony of the truthfulness of essays these writing is primarily a matter of faith. The greatest evidence of the truthfulness of the book of Abraham is not found in an analysis of physical evidence nor historical background, but in drunk driving essay topic, prayerful consideration of its contents and power. ( The Pearl of Great Price Student Manual – Religion 327 , 2000, p. 28). Ahh, so here we have it. Apparently a Mormon is encouraged to what should be avoided when writing essay for college, disregard any evidence that might weigh against the Book of Abraham. Let’s take the driving essay topic, examples given in the essay regarding archaeological evidence: Exodus of the essays reality, Israelites from drunk, Egypt: Of course, we have no archaeological evidence from the Exodus, nor would we expect to find anything. After all, the people of Israel were nomads for 40 years and did not build anything. Nothing will ever be found to support this biblical story. It’s interesting that this example is used.
New evidence continually comes up in the Holy Land to support the story of the Bible. (For examples of evidence found in 2013, see here.) It is possible to visit Jericho, Ai, Caesarea, and Bet Shean to get an idea of what took place thousands of years ago. Certainly an element of faith is needed to accept the events and online studies people talked about in topic, the Bible, but the historical/archaeological evidence is a huge support. In fact, there is much more to support the Bible than the Book of Mormon, for on environmental, that matter! The Resurrection: Talk about driving essay topic evidence! According to Paul in the fifteenth chapter of 1 Corinthians: 3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for essay writing competitions, our sins according to the scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: 5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: 6 After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.
7 After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. 8 And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. There is good historical evidence for the resurrection. Of course, it still takes faith. But the leap of drunk faith is john law a jump into the light, not the darkness. (For a fuller depiction of reasons why a person should believe in the resurrection, click here.) These cases are much different from the drunk essay topic, faith a person must have to believe in the Book of Abraham, for which the essay competitions, evidence screams “fraud” rather than lending support to essay, its veracity. The Bible is very clear that we must “test everything” (1 Thess. 5:21).
Indeed, we are supposed to “test the spirits to see if they are true for many false prophets have gone out into the world” (1 John 4:1). Jesus described in the Sermon on the Mount how there are many false prophets masquerading as sheep when they are really ravenous wolves. When the Bereans tested what Paul taught them in Acts 17, they were considered nobler than the Thessalonians because they went to scripture to ascertain truth. To suggest, as this essay seems to do, that the facts ought to take a back seat to faith is flawed, no matter how spiritual a Mormon may think it sounds. At this point, I want to bring something up about the language. The Jews in those days spoke Hebrew.
There is no evidence a Jew ever wrote using Egyptian hieroglyphics. It would seem that Moses—who authored the Pentateuch—is the more likely candidate to have written in Egyptian since he grew up in the palace of Pharaoh! Of course, Abraham did travel to Egypt, as recorded in named essays, Genesis chapter 12, and even stayed there for a short time. But this was not the land of his friends and family. Driving Essay. Instead, it was a place where, according to Abraham 1:5, “the worshiping of the gods of the heathen” was common. Thus, a Mormon needs to ask why Abraham would have written in essays health, a non-native language and style (hieroglyphics) belonging to pagans who worshiped other gods.
It is driving also curious that, just by chance, these very words of Abraham found their way to online studies, Kirtland, Ohio, and into the hands of a man who just so happened had the driving essay, ability to “translate” them. Yet the English of the Book of Abraham is completely out of context with the Egyptian style. Dr. Ritner explains that the “translation” provided by Smith is just like trying to mix Chinese and Ethiopian: The narrative style of the Book of Abraham does not correspond to Egyptian verbiage. It’s not the kind of thing Egyptians would say, they wouldn’t say it in online studies, that way, and it certainly would never appear in driving essay, that way in a context such as this. It couldn’t possibly be more out of reality place. ( The Lost Book of Abraham , 40 minutes in) We’ll consider more details that are detrimental to drunk topic, the Book of Abraham, and when everything is put together, the chances the Book of Abraham is authentic scripture lands between slim and none. The Book of Abraham as Scripture. Thousands of years ago, the prophet Nephi learned that one purpose of the Book of Mormon was to “establish the truth” of the Bible. In a similar way, the what when a personal essay, book of Abraham supports, expands, and drunk topic clarifies the biblical account of Abraham’s life.
In the biblical account, God covenants with Abraham to “make of thee a great nation.” The book of Abraham provides context for that covenant by showing that Abraham was a seeker of “great knowledge” and a “follower of righteousness” who chose the right path in writing for money, spite of great hardship. He rejected the wickedness of driving essay his father’s household and writing spurned the idols of the drunk essay topic, surrounding culture, despite the threat of death. In the Bible, God’s covenant with Abraham appears to begin during Abraham’s life. According to the book of Abraham, the covenant began before the foundation of the earth and was passed down through Adam, Noah, and other prophets. Abraham thus takes his place in a long line of essays prophets and patriarchs whose mission is to preserve and topic extend God’s covenant on earth. The heart of this covenant is the priesthood, through which “the blessings of salvation, even of life eternal” are conveyed. In order to believe that we have new things to learn about Abraham, a person must trust that this book is streetcar essays true. To get to this point, Joseph Smith must be trusted. When we look at drunk, the life of the Mormon founder, doubts should be placed in our minds.
The book of Abraham clarifies several teachings that are obscure in the Bible. What Be Avoided Writing A Personal Application. Life did not begin at birth, as is commonly believed. Driving Topic. Prior to streetcar desire essays reality, coming to earth, individuals existed as spirits. In a vision, Abraham saw that one of the spirits was “like unto God.” This divine being, Jesus Christ, led other spirits in organizing the driving topic, earth out of “materials” or preexisting matter, not ex nihilo or out of nothing, as many Christians later came to writing for money, believe. Abraham further learned that mortal life was crucial to the plan of happiness God would provide for His children: “We will prove them herewith,” God stated, “to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God shall command them,” adding a promise to add glory forever upon the faithful. Nowhere in the Bible is the purpose and potential of driving topic earth life stated so clearly as in the book of Abraham. A quick scan through the third chapter of the Book of Abraham (where the information from online studies, this part of the essay came) can easily show how Joseph Smith merely took verses from other parts of the Old Testament and restated them here. Writes Marquardt, While dictating the essay, Book of Abraham (what is now chapter 2) Joseph Smith used the KJV Genesis as a guide and text for part of his story.
The actual wording in the story suggests the use of Genesis in composing this work. This would indicate that the reality, wording dictated was basically a copying effort of a preestablished text. At times he revised the KVV text to driving, make it an autobiographical account by essay on canon and feudal law, Abraham. The wording as printed in the KJV was used as part of the text Abraham supposedly wrote by his own hand. It is clear that Joseph Smith had the Bible open to the book of Genesis as he dictated this section of the Book of Abraham. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 402.) If a plagiarist wanted to make his writing sound biblical, what would keep him from copying key phrases and ideas from the book already in his hands? Consider, for example, the following: 2:11: “And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse them that curse thee.” (Compare Genesis 12:3.) 3:11: “ Thus I, Abraham, talked with the Lord, face to face, as one man talketh with another; and driving topic he told me of the works which his hands had made.” Compare with Exodus 33:11 and Numbers 12:8. 3:14: “And it was in the night time when the Lord spake these words unto me: I will multiply thee, and thy seed after thee, like unto these; and if thou canst count the number of sands, so shall be the number of thy seeds.” Compare with Genesis 22:17.
3:23: “And God saw these souls that they were good, and he stood in the midst of them, and he said: These I will make my rulers; for he stood among those that were spirits, and what writing essay application he saw that they were good; and drunk he said unto me: Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born.” Compare with Jeremiah 1:5. 3:27: “And the Lord said: Whom shall I send? And one answered like unto the writing competitions for money, Son of Man: Here am I, send me. And another answered and said: Here am I, send me. And the Lord said: I will send the first.” Compare with Isaiah 6:8.
But there are other odds parts to the Book of Abraham. For example, in Abraham 1:10, it reads, “Even the thank-offering of a child did the priest of Pharaoh offer upon the altar which stood by the hill called Potiphar’s Hill, at the head of the plain of Olishem.” (Also see verse 20.) Potiphar was the husband of the woman who made it look like the biblical Joseph had tried to rape her. This event took place several generations after Abraham. Perhaps this hill could have been named after another “Potiphar.” But I have no doubt that Joseph got this name from the Bible. In Abraham 1:16, it reads, “And his voice was unto me: Abraham, Abraham, behold, my name is Jehovah, and drunk I have heard thee, and have come down to deliver thee, and to take thee away from thy father’s house, and from all thy kinsfolk, into a strange land which thou knowest not of.” And Abraham 2:8 says, “My name is Jehovah, and I know the end from the beginning; therefore my hand shall be over thee.” It must be understood that Jehovah is an English word. It is not found in the Bible, as it is neither Greek or Hebrew. John Adams Essay And Feudal Law. Rather, the word is a result of combining the Tetragrammaton (YHWH, a word for drunk, “God”) with “Adonai,” a Greek word meaning “Lord.” Combining the vowels from the Greek and inserting them into the Hebrew YHWH created “Jehovah.” This was done well after the time that both the Bible and the Book of online studies Abraham were originally written. The Mormon must explain how the made-up English word “Jehovah” get into the Egyptian language when it was not even invented until a thousand years after Christ.
In 2:16-17, it reads, “Therefore, eternity was our covering and our rock and drunk topic our salvation, as we journeyed from Haran by essay competitions for money, the way of Jershon, to come to the land of Canaan. Now I, Abraham, built an altar in driving essay, the land of Jershon.” However, “Jershon” is a Book of Mormon place name found in Alma 35 and is not mentioned once in the Bible. Online Studies. Neither Abraham nor Moses would have had knowledge of New World names. Is this just another way Smith added words he had already created to show that his new revelation added new details and was somehow necessary as a supplement to Genesis? Abraham 2:22-24 reads: And it came to pass when I was come near to enter into Egypt, the drunk driving, Lord said unto me: Behold, Sarai, thy wife, is should be avoided writing a personal a very fair woman to look upon; Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see her, they will say—She is his wife; and they will kill you, but they will save her alive; therefore see that ye do on this wise: Let her say unto the Egyptians, she is thy sister, and thy soul shall live. According to essay, the Book of essay Abraham, God told Abraham to essay, lie. If true, this leads to adams essay law, two problems: 1) God is culpable of lying because he told someone (Abraham) to do this.
2) This contradicts the drunk essay topic, biblical version which, for whatever reason, leaves this part out should be avoided for college completely. Then, referring to the creation of the drunk essay topic, world in Abraham chapter 4 and 5, Abraham moves to the plural use of “gods” (i.e. “the Gods, organized and formed the john essay on canon and feudal law, heavens and the earth,” “the Spirit of the Gods was brooding upon the face of the waters,” “and they (the Gods) comprehended the essay, light, for college essays politics, it was bright,” “and the Gods called the drunk essay, light Day,” and “and the Gods ordered the expanse”), using the plural instead of the singular for should writing a personal essay, the creation of the world. Indeed, the Hebrew “Elohim” is plural, but no reputable translator has ever translated this word as “gods.” When it comes to the last two chapters of the drunk essay, Book of Abraham, nothing is unique. In fact, Abraham 4 and online studies Genesis 1 are parallel. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 1 and Abraham 4.
Abraham 4:1: “And then the Lord said: Let us go down. And they went down at drunk, the beginning, and they, that is the Gods, organized and formed the heavens and the earth.” Genesis 1:1: “In the beginning God created the essays, heavens and essay the earth.” Abraham 4:2: “And the earth, after it was formed, was empty and desolate, because they had not formed anything but the earth; and darkness reigned upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of the Gods was brooding upon the face of the waters. Genesis 1:2: “And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.
And the Spirit of God moved upon online studies, the face of the waters.” Abraham 4:3: “And they (the Gods) said: Let there be light; and there was light.” Genesis 1:3: “And God said, Let there be light: and driving topic there was light.” Abraham 4:4: “And they (the Gods) comprehended the light, for it was bright; and they divided the light, or caused it to be divided, from the darkness.” Genesis 1:4: “ And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the online studies, darkness.” Abraham 4:5: “And the Gods called the driving essay topic, light Day, and the darkness they called Night. And it came to pass that from the evening until morning they called night; and from the morning until the evening they called day; and this was the first, or the beginning, of that which they called day and night.”
Genesis 1:5: “ And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the named essays reality, evening and the morning were the first day.” Abraham 4:6: “And the drunk driving topic, Gods also said: Let there be an expanse in competitions for money, the midst of the waters, and drunk essay topic it shall divide the waters from the waters.” Genesis 1:6: “And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Abraham 4:7: “And the Gods ordered the expanse, so that it divided the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so, even as they ordered.” Genesis 1:7: “ And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the college, waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.” Abraham 4:8 “And the Gods called the expanse, Heaven. And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that they called night; and it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and this was the second time that they called night and day.” Genesis 1:8: “And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the driving essay, second day.”
Abraham 4:9: “And the Gods ordered, saying: Let the waters under the adams essay on canon law, heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the earth come up dry; and it was so as they ordered; Genesis 1:9: “And God said, Let the drunk driving, waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and online studies it was so.” Abraham 4:10: “And the topic, Gods pronounced the what be avoided writing, dry land, Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, pronounced they, Great Waters; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed.” Genesis 1:10: “And God called the dry land Earth; and driving the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:11: “And the online studies, Gods said: Let us prepare the earth to bring forth grass; the herb yielding seed; the fruit tree yielding fruit, after his kind, whose seed in itself yieldeth its own likeness upon the earth; and it was so, even as they ordered.” Genesis 1:11: “And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.” Abraham 4:12: “And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth grass from its own seed, and the herb to bring forth herb from its own seed, yielding seed after his kind; and the earth to bring forth the tree from its own seed, yielding fruit, whose seed could only bring forth the same in itself, after his kind; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed.”
Genesis 1:12: “And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:13: “And it came to pass that they numbered the days; from the evening until the morning they called night; and driving essay topic it came to pass, from the morning until the evening they called day; and it was the third time.” Genesis 1:13: “And the evening and the morning were the third day. Abraham 4:14: “And the Gods organized the lights in streetcar desire essays reality, the expanse of the topic, heaven, and caused them to divide the day from the essays, night; and organized them to drunk driving essay, be for signs and for seasons, and for days and for years;” Genesis 1:14: “And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.” Abraham 4:15: “And organized them to be for lights in streetcar named essays, the expanse of the heaven to drunk driving essay, give light upon the earth; and should when writing a personal essay it was so.” Genesis 1:15: “And let them be for drunk essay, lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.”
Abraham 4:16: “And the Gods organized the two great lights, the greater light to rule the online studies, day, and topic the lesser light to rule the night; with the lesser light they set the stars also;” Genesis 1:16: “And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the online studies, stars also.” Abraham 4:17-18: “And the Gods set them in the expanse of the heavens, to give light upon driving, the earth, and to rule over what be avoided when for college application, the day and over the night, and to cause to divide the drunk topic, light from the darkness. And the Gods watched those things which they had ordered until they obeyed.” Genesis 1:17-18: “And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, and to college politics, rule over driving essay, the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:19: “And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that it was night; and online studies it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that it was day; and it was the fourth time.” Genesis 1:19: “And the evening and the morning were the drunk, fourth day.” Abraham 4:20: “And the Gods said: Let us prepare the waters to bring forth abundantly the moving creatures that have life; and the fowl, that they may fly above the earth in the open expanse of heaven.” Genesis 1:20: “And God said, Let the online studies, waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.” Abraham 4:21: “And the Gods prepared the waters that they might bring forth great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters were to bring forth abundantly after their kind; and every winged fowl after their kind. And the Gods saw that they would be obeyed, and that their plan was good.”
Genesis 1:21: “And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:22: “And the Gods said: We will bless them, and cause them to be fruitful and drunk topic multiply, and fill the waters in the seas or great waters; and cause the fowl to multiply in the earth.” Genesis 1:22: “And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.” Abraham 4:23: “And it came to essays, pass that it was from drunk driving essay topic, evening until morning that they called night; and it came to on environmental, pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and it was the fifth time.” Genesis 1:23: “And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.” Abraham 4:24: “And the Gods prepared the earth to bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle and creeping things, and beasts of the earth after their kind; and it was so, as they had said.” Genesis 1:24: “And God said, Let the drunk essay topic, earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and essays it was so.” Abraham 4:25: “And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth the beasts after their kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after its kind; and the Gods saw they would obey.”
Genesis 1:25: “And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:26-27: “And the Gods took counsel among themselves and said: Let us go down and form man in our image, after our likeness; and drunk essay topic we will give them dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over streetcar named essays reality, all the drunk essay topic, earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So the college essays politics, Gods went down to organize man in their own image, in the image of the Gods to form they him, male and female to form they them.” Genesis 1:26-27: “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over topic, the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. College Politics. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.” Abraham 4:28: “And the Gods said: We will bless them.
And the Gods said: We will cause them to be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it, and to have dominion over drunk essay topic, the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.” Genesis 1:28: “And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the essays on environmental, earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.” Abraham 1:29: “And the Gods said: Behold, we will give them every herb bearing seed that shall come upon the face of all the earth, and every tree which shall have fruit upon it; yea, the fruit of the tree yielding seed to them we will give it; it shall be for drunk driving, their meat.” Genesis 1:29: “And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in competitions for money, the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.” Abraham 4:30: “And to every beast of the earth, and to drunk driving essay, every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, behold, we will give them life, and also we will give to them every green herb for meat, and essays all these things shall be thus organized.” Genesis 1:30: “And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to driving essay, every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.” Abraham 4:31: “And the Gods said: We will do everything that we have said, and organize them; and behold, they shall be very obedient. Streetcar Named Desire Essays. And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning they called night; and it came to topic, pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and they numbered the sixth time.” Genesis 1:31: “And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the online studies, evening and the morning were the sixth day.”
While it’s not “word for drunk topic, word,” Abraham chapter 4 directly correlates with Genesis 1. Writing For Money. A coincidence? Obviously not. Driving Essay. Smith was intent on changing the singular God with the plural “Gods.” And at the end of each of the days, he used the what should essay, same formula. Driving Essay Topic. Yet Joseph Smith had a chance to should a personal for college application, change Genesis 1 in his Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. Drunk Essay Topic. However, even though he “translated” this chapter just a couple years before, he did not use “gods” for what should be avoided when essay application, “God.” In a single stroke, Smith uses the Book of Abraham to contradict both the Bible and, for that matter, the Book of Mormon (which Smith called “the most correct book on essay topic earth”). This change goes against be avoided essay for college the very teaching of the Pentateuch, as its cornerstone is Deuteronomy 6:4. Called the Shemah, the most important verse in Jewish history clearly states, “Hear O Israel, the Lord thy God, the Lord is one.” Jesus quoted this in Mark 12:29.
Literally, it says that God is one essence; there can be no plurality of gods. To believe this is to drunk driving essay topic, acquiesce to the pagan gods of the surrounding nations. Throughout the Bible, God is quite adamant that there are “no” gods before or after me” (singular) in Isaiah 43:10, and in Isaiah 44:6-8, God claims to know of no other gods. Consider Genesis 1:26-27 in relation to Abraham 4:26-27. Essays. Bill McKeever explains.
how a Mormon must demonstrate that the essay topic, preincarnate Jehovah had a body of flesh and college essays politics bones at the time the conversation in Genesis 1:26, 27 took place. Tenth LDS President Joseph Fielding Smith admitted that Jesus “did not always have a tangible body” ( Doctrines of Salvation , 1:11). A statement issued in 1916 by the First Presidency and Council of the Twelve made it clear that, during the preexistence, Christ did not have a tangible body. “In all His dealings with the human family Jesus the driving, Son has represented and yet represents Elohim His Father in power and authority. This is true of streetcar named desire essays Christ in His preexistent, antemortal, or unembodied state, in the which He was known as Jehovah.” ( Messages of the First Presidency 5:31, 32. Essay Topic. Also cited in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism 4:720, emphasis mine.)
Speaking in conference in April 1921, Charles W. Penrose noted, “The Holy Ghost is john adams essay and feudal law a personage of spirit, as Jesus Christ was when he was Jehovah. He was Jehovah from the beginning of the world, according to the history we have in the Old Testament scriptures. He was a personage of driving essay spirit, and he came here to the earth that he might be exactly like his brethren and like his Father, and have a body made out of the lower elements of the universe.” ( Conference Report , p.12, emphasis mine). In making a similar distinction between the personages of the LDS godhead, Mormon Apostle Bruce McConkie wrote, “The Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones,’ however, ‘but is a personage of Spirit.’ (DC 130:22.) He is thus a spirit man, a spirit person, a spirit entity. He lives and moves and has his being separate and apart from his fellow Gods. His spirit body is in all respects comparable to college, the kind of topic a body that the Lord Jehovah possessed before that beloved and chosen one made flesh his tabernacle by the process of mortal birth.” ( A New Witness for the Articles of Faith , pp.253, 254, emphasis mine.)
Notice that these LDS leaders concede that prior to His mortal birth, Jesus was “unembodied” and a “personage of should essay for college spirit.” This is the key to discovering the error so many Mormons make when it comes to the Genesis passages. According to LDS teaching, Jehovah, the preincarnate Jesus, did not have a body until he became flesh “by the process of mortal birth.” That being so, it is wrong for Mormons to assume that the words “image” and “likeness” refer to flesh and bones since the Mormon “Jehovah” (and Mormon “Holy Ghost”) had no such image or likeness when the conversation in Genesis 1:26 took place. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 2 with Abraham 5. In the final chapter of the topic, Book of Abraham, an even closer copying of what should writing a personal for college application Genesis is made. Drunk Essay Topic. Consider a verse-by-verse comparison: Abraham 5:1: “And thus we will finish the heavens and the earth, and all the hosts of them.” Genesis 2:1: “Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the streetcar desire, host of them.” Abraham 5:2: “And the Gods said among themselves: On the seventh time we will end our work, which we have counseled; and essay we will rest on the seventh time from essays on environmental, all our work which we have counseled.” Genesis 2:2: “And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.” Abraham 5:3: “And the Gods concluded upon the seventh time, because that on the seventh time they would rest from all their works which they (the Gods) counseled among themselves to form; and driving essay topic sanctified it. And thus were their decisions at the time that they counseled among themselves to form the heavens and the earth.”
Genesis 2:3: “And God blessed the seventh day, and essay writing sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.” Abraham 5:4 And the Gods came down and formed these the generations of the heavens and drunk driving of the earth, when they were formed in the day that the Gods formed the earth and the heavens, Genesis 2:4: “These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the named essays, Lord God made the earth and the heavens,” Abraham 5:5: “According to drunk driving topic, all that which they had said concerning every plant of the a personal for college, field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew; for the Gods had not caused it to rain upon essay topic, the earth when they counseled to do them, and had not formed a man to on environmental health, till the ground.” Genesis 2:5: “And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to drunk driving, till the ground.” Abraham 5:6: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the john adams essay law, ground.” Genesis 2:6: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the drunk driving, ground.” Abraham 5:7: “And the Gods formed man from the dust of the ground, and took his spirit (that is, the man’s spirit), and put it into what should when writing a personal application, him; and breathed into his nostrils the drunk driving topic, breath of life, and man became a living soul.” Genesis 2:7: “And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the streetcar named, ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.”
Abraham 5:8: “And the Gods planted a garden, eastward in Eden, and driving topic there they put the man, whose spirit they had put into the body which they had formed.” Genesis 2:8: “And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.” Abraham 5:8: “And the Gods planted a garden, eastward in Eden, and there they put the man, whose spirit they had put into the body which they had formed. Genesis 2:8: “And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.” Abraham 5:9: “And out of the named desire reality, ground made the Gods to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food; the tree of life, also, in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of driving essay good and evil.” Genesis 2:9: “And out of the ground made the Lord God to online studies, grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the drunk essay topic, garden, and essays politics the tree of knowledge of good and evil.” Abraham 5:10: There was a river running out of Eden, to water the drunk topic, garden, and from thence it was parted and college politics became into driving essay, four heads. Genesis 2:10: “And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.” Abraham 5:11: “And the Gods took the man and put him in streetcar named desire essays reality, the Garden of driving essay topic Eden, to what should be avoided when writing, dress it and to keep it.” Genesis 2:15: “And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of driving topic Eden to dress it and to keep it.” Abraham 5:12-13: “And the Gods commanded the man, saying: Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, But of the tree of knowledge of good and essays evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the time that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.
Now I, Abraham, saw that it was after the driving essay, Lord’s time, which was after the time of Kolob; for as yet the Gods had not appointed unto Adam his reckoning.” Genesis 2:16-17: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the on environmental, knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of drunk topic it: for essay competitions, in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.” Abraham 5:14: “And the Gods said: Let us make an drunk driving essay, help meet for the man, for it is not good that the man should be alone, therefore we will form an help meet for him.” Genesis 2:18: “And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.” Abraham 5:15: “And the Gods caused a deep sleep to online studies, fall upon Adam; and he slept, and they took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in drunk driving topic, the stead thereof;”
Genesis 2:21: “And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;” Abraham 5:16: “And of the rib which the Gods had taken from man, formed they a woman, and streetcar named desire brought her unto the man.” Genesis 2:22: “And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.” Abraham 5:17-18: “And Adam said: This was bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; now she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of man; Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and essay topic shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. Genesis 2:23-24: “And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and john adams essay and feudal flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.” Abraham 5:19: “And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.” Genesis 2:25: “And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.” Abraham 5:20: “And out of the ground the Gods formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air, and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them; and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that should be the name thereof.”
Genesis 2:19: “And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the driving, field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the essays reality, name thereof.” Abraham 5:21: “And Adam gave names to all cattle, to the fowl of the air, to every beast of the field; and for Adam, there was found an drunk topic, helpmeet for him.” Genesis 2:20: “And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for essay writing, him.” Considering the parallels between Abraham chapters 3 and topic 4 and college essays Genesis 1 and essay 2, it is obvious that Joseph Smith had his King James Version of the Bible open when making his “translation” of the Book of john essay and feudal law Abraham. The structure is essay topic clearly the same, while the main change involves changing the online studies, singular “God” into a plurality of gods. Too many questions remain unanswered: If the book of Genesis was really written in Hebrew and the Book of Abraham in Egyptian, how could the “translations” be so alike? Why do no competent scholars translate the Hebrew “Elohim” into the plural “gods”? If the entire text became corrupted, when did it become corrupted? (Note: The Dead Sea Scrolls fragments of Genesis are very close to the Masoretic text (AD 900) and do not lend itself to being translated “gods”) Why does the Book of Mormon—called by Joseph Smith as “the most correct book on earth”—not correspond with such a translation?
Because there are so many similarities, “plagiarism” screams out and takes ownership of this situation. Origin of the Book of Abraham. The powerful truths found in the book of Abraham emerged from driving topic, a set of what when writing a personal essay unique historical events. In the summer of 1835, an entrepreneur named Michael Chandler arrived at Church headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, with four mummies and multiple scrolls of papyrus. Chandler found a ready audience. Due partly to the exploits of the drunk topic, French emperor Napoleon, the antiquities unearthed in the catacombs of Egypt had created a fascination across the on canon, Western world. Chandler capitalized on this interest by touring with ancient Egyptian artifacts and charging visitors a fee to see them. These artifacts had been uncovered by Antonio Lebolo, a former cavalryman in the Italian army. Drunk. Lebolo, who oversaw some of the excavations for the consul general of France, pulled 11 mummies from a tomb not far from the ancient city of Thebes. Lebolo shipped the artifacts to Italy, and after his death, they ended up in New York.
At some point the mummies and scrolls came into Chandler’s possession. By the time the collection arrived in Kirtland, all but four mummies and several papyrus scrolls had already been sold. Essays. A group of Latter-day Saints in Kirtland purchased the drunk essay topic, remaining artifacts for adams essay and feudal, the Church. After Joseph Smith examined the papyri and commenced “the translation of some of the characters or hieroglyphics,” his history recounts, “much to our joy [we] found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham.” Translation and the Book of Abraham.
Joseph Smith worked on the translation of the book of Abraham during the summer and drunk driving topic fall of 1835, by which time he completed at least the first chapter and part of the second chapter. His journal next speaks of adams essay law translating the driving essay topic, papyri in the spring of 1842, after the Saints had relocated to Nauvoo, Illinois. All five chapters of the book of Abraham, along with three illustrations (now known as facsimiles 1, 2, and online studies 3), were published in the Times and Seasons, the Church’s newspaper in Nauvoo, between March and May 1842. The book of Abraham was the last of Joseph Smith’s translation efforts. In these inspired translations, Joseph Smith did not claim to know the ancient languages of the records he was translating. Much like the Book of Mormon, Joseph’s translation of the book of essay Abraham was recorded in the language of the King James Bible. This was the idiom of scripture familiar to early Latter-day Saints, and its use was consistent with the Lord’s pattern of revealing His truths “after the manner of their [His servants’] language, that they might come to understanding.” A person could make a translation similar to the King James Version of the Bible, but this wouldn’t mean that the words would be (for the most part) word for word from the john essay on canon, translation originally done in 1611. The point made in the following manual ought to be considered, as the LDS teacher is being instructed how to teach the difficulty of driving topic “translating” from one language into another:
Write a simple sentence on the board and ask for college essays politics, a volunteer to translate it into any foreign language. Then ask for a volunteer to translate a more difficult sentence (such as Abraham 1:2). Discuss some of the drunk driving topic, challenges involved in translating writings from one language to another. Invite students to look at essays, Abraham Facsimile 1 and ‘translate’ it into a story line, without looking at the explanation below it. ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual Religion 327 , p. 35). This is exactly right. So here we have two resources: the Bible (Genesis) and the Pearl of Great Price (the Book of drunk Abraham). When we compare one translation (from Hebrew to English = Genesis) with another translation (from Egyptian to English = Abraham), we can see that there is john adams essay on canon and feudal much similarity with Abraham 4-5 and Genesis 1-2.
For the most part, we can even safely say they use the same words and is, in many parts, written down word for word. The main difference is Smith uses the plural “gods” for God, but otherwise everything else is the same. How can this be if there are many possible translations from drunk driving topic, one language to another? Even if the two unique languages (Egyptian and Hebrew) were closely aligned in structure, the odds of streetcar named desire reality having such similar translations are infinitesimally impossible. Just as we can see in topic, the Book of Mormon’s recitation of the King James Version of the streetcar, Bible, the word-for-word copying is obvious. Drunk Topic. There is no coincidence if plagiarism is involved. Joseph’s translations took a variety of forms.
Some of his translations, like that of the Book of Mormon, utilized ancient documents in his possession. Other times, his translations were not based on politics any known physical records. Joseph’s translation of essay portions of the Bible, for example, included restoration of original text, harmonization of contradictions within the Bible itself, and inspired commentary. Some Mormons want to distance themselves from a literal symbol-by-symbol “translation” of the john essay, Book of Abraham. For example, in 1992, two LDS scholars wrote, “Speculation nevertheless persisted as to the process Joseph may have used in translating the book, including the possibility that even if the drunk driving topic, papyri were not contemporary with Abraham they contained material that, under inspiration, turned Joseph’s mind back to ancient Egypt and opened it to direct revelation on the experiences of Abraham.
In that case, he may have received these ideas in much the same way he did those of the inspired revision of the Bible. In that instance, acting without original documents, the Prophet’s only claim was that by essay, divine inspiration he was able to replace incorrect with correct ideas and restore the original biblical meaning” (James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard, The Story of the Latter-day Saints , 1992, p. 77). Hold on a second. The preface to the Book of Abraham reads, A translation of some ancient records, that have fallen into drunk driving, our hands—The writings of Abraham while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon on canon and feudal law, papyrus. Drunk Driving Topic. See History of the Church 2:235, 236, 348-35.
Charles Larson makes a good point when he says, All of these records show that he [Smith] intended the text of the Book of Abraham to be regarded as nothing less than a direct, literal translation , which he had taken from Abraham’s own papyrus record . . . .while Joseph Smith presented himself as able to translate and understand ancient languages, and essays on environmental health specifically, while he claimed to have produced the essay, Book of Abraham by translating the ancient Egyptian text from one of his papyrus scrolls, we now know that the Joseph Smith papyri are in named desire, fact pagan Egyptian documents unrelated to the biblical Abraham. Furthermore, if, as the 1992 Encyclopedia of Mormonism maintains, Joseph Smith received the drunk essay, Book of Abraham by writing for money, revelation, not translation, why did he and his followers pay the enormous sum of $2400—over $28,000 in drunk, 1992 U.S. dollars—for pagan Egyptian papyri that have nothing to do with the online studies, biblical Abraham? ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 95) When the drunk driving essay topic, word “translation” is used, it infers that it came directly from the original source. If this is not the online studies, case, then why did the papyrus need to be found in the first place? If Smith could create the proper translation without the actual papyrus (or, for that matter, the gold plates for the Book of drunk essay topic Mormon), it seems as if the essay competitions for money, actual sources just don’t matter. Some evidence suggests that Joseph studied the characters on the Egyptian papyri and attempted to learn the Egyptian language. His history reports that, in essay topic, July 1835, he was “continually engaged in translating an alphabet to the Book of Abraham, and arranging a grammar of the Egyptian language as practiced by the ancients.” This “grammar,” as it was called, consisted of columns of hieroglyphic characters followed by English translations recorded in a large notebook by Joseph’s scribe, William W. Phelps. Another manuscript, written by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, has Egyptian characters followed by explanations. The relationship of these documents to the book of john and feudal law Abraham is not fully understood. Neither the rules nor the translations in the grammar book correspond to those recognized by Egyptologists today.
Whatever the role of the grammar book, it appears that Joseph Smith began translating portions of the driving, book of Abraham almost immediately after the purchase of the papyri. College Essays Politics. Phelps apparently viewed Joseph Smith as uniquely capable of understanding the Egyptian characters: “As no one could translate these writings,” he told his wife, “they were presented to President Smith. Drunk Essay Topic. He soon knew what they were.” Notice what is said: “Neither the essays politics, rules nor the translations in the grammar book correspond to those recognized by drunk driving, Egyptologists today.” Perhaps the should be avoided when essay application, writer(s) of the Gospel Topics essay could have been more clear and stated, “Egyptologists are clueless how Joseph Smith thinks that he actually translated the essay, Book of Abraham from the papyrus he had in front of be avoided writing application him.” With a wave of the drunk driving topic, hand, the writer continues, “Whatever the role of the streetcar named essays reality, grammar book…” In essence, the drunk driving essay, grammar book doesn’t play any role because it was filled with gibberish that nobody in the 1830s could have understood. After all, Egyptology was a new science that didn’t begin until Napoleon’s troops discovered the Rosetta Stone in named desire reality, 1799. Dr. Ritner explains what he calls the “smoking gun” courtesy of Jerald and Sandra Tanner of the essay topic, Utah Lighthouse Ministry:
Again in contrast to the new LDS statement, it is streetcar desire reality not true that “no eyewitness account of the translation survives.” Smith’s secretary Warren Parrish wrote in an 1838 letter in the Painesville Republican: “I have set (sic) by his side and penned down the Egyptian hieroglyphicks (sic) as he claimed to receive it by direct inspiration from heaven.” Smith’s “divine inspiration” was not, however, divorced from drunk topic, a direct attempt to online studies, translate the characters of the Egyptian papyrus, as is clear from surviving manuscript pages of the evolving text of the Book of Abraham. Drunk Essay Topic. These pages, unmentioned in the new LDS church posting, were published in 1966 in microfilm reproductions and in transcription by Jerald Tanner as Joseph Smith’s Egyptian Alphabet and Grammar, Salt Lake City, Utah Lighthouse Ministry. These microfilm pages are the “smoking gun” evidence that resolves the history of the Book of Abraham translation process. In his introduction to be avoided a personal, the volume, Jerald Tanner records that his Modern Microfilm Co. was contacted “in the early part of 1965” by driving essay topic, a student at the Brigham Young University who had a typed copy of the “Egyptian Alphabet” hand copies, and that “later in adams essay and feudal, the year another man loaned us a microfilm of the driving, original document.” The microfilm reproductions found in the Tanner volume were printed from competitions, masters produced “in the early part of topic 1966,” the same year that the Tanner volume was published. Online Studies. The dates of essay topic 1965-1966 are significant, because the microfilm edition contains not only the “Egyptian Alphabet,” but the evolving manuscript pages for the future Book of Abraham as well. These pages contain copies of specific Egyptian text from the streetcar named desire essays, “Breathing Permit of Hor,” column 2. That section of the papyrus was not reproduced in the Book of Abraham or any other publication until the rediscovery of the drunk, Smith papyri in New York in online studies, 1967 and the publication of sepia photographs in The Improvement Era in drunk topic, January and politics February of 1968. The copies made in 1965 and driving essay 1966, and should when essay application the 1966 publication by Tanner, cannot then be forgeries since no forger could have had the unknown papyrus as a model to copy. The equation of the Book of Abraham and the “Breathing Permit of Hor” is essay thus undeniable, and the source of Smith’s nineteenth century composition is settled.
Period. The Tanner volume that first published these manuscripts is cumbersome to use as it lacks running pagination, but relevant manuscript pages are lettered J through M, with a second series labeled out of order S, R, Q, N, P and O. Exactly like the “Alphabet and Grammar,” the pages include copies of Egyptian script on the left corresponding to lengthy English on the right. But in these texts, the essays on environmental, English is the text of the Book of Abraham as it was being modified and would be published, with obvious deletions and drunk revisions in the handwritten English text. Also unlike the “Alphabet and Grammar” hand copies, the Egyptian script on most of these sheets is immediately clear and readily translated by essays health, modern Egyptologists. Without question, the translation efforts by Smith and his “scribes” were based directly on Smith’s Egyptian papyri. After the Latter-day Saints left Nauvoo, the Egyptian artifacts remained behind. Joseph Smith’s family sold the driving topic, papyri and online studies the mummies in 1856. The papyri were divided up and sold to drunk essay, various parties; historians believe that most were destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Essays On Environmental Health. Ten papyrus fragments once in Joseph Smith’s possession ended up in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. In 1967, the museum transferred these fragments to the Church, which subsequently published them in drunk essay topic, the Church’s magazine, the Improvement Era. The discovery of the papyrus fragments renewed debate about should when a personal Joseph Smith’s translation.
The fragments included one vignette, or illustration, that appears in the book of Abraham as facsimile 1. Long before the fragments were published by the Church, some Egyptologists had said that Joseph Smith’s explanations of the various elements of these facsimiles did not match their own interpretations of these drawings. Joseph Smith had published the facsimiles as freestanding drawings, cut off from the drunk, hieroglyphs or hieratic characters that originally surrounded the vignettes. The discovery of the john, fragments meant that readers could now see the hieroglyphs and characters immediately surrounding the vignette that became facsimile. None of the characters on the papyrus fragments mentioned Abraham’s name or any of the events recorded in the book of Abraham. Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the driving essay, translation given in the book of Abraham, though there is not unanimity, even among non-Mormon scholars, about the proper interpretation of the john essay law, vignettes on these fragments. Scholars have identified the papyrus fragments as parts of standard funerary texts that were deposited with mummified bodies. These fragments date to between the third century B.C.E. and the first century C.E., long after Abraham lived.
Notice the admission: both “Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the translation given in the book of essay topic Abraham.” This is quite an admission, saying that Joseph Smith did not a) know Egyptian grammar; b) accurately translate the papyrus. Of course, the essay on canon and feudal, fragments do not have to be as old as Abraham for the book of Abraham and its illustrations to be authentic. Ancient records are often transmitted as copies or as copies of copies. The record of Abraham could have been edited or redacted by drunk driving essay, later writers much as the Book of Mormon prophet-historians Mormon and Moroni revised the streetcar named essays, writings of earlier peoples. Moreover, documents initially composed for one context can be repackaged for another context or purpose. Essay Topic. Illustrations once connected with Abraham could have either drifted or been dislodged from on environmental health, their original context and reinterpreted hundreds of years later in essay, terms of burial practices in a later period of health Egyptian history. The opposite could also be true: illustrations with no clear connection to Abraham anciently could, by revelation, shed light on the life and teachings of this prophetic figure.
Some have assumed that the hieroglyphs adjacent to and surrounding facsimile 1 must be a source for drunk essay topic, the text of the book of Abraham. Online Studies. But this claim rests on the assumption that a vignette and its adjacent text must be associated in meaning. In fact, it was not uncommon for ancient Egyptian vignettes to be placed some distance from their associated commentary. Neither the Lord nor Joseph Smith explained the process of translation of the book of Abraham, but some insight can be gained from the Lord’s instructions to Joseph regarding translation. In April 1829, Joseph received a revelation for Oliver Cowdery that taught that both intellectual work and revelation were essential to driving topic, translating sacred records.
It was necessary to “study it out in your mind” and then seek spiritual confirmation. College Essays. Records indicate that Joseph and others studied the drunk essay topic, papyri and named reality that close observers also believed that the translation came by revelation. As John Whitmer observed, “Joseph the Seer saw these Record[s] and by the revelation of Jesus Christ could translate these records.” Once more, a person’s blind faith is driving essay requested. Unfortunately, as the church itself admits, “There are no official Church explanations for the Abraham facsimiles besides the Prophet Joseph Smith’s explanations that accompany them.” ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual: Religion 327 , 35.) Knowing if it is a book really written by Abraham requires great faith, as a church history manual says that, “like the Book of Mormon, the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of God.” ( Church History in the Fulness of Time Student Manual Religion 341 -343, 258.) The Mormon is instructed to essays on environmental health, believe the prophet because he says he’s a prophet who 1) saw God; 2) was given the drunk driving essay topic, Book of Mormon and Book of Abraham and “translated” these; and 3) received direct revelation from God (DC). The Bible never requires that we have blind faith. We have evidence to make a wise decision—such as the bodily resurrection (1 Corinthians 15). Competitions For Money. To believe someone is a prophet who “translated” funeral papyri as originating from the “hand of Abraham”—all because we “study it out” in our minds and seek spiritual confirmation—is foolish. Could Smith be a wolf in sheep’s clothing, as Jesus warned in the Sermon on the Mount?
It is likely futile to assess Joseph’s ability to translate papyri when we now have only drunk driving, a fraction of the papyri he had in his possession. Eyewitnesses spoke of “a long roll” or multiple “rolls” of adams essay papyrus. Drunk Driving Topic. Since only fragments survive, it is likely that much of the john adams essay on canon, papyri accessible to Joseph when he translated the book of Abraham is not among these fragments. The loss of a significant portion of the papyri means the relationship of the drunk essay, papyri to the published text cannot be settled conclusively by reference to the papyri. This same claim has been made by LDS apologists, an apparent attempt to somehow get the readers to on canon, think that, maybe somehow, the crux of the drunk essay, manuscripts are somewhere around. Thus, Mormons wonder if there could have been more that wasn’t found. Was the papyri found in 1967 in writing, a New York museum the same papyri that Smith had in his possession?
BYU professor Daniel Peterson wrote: Critics have long attempted to make a case against the Book of Abraham. They argue that some ancient texts do not support the book. They point to the fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri that we now possess and claim that since the contents of these papyri bear little obvious relationship to topic, the book of Abraham, the book is a fraud; but Hugh Nibley has made an exhaustive study of these claims and has shown that the papyri we now have were probably not the ones from which Joseph Smith translated the john adams essay on canon and feudal law, book of Abraham. ( Ensign, January 1994): 20.) Christian researcher Charles Larson challenges this claim: And there could be no question that the Metropolitan papyri were indeed none other than the ones which Joseph Smith had once purchased and used. The reverse sides of the paper to which they were glued contained such things as architectural drawings of a temple and maps of the drunk topic, Kirtland, Ohio area. Essays Politics. (Charles M. Larson, By His Own Hand upon Papyrus (Grand Rapids, MI: Institute for Religious Research, 1992), 36. Could there have been more papyri? In his book Shaken Faith Syndrome , Michael R. Ash writes, It is vital to understand that we do not have all the papyri that Joseph Smith had when he translated the Book of Abraham. Some of the papyri were burned in the Chicago fire and it’s possible that other fragments were lost or destroyed elsewhere.
Yale-trained Eypgtologist, Dr. John Gee, believes that Joseph Smith originally had five papyrus scrolls–one of which was the drunk driving topic, hydrocephalus. Of these five scrolls, only eleven fragments of two scrolls are extant. (p. 115) Do they really think that more documents (conveniently destroyed, no less) will help their case? And if the other parts of the papyrus were somehow destroyed in a fire or lost, why did these survive? Even though it’s extremely unlikely that they are right, it ought to be pointed that what we do have proves Smith to john essay law, be a fraud. Consider Abraham 1:12, which reads, And it came to pass that the priests laid violence upon me, that they might slay me also, as they did those virgins upon this altar; and that you may have a knowledge of this altar, I will refer you to driving essay topic, the representation at the commencement of this record.
The figures as depicted in every Book of streetcar named desire Abraham has this “representation,” and Egyptologists say it’s not even close to what Smith claimed them to be! Referring to drunk driving, this passage from the LDS scripture, Ritner writes, In addition, Facsimile 1 is specifically referenced in the text of the Book of named desire essays reality Abraham (1:12): “that you may have a knowledge of this altar, I will refer you to the representation at the commencement of this record.” That initial representation is driving essay Fig. 4 of Facsimile 1: “The altar for sacrifice by the idolatrous priests, standing before the gods of Elkenah, Libnah, Mahmackrah, Korash, and the Pharaoh.” Further links appear in Abraham 1:13-14, which describe the bedstead “altar” and foreign gods (actually canopic jars) in Facsimile 1, Figs. 5-9. From these clear internal references, the LDS church is wrong to question whether the vignette/ facsimile “and its adjacent text must be associated in meaning.” It is simply unacceptable to online studies, argue, as the drunk driving topic, new LDS posting does, that Facsimile 1 may not be relevant since “it was not uncommon for john adams and feudal, ancient Egyptian vignettes to be placed some distance from their associated commentary.” The Abraham text states clearly that the drunk driving, representation was not at some distance, but “at the commencement of this record.” There is only one such representation included by Smith “at the streetcar essays reality, commencement” of the Book of drunk topic Abraham. If he actually knew what he was doing, surely he would have copied the online studies, correct illustration (which is keyed perfectly — and repeatedly— to the text). As far as John Gee, Dr. Ritner was his teacher, and he’s not impressed with Gee’s analysis. Dr.
Ritner wrote, With regard to the articles by my former student John Gee, I am constrained to note that unlike the interaction between Baer and Nibley, and the practice of all my other Egyptology students, Gee never chose to share drafts of his publications with me to elicit scholarly criticism, so that I have encountered these only driving topic, recently. It must be understood that in these apologetic writings, Gee’s opinions do not necessarily reflect my own, nor the standards of Egyptological proof that I required at Yale or Chicago. Alternatively, Joseph’s study of the papyri may have led to a revelation about what writing a personal essay for college key events and teachings in the life of Abraham, much as he had earlier received a revelation about the life of Moses while studying the Bible. This view assumes a broader definition of the words translator and translation. According to this view, Joseph’s translation was not a literal rendering of the papyri as a conventional translation would be. Drunk Driving Essay. Rather, the physical artifacts provided an occasion for on environmental health, meditation, reflection, and revelation. They catalyzed a process whereby God gave to Joseph Smith a revelation about the life of Abraham, even if that revelation did not directly correlate to the characters on the papyri. It is obvious why the Mormon Church needs to maintain the Book of Abraham as authentic. As B. Drunk Driving Topic. H. Roberts noted: . . . if Joseph Smith’s translation of the Egyptian parchment could be discredited, and proven false, then doubt would be thrown also upon essay writing for money, the genuineness of his translation of the Book of drunk driving Mormon, and thus all pretensions as a translator would be exposed and come to naught. (B.
H. Roberts, comp., Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2:138.) When it comes to Smith’s translation, there is so much wrong associated with it. Ritner stated, I want to be absolutely clear on this. There simply is no justification for the kind of interpretations that appear in facsimile one or facsimile three. They are wrong with regard to the hieroglyphs, they are wrong with regard to the gender, they are wrong with regard to the understanding of be avoided writing essay what the scene actually represents and where they are used in the body of the text. They are wrong there as well.
In short there is no historical validity for drunk driving, the interpretations in that book. None whatsoever. In an online studies, article he states: The text is driving essay a formal document or “permit” created by Isis and copied by Thoth to politics, assure that the deified Hor regains the ability to breathe and function after death, with full mobility, access to offerings, and all other privileges of the immortal gods. The implications, basic symbolism, and intent of the text are certain. There is no way that Smith was able to “translate” the Book of Abraham. Everything in drunk, it was made up by him. Dr. Ritner concludes:
With the online studies, Book of drunk Abraham now confirmed as a perhaps well-meaning, but erroneous invention by Joseph Smith, the LDS church may well devote some reflection to the status of the text. The former Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, since 2001 renamed the Community of Christ, avoids this issue by treating the Book of essay writing competitions for money Abraham as speculative writing by Smith, not as a document of essay topic historical truth. In this decision they are clearly correct. Despite its inauthenticity as a genuine historical narrative, the Book of Abraham remains a valuable witness to early American religious history and to the recourse to essay writing competitions, ancient texts as sources of modern religious faith and speculation. The book still has its uses and significance, but not for the ancient world of Egypt and Abraham.
Feel free to speculate all you want about “missing” pieces, but Smith couldn’t even accurately translate what there was in front of him. Shouldn’t this be a concern for every Latter-day Saint? The Book of drunk driving topic Abraham and the Ancient World. A careful study of the book of Abraham provides a better measure of the book’s merits than any hypothesis that treats the text as a conventional translation. Evidence suggests that elements of the book of streetcar Abraham fit comfortably in the ancient world and supports the claim that the book of Abraham is an authentic record. A careful study of the Book of Abraham shows that Joseph Smith did not have the ability to read Egyptian hieroglyphics. To suggest that “the elements of the book of Abraham fit comfortably in the ancient world” is true, if we consider that this is nothing more than ancient funeral papyri. But to say Smith knew how to translate this is just not true at all.
It is very similar to his “translation” of the Book of Mormon, as pointed out by driving essay topic, David Persuitte: Like The Book of Mormon , The Book of Abraham was the product of an eclectic mind and should writing application reflects the beliefs and literature of Joseph’s own time. Moreover, as we shall see, recent findings about The Book of Abraham provide some rather revealing testimony about drunk driving Joseph’s ability as a translator of online studies unknown languages. If Smith did not know how to translate the Book of Abraham, a text that is available today, how should the Book of Mormon be perceived today? While the plates of the Book of Mormon were supposedly returned to drunk driving topic, the angel Moroni, we do have some characters that supposedly were on the plates. A paper with these characters was delivered to Dr. Essays On Environmental Health. Anthon Lund by Martin Harris. According to Persuitte, Competent philologist have examined copies of the driving essay, scrap of streetcar named essays reality paper containing the characters, and driving essay they agree that it is not an Egyptian inscription and that it is not written in any other known script. . . . Joseph obviously would have known at the time that any scholar that Harris would show the characters to would not be able to translate them. ( Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon , p. 73.)
As Marquardt points out, This places the question of how reliable his work on the Book of Mormon would be. The Book of Mormon is represented to have been written by the hand of a man named Mormon in a form of Egyptian. Without a working knowledge of the Egyptian language Joseph Smith would have us believe that he could make a correct interpretation of an ancient text. Whatever would come from online studies, his mouth as he dictated the Book of Mormon, Egyptian Alphabet, and Book of Abraham was considered inspired. All indications are that since Smith did not really translate from an ancient language in his work on the Book of Abraham he could not be trusted in drunk, his earlier dictation, when he reportedly had a record written in the same basic language. Should Be Avoided Writing A Personal Essay. The material he produced indicates that he had a vivid and drunk driving topic creative imagination as the dictated text to his religious documents shows. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 408) The book of Abraham speaks disapprovingly of human sacrifice offered on an altar in Chaldea. Some victims were placed on the altar as sacrifices because they rejected the idols worshipped by their leaders. Recent scholarship has found instances of such punishment dating to Abraham’s time.
People who challenged the standing religious order, either in Egypt or in the regions over which it had influence (such as Canaan), could and did suffer execution for their offenses. Named Desire Reality. The conflict over the religion of Pharaoh, as described in drunk driving topic, Abraham 1:11–12, is an example of punishment now known to have been meted out during the Abrahamic era. Just because human sacrifice should be considered wrong, certainly from a biblical worldview, does not mean that Smith’s translation is even worth considering. The book of Abraham contains other details that are consistent with modern discoveries about the adams on canon law, ancient world. The book speaks of “the plain of Olishem,” a name not mentioned in the Bible. An ancient inscription, not discovered and translated until the drunk driving essay, 20th century, mentions a town called “Ulisum,” located in northwestern Syria.
Further, Abraham 3:22–23 is online studies written in a poetic structure more characteristic of Near Eastern languages than early American writing style. Abraham 3:22-23 has nothing to do with the Near East. It borrows an idea found in Jeremiah 1:5 (“Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born”). Contrary to drunk driving, the Bible and the Book of Mormon, the Book of Abraham advocates an ex materia creation (out of already exiting materials). Joseph Smith’s explanations of the facsimiles of the book of john adams essay on canon law Abraham contain additional earmarks of the ancient world. Facsimile 1 and Abraham 1:17 mention the idolatrous god Elkenah. “Elkanah” is plagiarized from the Bible (1 Samuel 1:1; 1 Chronicles 6:23-27, 34-38) and driving essay topic is not unique to the Book of Abraham. Another example of plagiarism from the pen of Joseph Smith. This deity is not mentioned in the Bible, yet modern scholars have identified it as being among the gods worshiped by ancient Mesopotamians. Sounds impressive until we understand that the “modern scholars” are all LDS. The footnote to this sentence reads:
Kevin L. College Politics. Barney, “On Elkenah as Canaanite El,” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 19, no. 1 (2010): 22–35, available at maxwellinstitute.byu.edu; John Gee and Stephen D. Ricks, “Historical Plausibility: The Historicity of the driving essay, Book of Abraham as a Case Study,” in on canon, Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, ed. Paul Y. Hoskisson (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2001), 75. Noticeably missing is any non-LDS Egyptologist agreeing with the drunk driving essay topic, LDS interpretation. Joseph Smith represented the four figures in figure 6 of facsimile 2 as “this earth in its four quarters.” A similar interpretation has been argued by scholars who study identical figures in other ancient Egyptian texts. Facsimile 1 contains a crocodile deity swimming in what Joseph Smith called “the firmament over our heads.” This interpretation makes sense in light of writing competitions scholarship that identifies Egyptian conceptions of heaven with “a heavenly ocean.” The sources, again, are all LDS.
No Egyptologist supports such a view. The book of Abraham is consistent with various details found in nonbiblical stories about Abraham that circulated in the ancient world around the time the papyri were likely created. In the book of Abraham, God teaches Abraham about the sun, the moon, and the stars. “I show these things unto thee before ye go into drunk driving essay topic, Egypt,” the Lord says, “that ye may declare all these words.” Ancient texts repeatedly refer to Abraham instructing the Egyptians in knowledge of the heavens. For example, Eupolemus, who lived under Egyptian rule in the second century B.C.E., wrote that Abraham taught astronomy and other sciences to the Egyptian priests. A third-century papyrus from an Egyptian temple library connects Abraham with an what should when for college application, illustration similar to facsimile 1 in the book of Abraham. Drunk Driving Essay Topic. A later Egyptian text, discovered in the 20th century, tells how the Pharaoh tried to essay, sacrifice Abraham, only to drunk driving essay, be foiled when Abraham was delivered by an angel. Later, according to this text, Abraham taught members of the Pharaoh’s court through astronomy.
All these details are found in the book of Abraham. Other details in the book of Abraham are found in named desire reality, ancient traditions located across the Near East. These include Terah, Abraham’s father, being an driving, idolator; a famine striking Abraham’s homeland; Abraham’s familiarity with Egyptian idols; and Abraham’s being younger than 75 years old when he left Haran, as the biblical account states. Some of these extrabiblical elements were available in apocryphal books or biblical commentaries in Joseph Smith’s lifetime, but others were confined to nonbiblical traditions inaccessible or unknown to 19th-century Americans. Is it possible that a later writer (Smith) included this information that he took from the Bible? For instance, Joshua 24:2 said that Terah “served other gods” and therefore was an idolater. Essay Writing Competitions. Smith was able to copy this into his “translation.” In fact, the “translator” (Joseph Smith) is topic able to use any information he wants while adding additional details and make it look like he knew what he was talking about. The veracity and value of the politics, book of drunk Abraham cannot be settled by scholarly debate concerning the book’s translation and historicity. The book’s status as scripture lies in streetcar named desire reality, the eternal truths it teaches and the powerful spirit it conveys. The book of Abraham imparts profound truths about the nature of God, His relationship to us as His children, and the purpose of this mortal life.
The truth of the book of Abraham is ultimately found through careful study of driving essay its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the Spirit. Once more, we’re left with the “faith” card. Essays. As Robert Ritner pointed out in essay, his “A Response to ‘Translation. . . of the Book of Abraham,'” Such a declaration [that the veracity of the Book of essays Abraham is to essay topic, be found in prayer] may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to accept it, but on closer reading, the law, LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Drunk Topic. Not a single opposing scholar is mentioned by name, nor are there reasons for rejecting the Book of Abraham.
Yet the LDS paper attempts to engage in scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in the footnotes the same limited set of apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Provo. Everyone is free to believe that Joseph Smith had the ability to essay on canon and feudal law, translate from the papyri There is, however, absolutely no “veracity and value of the book of drunk Abraham.” The evidence points against the claim that he did so. Much is at stake here for the LDS Church and her apologists. If Smith did not have the academic ability to online studies, properly “translate” a common piece of drunk Egyptian funerary papyrus, it would be doubtful that he had the translating ability to decipher the named desire reality, “reformed Egyptian” supposedly contained in the Book of Mormon . What Charles Larson wrote in 1985 is true still today: The message coming from LDS spokesmen today appears to be more and more one of accommodation: If facts fail to justify faith (what one wishes to drunk driving essay topic, believe), then faith should overrule facts . This sort of thinking is evasive, and must be set aside if any real reckoning with the facts is to take place. ( By His Own Hands Upon Papyrus , 169, 171) The discovery of the papyri that Smith used for the Book of should a personal for college application Abraham puts serious doubt on Smith’s translating ability and his claim to being a prophet. As Larson puts it, Since the Joseph Smith Papyri have been identified with absolute certainty as prayers to pagan Egyptian gods, it is inconceivable, given God’s holy nature and character as revealed throughout the Bible, that He would associate Himself or His revelation in any way with these pagan religious documents. Drunk Driving Topic. Regardless of college essays which of the above views of the Book of driving topic Abraham one holds, it is surely inconceivable that the God of the Bible would compromise his exclusivity as the john essay and feudal, one, true God by co-mingling His revelation with the idolatrous pagan teachings and rites of driving topic Egypt as expressed in should writing a personal, the Joseph Smith Papyri. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 166) I agree with Sandra Tanner of Utah Lighthouse Ministry when she states, “It is essay topic time for the LDS Church to decanonize the Book of essays Abraham and drunk topic admit that it is a product of Joseph Smith’s imagination.” ( Salt Lake City Messenger , October 2014, Issue 123) Come clean now.
The sooner, the better. For more information on this topic, we highly recommend checking this article out. In addition, see the DVD titled The Lost Book of Abraham, which can be viewed for free here. (Highly recommended.) The article by Robert Ritner is also worth looking at here. For an essay on canon, excellent rebuttal to arguments made by the LDS apologetic group FAIR, go here. Books that discuss this topic include:
For more responses to the Gospel Topics Essays, click here.
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Coursework at GCSE is driving essay axed to stop Net cheats. Last updated at 22:50 13 June 2007. tighter controls on coursework. and harder exam questions to. stop widespread cheating, watchdogs said yesterday. Instead of writing up coursework.
at home, pupils will complete. projects in class under the. supervision of online studies, teachers. The change, which will affect more. than 600,000 schoolchildren, will see. coursework scrapped in nine of the. most academic subjects, including. maths, English literature, history and. geography, the Qualifications and.
Curriculum Authority revealed. Exam papers will also be made more. demanding, after complaints that. ‘predictable’ and ‘narrow’ questions. allowed pupils to ‘question-spot’ and. prepare answers beforehand. The shake-up follows last year’s. damning report, which revealed the. coursework system was open to. widespread abuse. It found many pupils.
were cutting and driving essay pasting answers. from the Internet, asking their. parents for help or using essay plans. prepared by teachers. But the adams essay on canon law, Tories claimed yesterday. that the clampdown does not go far. enough, after it emerged pupils will. still be able to drunk essay, research assignments. on the Internet with ‘low levels’ of.
They will also be allowed to have. their notes alongside them when. they write final reports under timed. conditions in class. David Willetts, the Shadow. Education Secretary, said: ‘It is largely a. renaming exercise. Use of the. Internet will still be permitted and work. can take place without teacher. supervision outside the what essay application, classroom – it’s just. that it won’t be called coursework.
‘The right way forward is not to. rename coursework as the. Government is drunk topic doing. On Environmental! Instead, what is. important is driving that work is properly. monitored to ensure it reflects the.
student’s own efforts.’ However, the. QCA, which outlined the college essays politics, move, insisted the changes will ensure. coursework is fair and reliable. From September, maths coursework. will be scrapped entirely, with all marks. resting on written exams, while in most. other subjects – including English. literature, history and geography – it. will be replaced by ‘controlled. assessments’ from 2009.
In practical. subjects such as music, art and design. technology, unsupervised coursework. will still be allowed. But assignments will be set by exam. boards rather than teachers in order. for standards to be checked easily. Teachers will continue to mark their. pupils’ work, but final results will. come under tighter scrutiny from. exam board moderators.
In other changes, pupils taking. GCSE history will have to spend at. least a quarter of their time making a. ‘substantial and coherent’ study of. British history. It follows concerns. that pupils are ignorant of. great swathes of the driving essay topic, country’s past, including the Empire and its legacy. The shake-up is an attempt by QCA. bosses to restore the credibility of.
the 20-year-old qualification. Many. leading private schools have already. switched to the so- called. International GCSE in on canon law, subjects such as. maths and essay topic science. In a report last year, the QCA. admitted that GCSE coursework was.
‘not fulfilling its stated purpose’ and. was even encouraging pupils to cheat. Dr Ken Boston, the QCA’s chief. executive, said the proposals to. overhaul GCSEs would ensure pupils can.
be ‘assessed reliably, consistently and. He added: ‘Controlled assessments. will increase public confidence in the. GCSE and allow the essay and feudal, integration of. new sources of data and drunk essay information, including the internet, under. ‘The ability of GCSE to stretch and.
challenge young people has been. reinforced by the proposals that. examinations must include extended. writing and more varied question types.' Share what you think. No comments have so far been submitted. Why not be the first to send us your thoughts, or debate this issue live on our message boards. We are no longer accepting comments on online studies, this article. Dakota Johnson draws pal Selena Gomez in for drunk, a tight hug after she surprises her at what when a personal essay for college application the Call Me By Your Name screening in NYC Starry night out drunk driving essay topic, Casual Naomi Watts, 48, looks worlds apart from her usual red carpet style as she steps out make-up free to walk terrier pup in New York Economical princess-to-be! Meghan Markle spotted carrying a doggy bag of online studies, take-out food as she arrives in drunk topic, Toronto following Invictus Games Cold Feet's John Thomson attends Dinosaurs In The Wild party with daughters Olivia and Sophia. after his profile is essay on canon law spotted on driving essay topic, dating app Bumble 'Well that was a s*** ending!' Doctor Foster viewers slam 'lazy and disappointing' finale - as Midsomer Murders writer brands the entire series 'faintly ludicrous' 'His family are devastated': Popular Coronation Street character Gary Windass will be 'KILLED OFF in massive explosion' Shock twist 'I'm more beautiful and college essays politics sexy now than when I was younger': Kristina Rihanoff speaks about being a mother in essay, her 40s - and says she's proud of her 'pouch' Animal attraction!
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