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Banks Measuring the Synergy of a Merger. Need essay sample on Banks Measuring the Synergy of a Merger ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for toni, you for only $12.90/page. As a result of an essay on should cellphones in school deregulation and increasing corporate globalisation, financial institutions such as banks are looking to consolidate their position within the national and international marketplace. Over the last decade or so, one of the popular routes chosen to achieve this is by way of Mergers and Acquisitions (MA). We have used the model of a proposed bank-to-bank merger as the focus of this document.
However, before such an event takes place the institutions in question need to toni morrison by essays assure themselves of the synergies achievable. This report studies the ways and methods of measuring the synergies of a proposed merger. We find that there are two main areas of Synergy to be looked at, namely Cost saving and Revenue enhancement. In the course our research on the ‘quantitative’ methods by which synergies can be measured we have looked briefly at their purpose in respect of the corporate market. The Synergy of Mergers. Bank ABC Inc is considering a merger with its smaller bank competitor bank DEF Inc.
To ascertain where such action is cold necessary and would be successful the banks need to consider the synergy rational behind the proposed merger and submit these to the business stakeholders for approval. The question before them is therefore how, and by what quantitative methods can they measure the synergy that would be created by such a merger? In order to deal with this subject effectively we must first understand the definition of synergy as it understood in the business sense. From a corporate point of view, synergy is defined in toni morrison the dictionary in two ways. A) As an interaction between corporate groups that creates an essay or bibliography, enhanced combined effect, which are seen as the internal drivers of synergy, or. B) More technically the ability of those merged company’s to create greater shareholders wealth than stand alone entities, considered to be the external drivers of synergy. For the purpose of morrison this study the cellphones, analysis of synergies in business mergers can be divided into morrison, two sub categories. i) Cost Saving (known as Hard Synergies) This includes such expense items as staff rationalization (with possible, though in most cases actual, redundancies), the cold introduction, streamlining of administration and toni morrison by essays, back office systems and logistics.
In terms of system integration the financial benefits could be quite substantial, especially in cases like usage of the Internet. In the stages in nursing, case of bank-to-bank mergers there is also the saving possibility from the reduction of branches. Most major towns would have at least one branch of each of the of the merger participating banks. Post merger they would only morrison by essays be the need for one. A merger would therefore be cost effective in stages this instance and bring cash value back into the business and, by default, to its shareholders. Alternatively, in terms of growth and geographical coverage, an acquiring bank may use the morrison by essays, merger route as a way of achieving growth at a cost, which would be far less by way of merger than the expenditure necessary to achieve the same level of coverage as a stand alone enterprise. This was the case in the UK and school maths, a large part of the rational between Lloyds Bank and the TSB bank. Lloyds bank predominately located in the southern half of England and TSB were predominately concentrated in the northern parts and Scotland.
The merger gave the acquiring bank (Lloyds) national coverage, whilst retaining both brand names under the merged public image of Lloyds TSB Plc. Toni! Amalgamation of cold head offices, joint promotional and marketing programmes, combining technological systems, such as computers and Internet systems, are further examples of hard synergies. All of this reorganization has been recognised as essential to the process of helping to make the merged business better organized and more cost efficient. In his article for Academy of Management Review, M Lubatkin (1983) was one of the first strategists to recognise how important, in terms of Mergers and Acquisitions, were the strategic and organisation elements. Because of the morrison, nature of these synergies, it is a relatively straightforward task to be able to calculate the cold introduction, financial consequences of a successful merger.
By their very description there is toni morrison little difficulty in being able to maths calculate cost saving element of the merger. There are of course other less easily calculated “hard” synergies such as in toni by essays the area of training. Stages Of Critical! In a merger both the acquirer acquired, assuming the culture drive was not excessive, would benefit from the fact that, post-merger, they would have access to a larger resource of toni morrison trained staff, already experienced within the all fields of the business. The synergies of cost control have historically proven to be one half of a key element in coursework the successful outcome of a merger in the field of bank consolidation. Bank-to-Bank mergers where the strategies of cost control show evidence of high levels of synergy witness a positive performance level. Alternatively there may be a drop in performance if firms with different cost controlling strategies choose to merge (Prahalad and Bettis, 1986). ii) Revenue Enhancements (known as Soft Synergies) The area of soft synergies, by their very nature, cannot be calculated or defined in toni morrison by essays such a positive manner as “hard” synergies. Nevertheless their calculation as part of the overall synergy is just as, in not more important. The ability for cross selling is an important synergy to an essay cellphones be allowed reflect upon, though in many instances, in terms of toni morrison by essays scale, this may be more beneficial for the acquired bank than the acquirer. For example, the acquiring bank sells product Y and the acquired bank sells product Z. Pre merger, the acquired has 500 branches and the acquirer had 2,500.
The result of the merger means that the acquirer has increased the branch sales force for their product by of smoking five. Even the acquiring bank has increased theirs by 20%. Staffs themselves are another synergy to consider carefully, especially from the acquirers point of view. There is likely to be an initial resistance to the acquirer from by essays, that quarter so it is essential that they be taken into essay om musik, consideration when considering possible changes to toni morrison by essays the culture and working methods of the acquired company. Cold! The lost of highly trained staff soon after the merger could prove to toni morrison be extremely disruptive and adversely affect the level of synergy considered to be in place prior to the merger. Strengths and weaknesses. Pre merger there is limited ability for either of the banks to apply themselves to dramatically change the positions of cold introduction strengths and weaknesses with their own corporation.
However the positive would be quite different post merger. In this situation the two banks would be able to draw from one another, using compatible strengths to power growth and achieve added value, whilst at the same time taking the strengths from one to protect against the weakness of the other. Research has shown that improvements to inefficiency could be expected from banking mergers (Humphrey and Vale 2003) Branding and goodwill are other incidence of “Soft” synergies. Toni Morrison By Essays! For example, pre merger the name TSB was recognised as a relatively minor player in banking circles. Mention the stages of critical in nursing, same name today and it conjures up an morrison by essays, image of the third largest bank in school the country. There is no opportunity to toni reflect on the balance sheet the real reason why many companies merge, which is to gain the benefits of enhanced brand portfolios or to leverage the of critical, corporate brands to produce market or revenue synergies. (John Stokdyk 1999) Although a high number of mergers have failed to produce the desired results, The successes in relation to morrison mergers with high levels of synergies are reflected in both those mergers witnessed within the domestic market and cross border mergers. Danger! In terms of performance, bank mergers in the domestic sector tend to see an by essays, increase of an essay on should be allowed in school around 1.2%, only slightly lower than cross border mergers, which return 1.5%.
These findings are supported by results by by essays Houston and Ryngaert (2001). It follows therefore, that to essay achieve a successful merger the organisations have to measure, and fully evaluate the hard and soft synergies areas between the toni by essays, two businesses, and indeed ensure that they exist in war essay the first place. Furthermore the analysis is morrison a necessary exercise in the decision making process as to essay om musik whether the institution should proceed with the toni by essays, proposed merger in the first place. Without the existence of synergies between the cold introduction, acquiring and acquired business there would be no added value achievement in the merger and, in fact it could be detrimental to both parties involved with the proposal. As indicated in definition b) above one of the main reasons for a merger is a greater wealth for toni, shareholders than they are enjoying in the pre-merger situation. Synergies or no synergies are the question? The following logic tree for merger specific efficiencies and synergies may go some way to providing an answer. http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/shapiro/mergers.pdf page 12 of 28. There have been a high number of recorded cases of mergers, which despite the pre merger promotion of high levels of synergies between the acquirer and acquired, have not succeeded because the stated objectives of efficiencies could not be met, or at best not within the essay reference or bibliography, projected timescale. Morrison! This may be partly due to the fact that the reasoning behind such mergers was more connected with the desire for growth was a more important determining factor. It also may reflect the fact that, despite the synergy being apparent, there was an inability to school be able to convert the theory into fact.
The successful mergers occur where the identification of the areas of synergy pre-merger can be turned into facts post-merger. Available evidence supports this premise. The merger cases involving Bank of America and Chase Manhattan Bank are two such successes. Nouravi, Mahmoud M, Chavis, Betty M (1998) report on the outcome of the merger involving Bank of America found that, “In the case of Bank of America improvement in managing resources helped the company deal with increases in the other non-interest expense items. It appears that BOA has utilized the synergy available to it from the merger with SP in the loan portfolio management, as well as in controlling costs.” In the morrison, case of Chase Manhatten their CEO, Harrison, William B. Jr, (2000) in a letter to cold shareholders, declared, “We have, in fact, accomplished what many mergers of today strive for scale and market leadership in core businesses and integrated delivery…” Referring to merger activities with the European market John Rushton (2002) observed, “Those managers who can deliver operational synergies, and can replicate the process, will create a new paradigm for banking operations, generate superior value for morrison, their shareholders, and re-model the European banking arena.” So what are the driving forces behind Bank-to-bank synergies and how can these synergies be measured?
Drivers of Synergies. As can be seen from the on should cellphones be allowed in school, following, there are a variety of factors that are brought into play immediately thoughts of a merger are given credence. When a merger takes place the acquirer, almost without exception, is required to pay a premium over and above the value of the business. This and the method of payment have a marked effect initially upon shareholder values, thus the importance of synergy. As has been mentioned in many places, “When you pay six for something worth five, you have to toni morrison find sufficient synergy to make up the difference.” The risk management are taking is the essay om musik, possibility of achieving these efficiencies. Not only that but they will be expected to achieve them within the timescale set out before the merger, a feat that is very seldom possible, even in the most efficient of businesses. The strategic relatedness and relative size is also important in terms of the level of synergy it is possible to morrison achieve.
In bank-to-bank mergers, the relatedness is not a problem as, generally all the products and services offered are similar if not almost identical. Size is important too because mergers are more effective and efficient if the acquired business is of a smaller size than the acquirers. Therefore the management has to study the equation in depth to ensure that the required synergies can be achieved from the various internal factors, either on a cost cutting or revenue enhancing basis. Those areas being operational areas for direct cost cutting purposes, which will include the capital assets of the business. In the case of the banks this may include freehold or leasehold commercial property, system integration such as information technology and Internet, strategy and control and school maths, culture. If all of these parts are in place then the management of the acquiring business is then set with the task of measuring the expected synergies. Measuring Synergies – “Soft Synergy” One of the most important parts of the measuring of “soft” synergies, those dealing with revenue enhancement, is the value generated for shareholders (EPS). The following table shows the effect that paying a premium for the acquired business has on the earnings per share and over how many years the effects of the by essays, merger on EPS will take to recover from the cost and be returning value to shareholders comparable with pre merger levels.
Table 1 provides details of data for reference or bibliography, a sample of toni two companies entering into a merger. Table 2 indicates the effect that different premiums paid will have on the earnings per share, in other words the synergy of earnings on shares. © Stanley Block 1997. © Stanley Block 1997. As can be seen from the above table, the higher the level of of critical thinking in nursing premium paid for the acquired business, the bigger the initial dilution in shareholder value and the longer term it takes in respect of years, to recover the equity position. One of the most quantifiable tools for measuring synergy is that produced by Denison (1995). It is survey based and is particularly relevant in terms of the synergy of morrison by essays culture.
It is of critical in nursing survey based, with the responses recorded in percentage terms. Toni! The results of the survey are then fed into a typical organizational culture circumplex from reference, which is produced a reasonably accurate guide as the levels of adaptability, mission, consistency and involvement in a particular product. Used to measure the cultural aspect of the proposed merger, it could give a fair indication of the flexibility of the workforce and thus the synergy that they would provide upon toni the execution of the merger. The businesses involved with the merger as, being banks, most of their services are customer based and stages of critical in nursing, their staff customer focused in their duties. It is thus extremely important to evaluate any areas of concern that the work force may have at a very early stage in the process. That is where a tool like the Denision survey based on, and the answers produced, is extremely important. Disruption because of lack of focus, or a drop in the standard of customer care in the early stages of the merged businesses life, could seriously affect the timescale in which the synergies should be producing results. This in turn would have a negative effect in both shareholders and the financial markets confidence. At the same time the merged businesses need to look realistically at the quality of their staff and the training levels. Customer liaison and care in toni all areas of the business will be vital for the success of the venture.
Measuring Synergies – “Hard” Synergy. The methods for calculating the effects of a larger branch network and reference or bibliography, increase in the numbers of trained personnel available to increase sales of products is relatively straightforward to by essays calculate. It is a matter of analysing historical statistics. Working of the example of size we used earlier, the acquirer with 3,000 branches and the acquired with 500, it is a relatively straightforward exercise to calculate the essay or bibliography, additional sales opportunities available. Similarly in terms of property assets and disposals of these post merger. These are measured by simple mathematical calculations.
However with regard to branch disposals it would not just simply be a question of the release of capital back to the business. There is also the synergy of Revenue Enhancement to consider. As most of the branches closed are likely to be as a result of duplication, there is a value added element. The majority of the customers from the branch that is closed will transfer to the other branch of the merged entity. Thus the company will end up with the same income as was available to the two pre merged entities, but with substantially reduced costs applicable to that income. This is known as the economies of scale. When evaluating synergy in relation to mergers, one method of measuring that is always employed is economies of scale. Toni Morrison! The following simple example shows the basics of this method. It reveals that, if a cost of a service to a bank was $1,000 and that bank had 100 customers, the cold introduction, Average cost per customer would be $10.
If the number of customers doubled, but the costs remained the same, then the cost per customer would halve. Of course in reality the law of diminishing returns is not that simple for the size of organisations we are studying in toni by essays this report. As Stephen Suranovic (2004) shows in his studies, there is essay reference a time when the benefits begin to fall away (see figure 2 and explanation) With a simple adjustment it is possible to show that economies of scale in production is equivalent to increasing returns to scale. Increasing returns to toni by essays scale in essay reference production means that an increase in resource usage, by say x%, results in an increase in output by more than x%. In the adjoining diagram we plot labor productivity in steel production when production exhibits increasing returns to scale. [This graph is derived by morrison by essays plotting the reciprocal of the unit-labor requirement (i.e. 1/aLS) for each output level in the above diagram.] Note that as output (scale) increases from Q1S to maths coursework Q2S, labor productivity (given by the reciprocal of the unit-labor requirement) also rises. Toni Morrison! In other words, output per unit of labor input increases as the scale of essay production rises, hence increasing returns to scale. Another way to by essays characterize economies of scale is essay reference or bibliography with a decreasing average cost curve. Average costs, AC, are calculated as the total costs to produce output Q, TC(Q), divided by total output.
Thus AC(Q) = TC(Q)/Q. When average costs decline as output increases it means that it becomes cheaper to produce the average unit as the scale of production rises, hence economies of scale. Toni! The principles of economies of essay om musik scale method is very popular and the general opinion is that, As a result of toni morrison economies of scale and scope deriving from the combination of essay or bibliography similar skills, a firm competing on the basis of low cost and operating efficiency is expected to benefit from merging with another organisation characterized by a set of similar strategies. (Bollenbacher. 1995) The results of our research and studies are that there are several reasonably simple quantitative methods of measuring the synergies relevant in by essays terms of a bank-to-bank merger. However different measuring tools are necessary for different aspects of the danger, project. For example in terms of revenue enhancement, an particularly shareholder value, one needs to toni use the model for Earnings Per Share (EPS), as this will give an indication both of the level of premium paid for the acquired business which is acceptable to maths the shareholders and other stakeholders, and will indicate the lifecycle needed in order to recover the pre-merger EPS levels. Morrison By Essays! For the Cost-synergy analysis and measurement, some areas will be a question of simple mathematics’, for example the value of the sale proceeds for any freehold property sold, the saving on costs etc as a result of branches closed down and, possibly, redundancies. The same would be true in school coursework areas such as system integration, computers and toni by essays, information technology.
The business would also need to measure how far the effect of the law of economies of scale. How achievable it is, what areas it applies to and as what point in the equation does it begin to essay om musik return to scale. Finally, and bearing in mind that the study relates to a bank-to-bank merger, which is heavily customer focused, it is critical for the business to study the cultural and customer synergy in some depth. The level of flexibility of staff to by essays the changes, their acceptance or otherwise of the proposed merger, and coursework, their customer focus is extremely important, indeed critical to the success of the venture. To analyse the cultural, employee and customer side of the proposed merger the Denison survey based tool would be of considerable use. Bollenbacher G.M. (1995), The New Business of Banking: Transforming Challenges Into Opportunities in Today’s Financial Services Marketplace, revised edition, New York. Morrison By Essays! Irwin 1995. Denison, D. and Mishra, A., Towards a Theory of Organisational Culture and Effectiveness; Organisational Science/ Vol 6, No 2 March-April 1995. Harrison, William B. Reference Or Bibliography! Jr. (2000). Commenting in a letter to shareholders, Annual Report Chase Manhatten 1999.
Houston, J.H. and M. Ryngaert (1994), The overall gain from morrison by essays, large bank mergers, Journal of Banking and Finance 18, 6, pp. 1155-1176. Humphrey, D. and B. Vale (2004), Scale economies, bank mergers, and electronic payments: a spline function approach. Journal of Bank and Finance (forthcoming) Lubatkin, M (1983), Merger and performance of the acquiring firm, Academy of Management Review 8,2 pp. 218-225. Marek Jindra (October 2002).
Synergy in Mergers Acquisitions – Theory and Practice in Central Europe – Powerpoint presentation 2002. Nouravi, Mahmoud M, Chavis, Betty M (1998) Financial synergy of bank mergers: The case of Bank of on should be allowed in school America, The Journal of Bank Cost Management Accounting. Prahalad and Bettis (1986), The Dominant Logic: A new linkage between diversity and toni, performance, Strategic Management Journal 7, pp 485-501. Rushton, John. (2002) European bank shareholders are missing out on cross-border synergy benefits. Stages Of Critical In Nursing! European Banker 2002. Stokdyk, John. (1999). Article: Brand new look at the goodwill factor, Accountancy Age magazine1999.
Suranovic, Steven. M, (2004). Economies of Scale and Returns to Scales, International Trade Theory and Policy Lecture Notes 2004.
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paradise road essay For the invisible things of him from the creation. of the toni morrison by essays world are clearly seen, being understood by the things. that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead . . . Out of the foaming ferment of finitude. Spirit rises up fragrantly. Hegel, Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion. It is at an essay on should be allowed the same time true that the world.
is what we see and that, nonetheless, we must learn. to see it-first in the sense that we must match this vision. with knowledge, take possession of it, say what. we and what seeing are, act therefore as if we knew nothing. about it, as if here we still had everything to learn. Merleau-Ponty, The Visible and the Invisible. When I first started emailing Brian Sweeney about his selection of photos for this book he quoted Ralph Waldo Emerson-“the sky is the daily bread of the eye.” The idea that nature is at once commonplace reality and uncommon sustenance-as in The Lord’s Prayer, “give us this day our daily bread”-is at the heart of Sweeney’s vision. He mentioned he found the quote on toni by essays a website dedicated to the Concord Transcendentalists. No doubt I should have, but from here in essay om musik New Zealand I didn’t realize that Emerson and Thoreau and morrison by essays, their group were based around the essay om musik little town of Concord in Massachusetts, New England. I assumed that Concord referred to a jet.
And that the Concord Transcendentalists must be a modern movement finding inspiration in nature while on morrison the fly! Of course, I realized my mistake when I checked out the website. But for Sweeney at least I reckon Concord Transcendentalist in my misguided sense fits perfectly. So many of Sweeney’s photographs are meditations on war essay introduction flight. Toni Morrison By Essays? From the air he sees the ground transpire beneath him. From the ground he lift his eyes into the light. Even when he is not physically on the move, his imagination takes off over earth and sea, beyond horizons. Sweeney’s business sees him fly regularly between New Zealand and cold war essay introduction, New York. Over the years he has tracked his movement between these two poles on a modest Canon with everyday Kodak film and toni morrison, a medium-sized zoom. His photos, whether taken at war essay introduction pace or rest, are invariably soaring-and picture nature full of by essays, meaning, even as it surpasses understanding. Sweeney makes no attempt to cold introduction trick out by essays what he sees with high-end gear or intricate after-effects.
His equipment is essay, middle-ofthe- road, but his eye is passionate and morrison by essays, his vision of the or bibliography world, religious. Historian of Religions Mircea Eliade, in his classic 1957 book The Sacred and the Profane , contrasts the attitude and toni, experience of war essay, religious man to that of toni by essays, nonreligious man. For religious man, nature is never only natural; it is shot through with a sense of the sacred. But for essay om musik, non-religious man-a comparatively recent mode of morrison, being-the cosmos has been desacralized and is only ever what it is and an essay be allowed in school, nothing more. For the non-religious man, nature may of course be pleasing and in its way uplifting, but not in a way that connects him to a higher power. (Let us say from the get-go that these two modes of being are often-and most often superficially-contrasted in the person of the artist on the one hand, who reputedly looks up, and on the other the businessman, characterized as obdurately down to earth.
So, for Sweeney, artist and morrison by essays, businessman at once, the essay om musik idea of the sacred and the profane is toni morrison by essays, already going to be contested and complex.) Eliade uses the term hierophany to describe the introduction manifestation of the sacred in everyday life. In a hierophany the sacred is witnessed as something absolutely different from the profane. But crucially and paradoxically, it is toni morrison by essays, only ever through the profane that the school coursework sacred manifests itself. By manifesting the sacred, any object becomes something else , yet it continues to toni remain itself , for it continues to participate in its surrounding cosmic milieu. A sacred stone remains a stone ; apparently (or, more precisely, from the profane point of view), nothing distinguishes it from all other stones. But for those to whom a stone reveals itself as sacred, its immediate reality is transmuted into supernatural reality.
1. The photographs in Sweeney’s Paradise Road envision the reference world around us in its grandeur and banality as a sacred milieu to the very extent that it is by essays, not. Sweeney’s photos reveal that the place apart is no distance from the way well traveled. Of course, the word “paradise” tells us to look up. But then again the school maths word “road” advises that we keep our feet on toni the ground. If paradise is a place apart, road is a way in common. The nineteenth-century Transcendentalists made a cult of nature. Not only did nature in its grand and overpowering aspect communicate the infinite-in the sense of the sublime which exercised the imaginations of eighteenth-century artists and thinkers taking their lead from Edmund Burke-but also in its quiet and intimate moments. It is not only the raging storm, the frenzied surf, the blizzard, or the precipice that awes man with infinity, but also the maths contemplation of undisturbed nature. In his essay “Nature,” Emerson writes:
I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God . . . Toni Morrison By Essays? I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. War Essay Introduction? In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the toni by essays tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. 2. Brian Sweeney might well agree with Emerson that “the happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship.” The proper focus of worship was on Emerson’s mind when he was invited to address the Harvard Divinity School on Sunday, July 15, 1838.
He complained that organized religion had failed to communicate man’s own infinite nature through an engaged appreciation of the outdoors: In how many churches, by how many prophets, tell me, is man made sensible that he is an infinite Soul; that the earth and heavens are passing into his mind; that he is drinking forever the soul of maths coursework, God? Where now sounds the persuasion, that by its very melody imparadises my heart, and so affirms its own origin in heaven? 3. According to Emerson, the Churches had lost their way. By seeking to by essays separate the sacred from the profane-and hoard it instead around their own buildings, vestments, and rituals-they had in fact lost touch with the sacred and stages of critical thinking in nursing, diminished human nature at the same time.
His words caused a scandal-especially as he advocated that the real miracle was nature and repudiated the need to toni believe in the supernatural miracles of essay om musik, Jesus. The evaporation of the sacred from modern consciousness might be seen as an effect of organized religion’s attempt to toni by essays hold it apart. Certainly, Western man now tends to occupy a stubbornly profane cosmos diminishing him against school maths coursework, its brute immensity, rather than exalting him through common cause. Of course, non-religious man, in so far as this is an active role, attempts his own [tragic] grandeur by refusing any appeal to toni morrison by essays transcendence, seeking instead to raise himself up by himself. As Eliade explains, non-religious man: makes himself, and he only makes himself completely in proportion as he desacralizes himself and the world. School Coursework? The sacred is the prime obstacle to his freedom.
He will become himself only when he is completely demysticized. He will not be truly free until he has killed the last god. 4. Intriguingly, however, Eliade goes on to point out morrison that, whether he likes it or not, non-religious man is a direct descendant of stages of critical thinking in nursing, religious man. Toni? To the extent that nonreligious man has sought to purify himself from the beliefs and observances of his ancestors, those very behaviors continue to structure his existence. He forms himself by a series of denials and refusals, but he continues to be haunted by the realities that he has refused and denied. Introduction? To acquire a world of toni morrison, his own he has desacralized the world in which his ancestors lived; but to do so he has been obliged to adopt the opposite of an earlier form of behavior, and that behavior is still emotionally present to him, in one form or another, ready to be reactualized in his deepest being. Danger Of Smoking Essay? 5. In other words, while we may have lost a religious outlook, there are certain modalities of nature that continue to move us on a symbolic and/or unconscious level.
No doubt this is part of the toni power of be allowed, Brian Sweeney’s photographs in Paradise Road . Even if we don’t view them through the eyes of faith, his keenly discriminated images of morrison, sky, clouds, horizons, mountains, water, and trees will nevertheless strike us with an atavistic sense of the sacred power of nature. The sky is a recurrent symbol in Sweeney’s work. As Eliade explains: Simple contemplation of the celestial vault already provokes a religious experience . . Essay Reference? . Transcendence is revealed by simple awareness of infinite height. ‘Most high’ spontaneously becomes an attribute of divinity. 6.
Whether he is on the ground looking up at the sky, or in the sky looking out or down, Sweeney’s heavens are invariably shot through with clouds. Toni Morrison By Essays? Clouds have a transitional quality, linking the school maths coursework sky with the earth, the high with the low, the sacred with the profane. (In this respect, they offer a perfect path for Sweeney’s imagination, as he seeks to invest the everyday and sometimes overlooked world with higher value.) Perhaps, too, clouds for Sweeney are particularly seeded with meaning, given that the Maori name for morrison by essays, New Zealand is Aotearoa -literally, “the land of the long white cloud.” Named by the legendary navigator Kupe, traveling across the vast Pacific from his homeland Hawaiki, the band of essay om musik, clouds on the horizon were a portent of landfall and a new world. Like the toni morrison sky itself, clouds have a long history in religious belief. In various mystical traditions clouds express the cold war essay introduction unknowable nature of the divine (for example, The Cloud of Unknowing , a medieval work of Christian mysticism). When clouds lift or clouds part, something hidden is revealed. This in toni morrison by essays itself has a religious drift to it. When the clouds part, we glimpse the light.
Veiling God, too terrible for human eye, the cloud already symbolizes the presence of God. Early in cellphones in school religious evolution, the cloud was a symbol of the Mesopotamian storm gods; and in Egypt of the creation deity. Later, as Jacqueline Taylor Basker outlines in her fascinating essay “The Cloud as Symbol: Destruction or Dialogue”: The Ancient Hebrews adapted the image of the cloud for Yahweh. As an aniconic people, who could not use a tangible material image to represent their god, the cloud provided a convenient insubstantial object to use as a visible symbol. During the wanderings of the Jews in the desert, the by essays cloud hovers over or in the ‘tent of witness’ and plays a symbolic role as a recurrent theophany (an appearance of the Divine) in Old Testament scripture to witness the presence of God. 7. The Old Testament use of cloud symbolism continues in the New, now underlying the divine nature of Christ, as we see in essay om musik the Transfiguration described in the Gospel of toni by essays, Matthew (17:5):
While he was still speaking, a bright cloud enveloped them, and a voice from the cloud said, ‘This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Listen to him!’ Sweeney’s use of cloud imagery is school, rich and multivalent. His cloud formations can recall religious ideas about the eye of God or clouds of glory, while also evoking secular notions of castles in toni by essays the sky-or, in opposite mood, mushroom clouds and nuclear destruction. Equally as powerful as sky and cloud in Sweeney’s symbolic world is water. In religious myth, water precedes creation. We sense this in Sweeney’s spectacular series of horizon photos taken from Raumati where he sometimes lives on the lower West Coast of New Zealand’s North Island. Essay Om Musik? In these images, where water meets sky in changing light, it is as if the toni by essays void takes shape-a creation myth enacted for his lens. For Sweeney, who grew up Roman Catholic, the first verses of reference, Genesis would surely have inspired his vision: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon toni morrison, the face of the on should in school deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, ‘Let there be light’: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good: and morrison by essays, God divided the essay om musik light from the darkness. Water symbolizes creative potential. Morrison? The actual world of form and endeavor emerges out of water and ultimately dissolves back into it, purified and washed clean. As Eliade says, water is the essay or bibliography “reservoir of all the toni morrison possibilities of thinking, existence.” Likewise, the horizon line opens us up to unlimited possibility, releasing us from life as it has taken shape around us and into the infinite beyond. “The health of the eye,” wrote Emerson, “seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough.” 8.
In conversation, Sweeney often talks about the restorative effect of horizons, and in particular how this view from toni by essays Raumati used to excite his wonder about what might lie ahead for him-a virtuality that became actual when he left these islands surrounded by water to reimagine himself on the island of Manhattan. For Sweeney the cultural and business opportunity of America is a promised land that called him forth. New York in particular is the symbolic and storied center of the world, especially compared to New Zealand geographically and by stages of critical, association culturally on the edge of the world. But just as the sacred and the profane are necessarily coterminous for religious man, the center and the edge fold over each other for Sweeney. Hence, in his photography, he brings together nature-symbolized by the New Zealand landscape-and culture- symbolized by New York.
Traditionally, as we have seen, it is nature that is commonly invested with centrality or sacrality. Culture, on the other hand, is man-made, temporal, and by toni by essays, comparison regarded as peripheral. So, already in Sweeney’s work there is essay reference or bibliography, a certain displacement if not inversion between the idea of New Zealand and morrison by essays, New York. According to essay om musik this reading New Zealand would be a natural paradise and central while New York, teeming and distracted, would be far flung and on the edge. But the more we contemplate Sweeney’s photographs, the morrison more we find these bipolar world views artfully turned upsidedown- his framing of nature is determined by both the an essay on should be allowed history of religion and toni morrison, of art (and in stages of critical thinking this way are mediated or unnatural; while his urban views, equally mediated by art history, are presented as natural pieces of infinity. You can see this for example in by essays his image Aoraki Mt Cook . It speaks of incomparable natural splendor. As Sweeney says in conversation, “If mountains were show business this would be Broadway.” At the same time, we can’t help but be aware of its “chocolate box” vista-a view a million other travelers have snapped in passing as they seek to eff its ineffability. Whether conscious or unconscious, the historical religious significance of such a sight is overwhelming-the mountain surrounded by water and piercing the clouds is a universal paradisiacal image- and yet for this very reason, to our welltutored eye, the image can also be read as a familiar effect of enculturation.
In Sweeney’s images, then, the an essay on should cellphones sacred and the profane are in studied tension. In fact, it is toni morrison, along the horizon line of these two modes of perception that his images send our spirit flying. Again we experience something like this in his photo Road . This was taken on an essay on should a road less traveled near Lake Taupo in morrison by essays the central North Island of New Zealand-for those in the know, site of a massive eruption in 180 ce, recorded to have turned the an essay on should cellphones in school sky red over China and Rome. All memory of such a cataclysmic past is absent in this beatific image. Sweeney says that he instantly recognized the image he wanted. He had his own road to Damascus experience. He stopped the car and took this single shot: light diffused through foreground trees, nimbus backed up over intervening hills . . . Toni Morrison? The shine and dip of tarmac curving elegiacally from sight, entering darkness before any promise of ascent . Stages Thinking In Nursing? . . At the same time as we appreciate the hallowed features of this journey along what we also know is just a mundane stretch of road, we recognize its precedents in the documentary vision of American roads by photographers such as Edward Weston ( New Mexico Highway , 1937), Dorothea Lange ( The Road West , 1938), or Robert Frank ( US 285, New Mexico , 1955). Not a lonely country road at by essays all, Sweeney’s road turns out to be well traveled.
And so, once again, not simply a spontaneous epiphany in war essay introduction the landscape, but a complicity of nature and culture, a charge of insight along the horizon line of the purportedly sacred and the allegedly temporal. Again, Sweeney’s cloud photos, which on the face of toni, it seem to of smoking essay be a series of spontaneous visual prayers, can simultaneously be viewed as meditations on the history of art and photography- the Renaissance Assumptions and Transfigurations; the iconic puffed clouds of Magritte; the 1960s and by essays, 1970s cloudscapes of Georgia O’Keeffe (like Sweeney, mesmerized by views from airplane windows). School? Or Edward Weston’s photographs of towering and striated Mexican clouds from the mid-1920s; Alfred Steiglitz’s aerial views in his Equivalent series of photos from the 1920s and 1930s; Ansell Adams, Minor White, Ralph Steiner . Toni Morrison By Essays? . . the cloud chasers followed by Sweeney goes on. And his other-worldly view of nature is revealed-and is an essay cellphones be allowed in school, revealing-as self-consciously worldly. Whereas the Transcendentalists needed to escape from towns and cities to commune with nature, Sweeney continues to find in manufactured landscapes and urban environments many of the classic symbols and attitudes of by essays, religious man-trees and lights, changing seasons, views from high, views looking up. For Sweeney, the city is second nature-and as such his images here, to the very extent that they are commonplace, have the same revelatory effect as his scenes along backcountry roads or distant flight-paths. Sweeney sees the light in things that someone else might regard as obscure, banal, incidental, or incomplete.
A simple lamp in a hotel room; a chandelier in City Hall, New York, glimpsed from the street outside; a Philippe Starck lightwork in Paris’ Baccarat Museum of Crystal. Cold War Essay? These three photos of fragments from bigger pictures-scraps from various excursions, but linked in his consciousness by a comparable glow-all communicate the religious insight of God shedding light to the world. Three modest infinities ripped out of toni morrison by essays, time. Each impression or passing moment, each lived experience relived through art is a fecundity, a sheer paradise. Cold War Essay Introduction? For Sweeney, New York itself is a paradise, insofar as it allows him to enter into the spirit of photographers like Steiglitz, Steichen, or Kertesz who made the pilgrimage before him and like him made the city their home. Sweeney himself lives above Madison Square Park across from the Flatiron Building, and Edward Steichen’s iconic 1904 photograph powerfully haunts his own perception of the landmark. Just as we feel the presence and spirit of others in his photographs, Sweeney often invokes in us the corporeality of seeing itself: the blur of toni morrison by essays, motion, the play of light or streak of moisture on a window, the hint of the means of travel that sweeps the eye through the world. This at school maths coursework the same time as he playfully acknowledges both the similarities and the differences in his worldview from the nature lovers and Transcendentalists who have passed before him.
So, in his triptych of images from Britain’s Lake District, we don’t see any tranquil, Wordsworthian view of rolling fields, glistening water, or stone fences. Instead, we catch a blurry view from a moving car of straggly roadsides that could be anywhere, but which nevertheless communicate the morrison singular and exhilarating sense of an eye on the move, transported by the scene as much as it is transported through the scene. Likewise, the diptych of reference, photos that look like abstract expressionist paintings, but are actually the runway at speed at La Guardia Airport, inspirit a sense of timelessness in the very blur of time passing. (For the traditional Transcendentalists, infinity is best approached on foot. But for Sweeney, a Concord Transcendentalist in my misguided sense, infinity can also be grasped at speed.) For Sweeney, vision itself is a miracle given off by the rub of embodied eye and toni by essays, physical world. Cold War Essay Introduction? When I look at his photos, I am reminded of Merleau-Ponty reflecting on the act of morrison by essays, seeing and perceiving: My movements and the movements of my eyes make the school world vibrate . . . With each flutter of my eyelashes a curtain lowers and rises, though I do not think for an instant of imputing this eclipse to the things themselves; with each movement of my eyes that sweep the space before me the things suffer a brief torsion, which I also ascribe to toni morrison myself; and when I walk in the street with my eyes fixed on the horizon of the houses, the cold introduction whole of the setting near at hand quivers with each footfall on the asphalt, then settles down in its place.
9. How we see, of course, both physically and culturally, determines what we see. (To make my point I take two photographs that aren’t part of Paradise Road , but can be glimpsed along the verge.) We are culturally pre-determined to find revelatory experiences in certain places, like the photographers in morrison by essays Sweeney’s photo of the crowd in the Louvre snapping at the Mona Lisa. Perhaps this crowd in a hurry is a wry comment on Sweeney himself-although, as we have seen, he embraces speed to the point of stillness. But this frantic horde of photographers, desperate to catch their own fragment of the revelation La Gioconda represents, appear to miss entirely the elusive figure against her backdrop of nature. Sweeney on the other hand, whose eye is quick to the edge as well as the maths coursework center, finds revelation not only in the places that have been preordained, as in the quiet and timelessness of the morrison by essays landscape (although there as well), but also in the blur and contemporaneity of the city-as in a billboard of maths coursework, Penelope Cruz gazing Mona Lisa-like at morrison by essays us as the world goes wonderfully, blindly about its business. 1 Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. New York: Harcourt Inc., 1957, p. 12. 2 Ralph Waldo Emerson,
Nature; Addresses and Lectures , 3 Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Divinity School Address , 4 Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and essay reference, the Profane: The Nature of Religion , 7 Jacqueline Taylor Basker, “The Cloud as Symbol: Destruction or Dialogue,”
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ucf dissertation Thesis and Dissertation Manual. For your convenience, the online manual is stored as one web page so you can print all of it at one time (a total of about 10 printed pages). While students' academic departments and morrison by essays advisory committees are responsible for the subject matter and content of theses and dissertations, Graduate Studies (AD 243) establishes standards and criteria for format. Many of the formatting requirements, suc h as placement of page numbers and treatment of margins, exist to facilitate publication of final documents by stages of critical the bindery and by University Microfilms Inc.
In general, students should follow the most recent edition of either the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) or the morrison MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. You can buy these manuals in the UCF Bookstore, find them in most libraries, or use the online sources on the Internet. Liberal arts students may find the MLA handbook most useful. Students in cold war essay introduction, the sciences should use the APA manual as it includes instructions for formulas and scientific abbreviations. Approved style manuals include the following:
Biology -- dependent upon journal to by essays which work is submitted; see adviser; students must submit a copy of the essay om musik instructions to the author to toni morrison by essays the thesis/dissertation editor at the initial format review. Communication, Education, Political Science, Psychology, and thinking Sociology -- Publication Manual of the toni morrison by essays American Psychological Association (APA). English - MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. If such copyright permissions are required, the student is essay reference, responsible for contacting the copyright holder and morrison obtaining the of smoking essay necessary written releases. By Essays! Copies of cold war essay introduction written permissions should be included in morrison by essays, an appendix of the thesis/dissertation. Because all UCF doctoral dissertations are microfilmed by University Microfilms Inc. (UMI), written releases should include permission for microfilming. Any smooth, flat-surface paper that will produce a clear copy may be used for the original typed manuscript. Of Smoking! A letter-quality printer or laser printer produces the best original from which to reproduce copies. Dot matrix printing is unacceptable.
Copie s may be reproduced by offset printing or professional photocopying. Responsibility for by essays, obtaining acceptable copies rests with the student. Do not make final copies until the manuscript is reviewed by the thesis/dissertation editor. It is sometimes necessary to reduce the point size to fit a table or figure onto a page. In these cases, the essay or bibliography smallest point size allowed is 10. Words or phrases normally underlined to show emphasis may be set in toni by essays, italics. Do not use bolding for stages of critical, emphasis. Items of unique format, such as previously issued questionnaires or surveys, may be included in an appendix. Items that may be single-spaced include references, lengthy quotations (40 words or more), and long tables. Other items that may be single-spaced are identified throughout this manual.
The first line of a paragraph should never be the last line on a page; the last line of a paragraph should never be the first line on a page. Toni By Essays! Most word processors have a widow/orphan protect feature that prevents this from happening. The first line of in school each new paragraph should be indented using the toni morrison Tab key. Most word processors already have the paragraph tab set at 1/2 inch (.5), which is acceptable. All textual material, including page numbers, tables, and figures must meet margin requirements. An uneven, or ragged, right margin is essay om musik, suggested, but some colleges prefer a justified right margin. Each chapter begins on a new page. Morrison! A chapter heading begins two inches from the top of the page and is typed in all capitals and centered (without punctuation at the end).
It is not underlined. Begin the text two double-spaces below the heading (titles in all capitals). (Since the document is double-spaced, simply press Enter, or Return, twice.) Within each chapter or major section, up to three subheading levels are allowed: First-level subheadings are centered, underlined, and typed in upper- and lower-case letters. Second-level subheadings are centered and typed in cold war essay, upper- and lower-case letters. They are identical to first-level subheadings except they are NOT underlined. Third-level subheadings are flush left, underlined, and typed in morrison, upper- and lower-case letters. Essay! All subheadings must be preceded by by essays two double-spaces and of critical thinking in nursing followed by one double-space. (Since the document is double-spaced, press Enter twice before and once after each subheading.) Spacing before and after subheadings must be consistent throughout th e manuscript. A subheading that falls at the top of a new page should begin at the 1-inch top margin; it should not be preceded by any spaces.
A subheading should never appear as the last line of toni text on a page; it should be moved to the top of the war essay introduction following page. If chapters or sections are numbered, subheadings may also be numbered (1.1, 1.2, 1.21, etc.) consistently. Place each number on the same line as the subheading, with a constant space between the toni number and the subheading. No punctuation is used with page numbers. Page numbers must follow margin requirements; numbers must be 1 inch from the bottom edge of the page. Some word processors, such as WordPerfect, place the be allowed page number at the margin specified and leave adequate space between the text and the number. However, if the word processor used requires that page numbers be part of a footer, as Microsoft Word does, the bottom page margin should be set at 11/2 inches. The footer margin can then be set at 1 inch, and a few spaces will exist between the text and the page numbers. Table 1. Numbering Your Manuscript Pages.
Tables and figures (photographs, charts, diagrams, graphs, maps, and other illustrative material) must be placed within the manuscript as close as possible to the parts of text they supplement. If possible, place them directly following the first referen ce to morrison by essays them in the text. In the text, refer to tables and essay om musik figures by their numbers (e.g., as shown in by essays, Table 7; Figure 4 contains). Tables and figures small enough to appear on a page with text should be set apart from the text with two double-spaces. All tables and figures must meet margin requirements. Wide tables and figures may be placed sideways (landscape) on the page with the an essay on should table number and title or top of the figure at the left 11/2 inch margin. The page number must be in the usual upright position on the page.
Printing the page number on a landscape table/figure requires you to feed the paper through your printer twice: once to toni print the table/figure (landscape orientation), and once to print the war essay page number (portrait orientation). Tables that are too wide to toni morrison by essays meet margin specifications may be reduced to no smaller than 10 points. Stages Thinking In Nursing! Oversize figures that are not computer-generated may be photographically or xerographically reduced to meet margin specifications. Page numbers, table ti tles and numbers, and morrison by essays figure captions on these pages should remain 12 points. Place table sources and/or notes at danger of smoking the left margin, immediately below the table to which they refer. Tables are usually double-spaced throughout (from the table number to the table notes). Extremely long tables may be single-spaced. Toni Morrison By Essays! Table titles and danger essay ta ble notes that exceed one line may be single-spaced. Tables that are too long for a single page (sideways or upright) may be continued on the following right-hand page. Do not repeat the table title or number or use the morrison by essays word continued.
Simply repeat the column headings and continue the school maths table. A degree of flexibility exists with table structure. Tables must have a clean format. Morrison! Use horizontal lines to separate sections of a table, but limit the use of vertical lines. Tables must be consistent in size and style throughout the document. Each figure must have a caption (title/description). Captions are placed at the left margin, immediately below the figure. Biology students following a journal format may place captions on the facing page (i.e., the school coursework back side of the previous page), if re quired.
Captions must have the same typeface as the rest of the text in the manuscript. Captions exceeding one line may be single-spaced. Colored ink is not permitted. For example, lines on a graph should be identified by morrison by essays labels or symbols rather than color. Use crosshatching instead of color to stages thinking in nursing shade areas, such as regions on a map. Colored photographs should be reprinted in black and w hite unless otherwise approved by morrison by essays the student's adviser. Photographs must be developed with a matte finish on 81/2 x 11 inch medium-weight paper, or dry-mounted on thesis paper.
Other items that cannot be computer-generated must be either xerographically reproduced or dry-mounted on thesis paper. Glue, tape, or paste are not permitted as these materials eventually deteriorate. All items must be perfectly aligned and in school positioned. Symbols (square root signs, integral signs, Greek letters, etc.) should be computer-generated or mechanically drawn or typed. Press-on symbols may be used on original pages that are to be photocopied but may not be used in morrison by essays, the final copies on thesis paper . Stages Of Critical Thinking In Nursing! Handwritten symbols are unacceptable. Double-space twice before and twice after each equation or formula.
Number each consecutively. Place the number in parentheses near the right margin of the page. If notes are necessary, use endnotes rather than footnotes. Endnotes are notes gathered in a separate section and placed before the List of morrison References. Essay Om Musik! Footnotes are notes printed at the bottom of text pages. If one chapter heading has been sized at 13 points, all chapter headings must be 13 points. All subheadings must be preceded by two double-spaces and morrison by essays followed by one double-space. If a table heading that spans two lines is be allowed, single-spaced, all table headi ngs that span more than one line must be single-spaced.
It is highly recommended that students keep track of formatting decisions on a style sheet. Using a style sheet eliminates frequent double-checking and ensures consistency throughout the manuscript. Many word processors have a function called Styles, which allows users to save formatting information and apply it to selected text whenever desired. For example, rather than formatting each first-level subheading (underlined, centered, two double-spac es before, one double-space after), you can create a style with the desired formatting and apply that style to each first-level subheading. Morrison By Essays! If used correctly, the Styles feature can help you prepare a consistent manuscript and save time in formatting rev isions. We have provided sample pages for you to cold war essay view. Morrison! Keep in mind that different browsers may display these pages not as intended. Refer to maths the Thesis and Dissertation Manual for an accurate sample of these pages. Please select a page from toni morrison by essays, this list: Announcement Page Title Page Table Equation Table of Contents List of Tables.
Approval forms that have been typed incorrectly, even though they have already been signed, will be returned to the student. Forms with signatures in on should be allowed in school, blue ink are unacceptable. The title page for a dissertation must include the name of the morrison major professor approximately 1 inch below the essay om musik graduation date. Doctoral candidates can complete the toni morrison Authorization to school Apply for Registration of My Claim to Copyright section of the Doctoral Dissertation Agreement Form sent to University Microfilms Inc. (UMI). Morrison By Essays! For a $35 fee, UMI will act as an agent with the U.S. C opyright Office. Whether or not a copyright claim is school maths, filed, a copyright page may be included after the title page to acknowledge copyright ownership.
The year of publication and the author's full name should be centered vertically and horizontally on the page. For dissertations, a copy of the abstract must be submitted for publication in toni, Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI). Thinking! This abstract will be mailed to UMI. Maximum length of the morrison abstract is 350 words (approximately 35 lines of text). Numbers, symbo ls, and abbreviations each count as one word. Of Smoking! Care must be taken in the preparation of the morrison by essays DAI abstract, because it will be published without further editing or revision.
Please note that the abstract actually included in the dissertation is not limited by DAI requirements. The student may include an abstract in the dissertation that is longer than the one submitted to UMI. Chapter or section headings and at least all first-level subheadings must be listed in school maths, the Table of Contents. Do not list pages that precede the Table of Contents. Appendixes must be listed also. If more than one page is necessary, continue on the following page at the 1-inch top margin. Do not repeat the heading or use the toni morrison word continued. Each table in the manuscript, including those in the appendixes, must be included in the List of Tables. Table titles must match those in the text. If more than one page is necessary, continue on the following page at the 1-inch top margin.
Do not repeat the heading or use the word continued. Use the essay om musik same format for the List of Tables, List of Figures, List of Symbols, Abbreviations, or Nomenclature, and morrison other lists in the preliminary pages. Margin requirements and paper specifications must be met. Appendixes are titled, lettered alphabetically, and separated by buffer pages. The appendix letter and title should be capitalized and centered at the 2-inch top margin of each buffer page. If more than one page is necessary, continue on the following page at the 1-inch top margin. Do not repeat the war essay introduction heading or use the word continued.
History students are required by their department to follow a specific endnote style. A handout describing the required endnote style for history is morrison by essays, available from the danger of smoking essay thesis/dissertation editor. The heading LIST OF REFERENCES is centered, without punctuation, at the 2-inch top margin. The reference list may be single-spaced as long as double-spacing is used between citations. A hanging indent (first line flush left, other lines indented) for morrison, ea ch citation in the list is school, preferred. If more than one page is toni by essays, necessary, continue on the following page at the 1-inch top margin. Do not repeat the heading or use the word continued.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to morrison, new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to essay or bibliography, make sure it’s polished and by essays, presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to be allowed in school, get some ideas for toni by essays updating your own resume.
Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Or Bibliography. Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by morrison, Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is introduction certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. Toni Morrison. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is stages of critical in nursing still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the toni by essays illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to school maths, symbolize his analytic side.
Try using shapes and toni, frames for emphasis. School. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in toni terms of attracting attention. Essay Or Bibliography. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to toni morrison, be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and cold introduction, show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you.
Here’s a little about me” header at morrison by essays, the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for stages of critical yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an morrison by essays, extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is war essay something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Toni. Just make sure that your font is stages of critical weighty enough to morrison by essays, be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to of smoking essay, only the basics (skills and past positions).
Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on toni morrison by essays textured paper can give an impression of or bibliography quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel.
When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and toni morrison by essays, they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of school maths pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about you and toni, complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by school maths coursework, Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in toni morrison an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into maths coursework your resume.
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