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Comparative essay mac vs pc

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Comparative essay mac vs pc

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How to pc, Write a Killer Software Testing QA Resume That Will Turn Into an Interview Call. Can you write a masterpiece of a software testing resume that will turn into an interview call? If not, read on. Essays Mba School! I’m sure after reading this article you will be able to write a killer flawless software testing and quality assurance resume that will definitely turn into comparative essay, an interview call. Your resume is the very first step in any job application process. It’s an thesis emily poems opportunity to advertise yourself and demonstrate that you are the best person for the available position. Getting an interview call depends on how you present your skills in comparative mac vs pc resume or CV. What You Will Learn: How Much Time Do You Get to Impress Employer? Software testing market is becoming very competitive and h2s in photosythesis getting the job is pc even more difficult.

For a single QA job positions recruiters are getting hundreds of quality assurance tester resumes. You must stand out from the crowd and dickinson poems writing a good resume is the very first opportunity to do so. Recruiters don’t have time to read all the resumes througly. Your resume will be quickly scanned within 20 to 30 seconds. Yes, you get hardly 20 to comparative pc, 30 seconds to persuade your employer to take the decision if to call you for an interview. Does that make sense?

To make a first good impression on prospective employer you must represent yourself effectively on first page of your resume, rather the first half page of your resume is very important to make or break it. I see so many candidates pay very little or no attention to write a good resume. Apa Research On Obesity! They just copy and paste others resume without even bothering to change the interests and hobbies. Remember, no matter how talented you are, if you don’t present your skills properly in resume, no one is going to essay, see your talent. How to Make a Great First Impression From Your Resume or CV? Many candidates write whole story about themselves without thinking what employer’s want. First focus on employer’s need. Read the job openings carefully. Note down all the job requirements.

Judge yourself based on these requirements. Prepare list of your skills matching with job requirement and highlight these skill on first page of your resume. How to Maximize Your Chances of Getting an Interview Call? Make sure you have a clearly stated job objective mentioned on science top of your resume. Keep it short one or two lines and avoid writing irrelevant cliches. Mac Vs Pc! Freshers always needs to dickinson poems, keep different versions for different jobs.

E.g.: If you are applying for software testing position highlight software testing skills at comparative mac vs, prominent place in your CV. Writing a Killer Software Testing Resume or CV: Here I’ll answer most commonly asked questions while preparing software testing fresher resume/experienced testing resume. What if you don’t have software testing experience? If you are a experienced software tester then you shouldn’t have any problem writing your project details. How freshers looking for software testing job can get relevant experience? 1) The answer is simple.

Get some experience by working on dummy projects available on phd thesis for computer internet. Search for comparative essay mac vs pc online dummy projects (e.g. Inventory management software) and download test software and all available documents. Paper! Follow complete testing process like: requirement analysis, writing test cases, executing test cases, logging defects and, preparing test reports. If possible get your work evaluated from experienced software testing professionals. If you have joined any software testing course to learn manual testing and automation tools then you can put this dummy project experience in your resume, which may range from 1 to 6 months. Mac Vs! This way you will have at least some experience to put in h2s in your resume rather than keeping the essay mac vs pc experience section entirely blank. Photosythesis! This will be an added advantage from comparative mac vs pc, other freshers resumes. How to write project details in essays mba school tester/QA resume?

In job experience section write details of projects you worked on. Comparative Essay! Write project details with following headings: Project name: (Optional) Client name: Project description: (Brief project overview in montaigne french english 2-3 sentences) Environment: (mention software coding language, testing tools etc.) Team size: On job accomplishments: (mention all key responsibilities) Many candidates ask “What should I put in resumes if I’ve gap in my career?” Don’t hesitate to put the valid reason for any gap in comparative mac vs pc your career. Also you shouldn’t have any problem getting job after gap in emily dickinson your career.

There could be thousands of essay, reasons for career gap like – enjoying holiday, relocation, handling family business, skill upgrade, maternity etc. Be honest and I’m sure you will easily convince interviewer about h2s in photosythesis, your career gap. On-the-job-accomplishments on comparative mac vs first page of your resume: Convince employer that you have problem solving skill by paper on obesity in children giving some real time examples from your work experience. Clearly state what was the problem and how you solved that problem at essay, workplace.

Prepare some solid examples to support your claims. Paper On Obesity! You can put these examples in comparative essay mac vs pc your resume also. Also be ready to answer all relevant questions asked by for computer interviewer for your accomplishments. Essay! E.g: “When I joined so and so project in essays mba school my company I saw the work was ad-hock and essay pc there wasn’t any standard software testing process. I took initiative building a standard software testing process that fits our project needs. In Children! By this streamlined process we managed our time effectively and started concentrating more on main software testing tasks”.

Mention relevant modules/subjects you studied. This will matter most for freshers. For software testing positions candidates having computer networking and system administration skills are preferred. If you studied any subject or completed any course related to computer networking and essay system administration then add it in essays you resume. If you have Linux/Unix operating system knowledge then put it in comparative mac vs pc relevant-skills section of your resume. Software testing certifications and training: Software testing certification is an added advantage for all testing and QA positions. H2s In! Rather, testing certifications like ISTQB, CSTE etc. are mandatory criteria for most of the companies. Always keep learning and equip yourself with necessary tools and skills so that you will never face any job problem in future.

If you have completed any software testing course or diploma after your graduation or post graduation then put it under “skill upgradation” section of your resume. How to learn software testing skills to put in resume? IF you don’t have necessary relevant skills to add in mac vs pc your resume then learn those skills online. Like for software testing jobs learn defect tracking and thesis dickinson test management tools. You can get all open source software testing tools online. Comparative Essay! Download widely used open source tools and phd thesis for computer start practicing at home. 1) Learn TestLink test management tool online: TestLink online. You can practice everything on comparative essay above demo TestLink page.

Once you get good hands on experience on TestLink tool you can put this skill in your resume. 2) Search for montaigne essays online version of Bugzilla defect management tool or download and comparative mac vs pc install Bugzilla defect management tool on your home PC. Learn how to add and essays mba school manage defects in essay mac vs Bugzilla. Essays! Once you get basic knowledge of comparative essay mac vs, this tool you can add this tool under “Defect management tools” skill section. This way you can learn many automation tools online. Sample Software Testing Resume Essential Parts: – Personal details (Name, email and montaigne essays english contact) at the top. – Career objective – not more than two lines. – Educational qualification – in reverse chronological order (Latest education first) – Skill upgrade details – like testing certifications, training, computer networking and System administration skills.

– Work experience – in detail for each employer and project. – Interests and significant achievements. – Additional personal information like marital status, Passport details etc not more than 3 details. Tips for Writing Effective Software Testing Resume: Software testing resume format tips. 1) Keep CV brief but comprehensive in expression.

2) Keep in mind – Single spelling error is sufficient to essay mac vs, reject your resume. Spell check for phd thesis twice. 3) CV should be easily readable. 4) Make a clear job objective. 5) Highlight relevant skills. 6) Do not put fake experience or skills. 7) Focus on what employer’s need and prepare your resume with relevant skills you posses. 8 ) Always think from essay mac vs pc, employer’s perspective.

Think what recruiter will expect from the photosythesis job position. 9) Avoid table structure. Use tables to mac vs, mention your qualification and skills only. 10) Do not write resume more than 3 pages unless you are applying for team lead or managerial positions. 11) Do not add irrelevant personal details like age, height, weight, father’s details etc.

12) No need to write ‘Curriculum Vitae’ or ‘Resume’ word at the top of your resume. 13) Do not use word “I” while describing project responsibilities. French English! E.g: Instead of “I wrote test cases..” use “Wrote test cases…) 14) Make sure you write your name, email address and phone number on top of the comparative resume. 15) While writing education always start with recent education first. 16) Write qualification details with columns – Education/Qualification, School/College, Year, Percentage/Grade, Class.

17) Write relevant skills and on-job-accomplishments on paper in children first page of comparative essay mac vs, your resume and work experience, educational details on second page. Most important – Be ready to using, explain everything you put in your resume. On request you must present necessary examples to interviewer. Only writing a good resume is not sufficient. Before applying for comparative essay software testing jobs you need to write an effective software testing job cover letter as well. The topic “how to write a good cover letter before applying for essay and feudal software testing jobs” will be covered in coming articles. Hope I’ve detailed each and every aspect to write a killer software testing resume. Now you should not face any difficulties writing a effective software testing CV.

If you need help, please put your queries in comparative pc comments. If you like this article please share with friends. Subscribe to using h2s in, email newsletter to essay mac vs pc, get Software Testing Tips. really killer article :) got everything I need to update in my QA cv. Really fantastic article… Hi… Really great article.. Paper In Children! which helps a lot to comparative pc, create and update the on obesity in children resume.. I have a doubt can you clear it up, if a person discontinued his studies in +2, for some personal reasons and comparative mac vs pc continued completed graduation in open University, but now expert in Manual testing working in a software concern have 7 years of experience could he be able to look for a change in another company how could this be handled in the resume. (Educational Qualification).

Please clarify. This is the Really great information for everybody. Thanks. Awesome explanation…thanks lot. Thank you boss for thesis poems all of essay, your advice. If you attach a sample CV with cover letter (according to john adams and feudal law, your direction) ,it will be helpful for many of us.

Hi….thanks a lot for giving such an comparative awesome way to emily dickinson poems, make a resume killer. I hope it will help me. Beautiful, precisely written article. Mac Vs Pc! :) good article, i get all information which i want to prepare my testing CV. thanks a lot……… Its really a very helpful article. Using H2s In! i want to essay, ask one more question : how the fresher can write there dummy software testing experience briefly in the resume . pl expidit……… hi ,its really nice information regarding CV.i hav completed my BE computer in 2008 n working as a lecturer in college .i taught software testing 2 times.i have theoretical knowledge .but dont hav practical knowledge.how can i improve it.can i get job in john adams essay and feudal law testing?i need ur help. for job seekers. the important point is to mac vs, avoid putting fake experience in essays resume. Really some candidates are spoiling this testing industry with fake resumes. Remember you will never be satisfied in your job if u get job with fake experience. Now companies are hiring third party agencies for background check.

Good to see initiative by Vijay to comparative, educate candidates for NOT putting fake experirnce. Keep it up. Good luck! very very useful and thesis emily dickinson poems concise. Thanks! attractive article and realy helpful.

It is nice for jobseekers for get good opprunities .but attach a sample resume is very helpful for us. I have one doubt our eductional qualification need to mac vs, write in table or not… i also expect your help for future. Remember even the interviewers read through such websites, to essays, know tricks used by candidates to update resumes. Be Careful and comparative mac vs pc All the Best. yes, this is good one. but i confuse about what will i write in acadmic project details, please help me. Am a commerce graduate,passed in 1997. Worked for finiancial and insurance companies.

Now presently working for john on canon and feudal law a software comapny as quality analyst for the last two years. want to comparative pc, change company. Essays Mba School! Can anybody suggest me,how to comparative, do this. Its good .I hope future help also. Man, I hate to burst your bubble but you don’t have the foggyiest notion of john, how to write a resume or how brutal the pc current job market is. My employer moved all our jobs to Shanghai leaving 78 of us without income. Forced to phd thesis, enter the market, I found that employers are increasing skills experience every year and will not talk to mac vs, anyone without it. For Computer Science! Employers are very specific in their needs (eTrade, eCommerce, Mutual Fund / Stock trading, Mortgage Banking, just to name a few) and essay if you don’t have it, they won’t talk with you. Since mid-2008, employers have been asking for multiskilled persons (BA, Software development, Software Test, cross-site developmentskills Management) and adams on canon law pass you over if you don’t have all they want. Comparative Pc! I seen employers take 8 months to fill a position. 9 of 10 employers don’t even acknowledge that you applied to the position, don’t provide contact information and essays french english if you do manage to track them down and get past HR, they are openly hostile at the intrusion on their privacy.

Simply going out and getting experience on dummy projects is lame. And putting your interests and essay mac vs pc objective on the resume is a turn off to HR and managers; they don’t give a damn what you want. And if the experts are correct that you have 20 seconds to impress the reader, what good is paper on obesity in children project details? You put in enough information to comparative mac vs pc, interest them in calling you. Employers want you productive as soon as your butt hits the chair and you had better have all the requirements they demand because there is no learning anything on the job today.

Haven’t you noticed that most employers are only doing contract? I don’t mean to french, sound harsh, but this is the reality of the market today. And even temp agencies don’t really care how good you are if you don’t exactly match the job requirements. And have you noticed that recruiters don’t rewrite resumes before they are submitted? One told me that it’s a waste of time because of the candidate screening software used by comparative mac vs pc HR. You are cruel to mislead these poor souls into thinking that your prescription for a resume will get them ahead in the world. Look, A large number of them want you to write the phd thesis resume and comparative cover for them because they haven’t a clue of how to do it. The “Take Away” from this is, “If you don’t have the experience, you can’t get the john on canon and feudal experience !” Best of fortune.

very helpful tips. At least these are very applicable in Indian job market. Many Indian recruiters don’t consider candidates having 0 experience. So putting at comparative essay, least something you learned can be a good idea and I observed, it works!! it is helpful to montaigne french english, update my resume. Just wat I looking for.. Great article. 11. Really helpful article. Looking this type of articles in future also. Thanks a lot its really nice.

I have upgraded my resume according to it and it really working 4 me., Very helpful to essay mac vs, us.Thanks a lot. Fantastic article. Really good tips for freshers as well as experienced professional. Its very good article.It would be better to put sample cv template/format.

Well, I really appreciate for this informative article. ya nice artical sure it must be use all freshers. i completed software testing upgrated qtp tool, i can do well both automation manual testing. LoadRunner, am fresher so i can get opening for companies. Essays French! plz kindly help me, i need cmm3 r 2 level company salary is mac vs pc nothing matter, i wan get experience to testing field. i would like to became a good tester. im 2010 passed out B.E(ECE) 65.6% thiruvalluvar college of engg tech,anna university. That was seriously helpfull to me who always need a kickstart…believe me this is wonderfull,THANK YOU. Really nice article! I have done msc(it) in sep 2006. now i m searching job in essays software testing.plz help me . Comparative! how can get job in testing? i was wondering how to make a impressive cv. Essays Mba School! it was really very much helpful for us..keep adding some sample resumes and cover letter as wall..

Thanks for the Killer Article. Hi Boss really use full information to writing cv and also to lead how to prepare for essay interview. This article just give a parameters to complete for getting job. Thanks a lot. i am working in technical support in a good MNC company i comleted 12 months and i am 2009 passed out BE(comp sci) i got and my agg is phd thesis 55% and my intrest is in s/w testing so i am joining atesting institue to learn software testing and also with placement will you help me so that i want to cover my 12 months of comparative, work experiance please help me in this regard. Hi, this is nice article. Apa Research! Can u send me a saple resume with the covering letter. It will be relly helpful for pc me. H2s In Photosythesis! Also i’m fresher to software testing.

pls also mail me the sample resumes… covering letter realy needed while applying for testing job ? please explain. am post graduate in computer science and i know testing also how can i get job by comparative essay mac vs pc altering my resume. i like this article very much its working very well. thank you very much. I worked as software tester for 1.6 years after that i joined as lecturer from last 3 years, can i revert back to john essay on canon and feudal, testing job? if yes how? if not why? Excellent article…good to essay mac vs pc, keep all these while preparing for emily dickinson job inteveiw…thanks for posting this article. Clear explination to build a good s/w testing resume. To talk in comparative essay pc a testing passion, A resume which satisfies all the requirments of the employer’s and with no bugs can be built using this info . :) hi i completed msc(che).

I am a housewife. Mba School! But I know a little comp kndge, now am intrested to learn testing course. I am 38. I dt hve any previous experience. Am from mac vs, Hyd.Am thinking it is difficult. plz giv advice 4 me. Am not too gud in eng also . You can test a S/W on ground of performance. you can check bugs ,stoppers,error,functionality in s/w testing. ( Software Testing Engineer ) teamWork Info Solution Pvt. Ltd. 3/7 Drummond Road, Allahabad, India.

HP :+91 78 00 707 708. Nice article..it,s very usefull. it was good sir..very useful information to us. It is really helpful article for what to show and not to show in resume. Give some hints about paper on obesity, how to pc, get maximum calls for using h2s in photosythesis manual testing. Lets see how much it can help me. I am sure it will help me in making my resume eye-catching…..thanks….. If you attach a sample CV with cover letter (according to your direction) ,it will be helpful for many of us.

Please send Sample CV with 3+exp to my Mail. I am waiting for topic “how to mac vs pc, write a good cover letter before applying for software testing jobs”…. really very useful article. really very nice article. your article is very nice and essays mba school definitely its a very helpful. plz send a cover letter in my id as a fresher. hi,am frm ernakulam.i have completed B-tech(computer science)in 2010.and also i have completed a certification course in comparative mac vs pc testing(CPST).i have attended 4 interviews.but i didnt get.i have more expectation about apa research on obesity in children, my last 2 intervw but i didnt get dat toooo..i dont knw wat was d reason.i think i performed well.i answered al questons dey were asked.dey asked test case about pen,i wrote dat.and in another company they asked testing theory only.i answered all question… nw i neeed a job very soonly..pls help me 2 get a job in testing field.plsss……..pls tell me hw can i perform in comparative mac vs pc intervw. plsss….am looking only cochin as my working location..so pls inform me if der is any vacancy in cochin….123naj@gmail.com.

hi,am frm ernakulam.i have completed B-tech(computer science)in 2010.and also i have completed a certification course in adams essay on canon and feudal law testing(CPST).i have attended 4 interviews.but i didnt get.i have more expectation about my last 2 intervw but i didnt get dat toooo..i dont knw wat was d reason.i think i performed well.i answered al questons dey were asked.dey asked test case about pen,i wrote dat.and in another company they asked testing theory only.i answered all question… nw i neeed a job very soonly..pls help me 2 get a job in testing field.plsss……..pls tell me hw can i perform in intervw. plsss….am looking only cochin as my working location..so pls inform me if der is comparative essay pc any vacancy in cochin it company…. hi,am frm ernakulam.i have completed B-tech(computer science)in 2010.and also i have completed a certification course in using testing(CPST).i have attended 4 interviews.but i didnt get.i have more expectation about essay, my last 2 intervw but i didnt get dat toooo..i dont knw wat was d reason.i think i performed well.i answered al questons dey were asked.dey asked test case about pen,i wrote dat.and in another company they asked testing theory only.i answered all question… nw i neeed a job very soonly..pls help me 2 get a job in testing field.plsss……..pls tell me hw can i perform in law intervw. Essay Mac Vs! plsss….am looking only cochin as my working location..so pls inform me if der is any vacancy in cochin it company…. hi,am frm ernakulam.i have completed B-tech(computer science)in 2010.and also i have completed a certification course in testing(CPST).i have attended 4 interviews.but i didnt get.i have more expectation about for computer science, my last 2 intervw but i didnt get dat toooo..i dont knw wat was d reason.i think i performed well.i answered al questons dey were asked.dey asked test case about pen,i wrote dat.and in comparative essay mac vs another company they asked testing theory only.i answered all question… nw i neeed a job very soonly..pls help me 2 get a job in essays testing field.plsss……..pls tell me hw can i perform in intervw. plsss….am looking only cochin as my working location..so pls inform me if der is any vacancy in cochin…. A really helpful article….thnx for the efforts!! Also provide some common responsibilities. send me some of comparative essay, u,ur resume to my mail id…plz.

your article is very nice and thesis definitely its a very helpful. plz send a sample of resume cover letter in my id as a fresher At “Sorabhbajaj007@gmail.com” hi too good article got grt info abt the freshers resume thx……. i have B.A WITH M.B.A(SYSTEM) and i have 9 years in marketing exprience. will i get testing job. i have B.A WITH M.B.A(SYSTEM) and i have 9 years in marketing exprience.

4 years gap in between. will i get testing job. i am looking for testing projects to add in my reseume can u help me out . i am also searching for a job in software testing pls do suggest. Hi! Its’ very effective article for those who suffers from ineffective CV. Its extremely worthwhile especially for the experience as well as non-experience guy. Tons of Thank.

Thanks for the resume tips, very important and comparative essay mac vs valuable info. your’re the john adams on canon and feudal law best in the west :-) Hi ,i m working as a software trainee,please suggest me how to move in testing and if possible please send me one copy of cv which one is comparative essay mac vs pc perfect for testing so i can also change my cv according to that plz reply as soon as possible . thanks and Regards. Hi friendz i have completed my BE in 2010 having aggregate of 68% and i underwent a software testing training in QSPIDERS Bangalore and i am looking for job in b’lore in testing profession.If any requirement is there pls mail me my mail id pallavi.dc186@gmail.com. its really a killer article. I had learned a lot………… Highly Useful for all professionals, i really appreciate ur ideas. “Law of win says, Lets not do it in my way or your way, But lets do it in the best way”. i m from essays, mumbai and want to mac vs pc, start my career in the field of software testing. French! my scores are not good and also i have not done any course fir this. i have completed my BE (EXTC) in 2010. how can i make my resume attractive. Hii..really gr8 article..but i have a problem..actually i m 2009 passout and still job seeker..my career gap was due to my family business..but now i m n bangalore..can i get the job easily as a fresher by comparative essay forwarding my cv based on ur tips?? Awesome article. Very helpful for paper in children me….

please just add sample resume with cover letter. do send me a sample of the best resume. Hi friends, i completed my BE in the year 2009 with an aggregate of 56% and comparative pc i completed testing course iam good in mba school software testing i want job plz help me if any vacancies are der then plz plz send to this mail id :rebukaflorance17@gmail.com. thanks for comparative mac vs pc providing the useful tips to attract recruiters. Im a fresher B.E(IT) 2010 passed out joined as trainee test engineer in a small scale firm. All the phd thesis science articles are very nice and informative. Actually i came to know about comparative mac vs pc, testlink online to learn testing through this article, but i don’t know to essays french english, use with it. Can anyone clarify how to comparative, use it??

I really liked this explanation…. and hope it will take me to right direction….. I am completed MCM in 2009. and I join Software Testing Cource. Can i get job in any software industry. Excellent article.Useful to a great extent.All the tips mentioned are actually very important. got the french information what I want… This is one of the comparative essay pc greatest software testing tools website I have come across in the web. I understood how to write resume and important tips.

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Cheers. Hi guys, I am a having 2 yrs. of experience in software development field. Comparative Essay Mac Vs Pc! Now I want to montaigne essays, switch from development to comparative essay mac vs, software testing.Currently I am doing Diploma in Software Testing. Essays! How do I write my resume for getting job as a tester. Hi guys, I am having 2 yrs. of experience in software development field. Comparative Mac Vs Pc! Now I want to switch from photosythesis, development to software testing.Currently I am doing Diploma in Software Testing. Comparative! How do I write my resume for essays getting a job in software testing domain. Hello, I have done BCA in the year of 2011. And also I’ve done the software testing professional course from mumbai institute.

Now I’m searching the job as a designation of software testing. My programming skills are weak. So, please suggest, what I have to do ? it’s a very helpful artical for all of comparative, us.and thanks a lot for your efforts,i want 1 year experienced testing resume can you please forward it to my mail it’s smbasha162@gmail.com., It’s a very helpful information for all of us.Thanks a lot for your efforts,I want 2 year experienced testing resume can you please forward it to my mail it’s reza.hasnain@gmail.com., Very very useful article,thank a lots. I am working in montaigne french IT in mechanical domain(aerospace and oil and mac vs gas) from past 4 years.

I want to move to software testing as there is better growth. Is it safe if I join some course and phd thesis science change my 4 years of mechanical experience to comparative essay mac vs pc, software testing and attend the interview with some knowledge related to testing. I had lose to 2years of apa research paper in children, experience in comparative mac vs pc developing and a 3years break in my career and now I have done a Manual and mba school automation testing certification course. Help me how to comparative, do changes in my resume that i want to be a tester. Hi…Nice Article, Try to make a list of all skills, education, work experience, platforms, technologies, projects, etc. Good article.

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Hi you really provided a great tips. Photosythesis! its really a killer resume tips. I like how precise this article is. Essay Mac Vs! Although I would add that you should tailor your resume a little bit, depending on phd thesis for computer science a specific position. What I mean is put most relevant skills in the beginning of the essay sentence. Paper On Obesity! So if you are applying for comparative essay more managerial position – something like leadership and apa research paper on obesity in children customer focus should be put prior to knowledge of coding. HR usually has tons of mac vs pc, resumes to go through and our mind is put in such a way that beginning of the sentence is usually what sticks out more, when we skim through.

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Thoughts on Pacifism and Just War (An Essay) Part I. Loving Our Enemies; Opposing the comparative essay mac vs pc, Enemy of Others: Reflections on Just War and Pacifism. The focus of this essay is to adams on canon reflect theologically, biblically, and ethically on comparative essay mac vs pc, Christian involvement in the formation and functioning of national armies. In other words, given the adams essay on canon and feudal, nature of comparative essay Christ’s injunction to be “peacemakers” is there a place for on obesity, a Christian to be involved in matters of war? This issue is extraordinarily complex, in that before one can even comment on the nature of national armies, one must determine whether or not it is permissible for a Christian to ever use violence in the first place. There is a tension between justice and mercy. Miroslav Volf’s evocative language captures this tension: “[My thoughts are torn by] the essay pc, blood of the montaigne essays french, innocent crying out to God and by the blood of God’s Lamb offered to the guilty.”[1] One the one hand, we have the clear teachings of Christ to “turn the other cheek” and comparative essay “love your enemies” and his clear example of dying for his enemies on the cross. On the essays mba school, other hand, there may be times when our love for the oppressed and the innocent may require that we fight against an enemy who is not oppressing us but oppressing others . Are we then to remain silent and inactive? These are issues in the debate between theories of “Just War” and comparative essay pc “Pacifism.” Regardless of what conclusions we draw concerning this debate, proponents on mba school, both sides can agree that “steps should be taken to reduce the incidence of wars”[2] and that “‘war as a method of settling international disputes is incompatible with the pc, teaching and of our Lord Jesus Christ.’”[3] Yet, while I believe Pacifism to be normative for essays mba school, followers of Christ, I must conclude that there may be instances (albeit rare ones!) where for the sake of defending the other , Christians must enmesh themselves in violence against the other’s enemy; in a situation where action and inaction both incur guilt, “responsible action” is the necessary—not necessarily right —choice.[4] JUST WAR OR PACIFISM:[5] Then tension between Just War and Pacifism is not one I can bring resolution to.

First, the reality of war is that it is never “just”—at least not for everyone involved. Just War advocates from Augustine onward have maintained that there may be just reasons to go to war.[6] Yet, how “realistic” are these so-called “just” reasons? Just War theorists claim that while Pacifism is certainly an ideal, it cannot be unequivocally maintained in the “real” world.[7] But as Stanley Hauerwas as commented, the supposed “realism” of Just War theory is not at all apparent. He writes, What would an American foreign policy determined by essay mac vs, just war principles look like?

What would a just war Pentagon look like? What kind of virtues would the people of America have to have to sustain a just war foreign policy and Pentagon? What kind of training do those in the military have to undergo in order to be willing to apa research in children take casualties rather than conduct the war unjustly?[8] In asking these questions, Hauerwas implies how utterly unrealistic Just War theory is. Comparative Pc. Just what government would seek to accurately follow the guidelines set out by Just War theorists? As Tony Kempster notes, “Once a war begins, the end normally justifies the means however brutal they may be.”[9] This automatically creates injustice for someone in in children the conflict.

It seems that no matter what, innocent people will always be affected by war and violence. Therefore, though it may be perfectly justifiable for essay mac vs, a group or nation to go to war, it is virtually impossible for the war itself to be just . And this is putting war in the most idealistic light! The fact remains, that the vast majority of wars would hardly ever measure up to the noble standards of using h2s in photosythesis Just War theory. So what of Pacifism? The Christian pacifist, according to Thomas Kennedy, “argues that the way of Christ is the way of comparative mac vs non-violent suffering love, that Christ condemned the apa research paper on obesity in children, use of violence.”[10] Pacifists have the strong example of Christ, who did not retaliate when accused unjustly, and essay mac vs who obediently suffered death as a means of overcoming sin—violence certainly being within the realm of phd thesis for computer such sin . Further, the teachings of Christ found in Matthew 5, are pretty clear: as followers of Christ, we are to pc “bless those who persecute us,” “love our enemies,” and “turn the for computer, other cheek.” Paul also affirms the ethical teachings of Jesus when he writes, “Do not repay anyone evil for evil” (Romans 12: 17). Pacifism takes seriously the fallenness of humanity’s condition concerning violence: man will tend to perpetuate violence out of self-interest, rather than seek reconciliation. Mac Vs. So writes H. Richard Niebuhr: “Self-interest acts destructively in this world; it calls forth counter-assertion; nationalism breeds nationalism, class assertion summons up counter-assertion on the part of exploited classes,”[11] and montaigne essays thus, the vicious cycle continues.

Violence perpetuates violence. The teachings and example of essay mac vs pc Jesus is all the more startling when once considers this unending cycle. Essays Mba School. Jesus’ answer is to refuse to take part in it—to not “resist an evildoer” so to speak. However, Jesus’ way is essay mac vs far more; it is to overcome evil with good . One can see just how “realistic” pacifism really is, when one considers the john essay on canon and feudal law, ultimate victory of comparative mac vs Jesus over sin, death, and evil by dying on the cross. And so it would seem that Pacifism is the obvious choice for followers of Jesus. If it is apparent that the reality of “just war” is, in fact, unlikely, and apa research in children the “idealism” of pacifism is, in fact, rooted in the reality of Christ’s victory, then the answer to whether Christians may ever involve themselves in violence seems certain: Christ-followers are never to engage in comparative essay mac vs pc violence. Yet, this is not the conclusion I’ve come to. Science. For, as Miroslav Volf’s quote above reveals, I too am caught between the tension of wanting justice for the innocent, and recognizing that Christ suffered for the guilty— of which I am . The problem remains: although I am never to resist and evildoer who opposes me with violence, am I to stand by comparative essay mac vs, and watch as another is violently victimized and thesis emily poems do nothing? [1] As quoted in Lori Brandt Hale’s, “From Loving Enemies to Acting Responsibly: Forgiveness in the life and theology of comparative pc Dietrich Bonhoeffer,” Word and World 27, no.1 (2007): 79. [2] Tony Kempster, “The Ethics of french Pacifism and Jus War in essay an Age of Terrorist Violence,” Modern Believing 49, no.2 (2008): 9. [3] Ibid., 9. I should note that “settling international disputes” is somewhat vague and would clarify that to settle national interests by the means of essays french war is certainly incompatible with allegiance to Christ.

It may be the acknowledgement that most “national armies” are established with the primary function of comparative essay mac vs pc protecting “national interests” that would allow us to bypass the discussion of pacifism/just war issues altogether and conclude that based on the function of montaigne french these armies, it is not permissible for Christians to be involved. I will proceed as if this option is not available. [4] See Hale’s “From Loving Enemies to Acting Responsibly,” for essay, a discussion of Bonhoeffer’s attitude of “responsible action.” [5] Christian realism is thesis emily dickinson another option, but not one I consider viable based on comparative, the definition given by Thomas Kenney in “Can War Be Just,” in From Christ to the World: Introductory Readings in Christian Ethics , ed. Wayne G. Boulton, Thomas D. For Computer Science. Kennedy, and Allen Verhey (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994), 436-442. [6] For example, Kennedy writes that a war can be just if there is pc a “just cause,” a “right intention,” war is used as a “last resort,” there is a “reasonable hope of success of essays english accomplishing your ends in fighting” and the issue of “proportionality”—that the “evils of war…be outweighed by the good achieved.” See, “Can War Be Just,” 440-441. [7] Stanley Hauerwas wittily summarizes the Just War theorist’s stance: “Pacifists always bear the burden of essay mac vs pc proof. They do so because as attractive as nonviolence may be most assume pacifism just will not work. Paper In Children. You may want to keep a few pacifists around for reminding those burdened with running the world that what they sometimes have to do is a lesser evil, but pacifism simply cannot and should not be, even for Christians, a normative stance, “Why War is a Moral Necessity for America or How Realistic is Realism?” Criswell Theological Review 6, no.1 (2008): 61. [8] Hauerwas, “Why War”,” 61.

[9] Tony Kempster, “The Ethics of Pacifism,” 11. [10] Kennedy, “Can War Be Just,” 436. [11] H. Richard Niebuhr, “The Only Way into the Kingdom of God,” in From Christ to mac vs pc the World: Introductory Readings in Christian Ethics, ed. Wayne G. Boulton, Thomas D. Kennedy, and Allen Verhey (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994), 426. I see you used some Hauerwas there. I need to read some of his stuff before August… I loved this article. John Adams Essay Law. I’ve been thinking a lot about this topic lately, especially after reading some Shane Claiborne and doing a personal study on the gospels. I think we’ve both had to mac vs pc come a long way from our southern, red-white-and-blue Christianity, but I think (remembering our talk on war on the way back from a field trip in essays Thailand) that you got there quicker.

Anyways, I totally agree with your opinion on pacifism, and I’m still trying to work out the details of “Just” war theory on behalf of the comparative mac vs, innocent. Phd Thesis For Computer Science. There’s definitely a huge tension there to mac vs try to resolve. But my guess is essays that it’ll never be resolved… I like Hauerwas. I read his book Resident Aliens awhile back and it was quite good. Anyway, thanks for taking the time to read. You’re right, we both have had to do some “shaking off” of southern “bible-belt” worldviews. That’s not a bad thing. Comparative Essay. Keep the using, good, and throw out the bad.

Nice work Jonathan. I’m looking forward to the rest of comparative essay pc it. I’m interested in what you think of my take on phd thesis for computer science, the Caananite geocide, which I posted a couple of days ago. Thanks for reading man. I figured we would come out at pretty much the same place. Great minds think alike right? #128521; I did get to read your violence blog and thoroughly enjoyed it.

I like Dennis Bratcher a lot by the way. Essay Mac Vs Pc. I do feel the view that scripture is just wrong on those accounts has the risk of being a slippery slope. I would want to find other avenues before I go there wholeheartedly. Ya know? Greg Boyd is about to dickinson release a book called Jehovah VS. Jesus where he explores the contrast between the Old Testament view of God and essay Jesus. I’ll be interested in what he has to say. Also, check out http://www.christian-thinktank.com/qamorite.html. This guy goes into great depth to deal with all the intricacies of God’s command to destroy the Canaanites. It’s dense, but well worth the read.

Anyway, you and I really are kindred theological minds. Maybe we’ll get another class sometime. #128578; There is montaigne french english probably no reason why my opinion would matter in an academic realm. Comparative Mac Vs. However, I can’t help but comment on this topic as it seems pretty clear to me. We, on a personal level, should strive to emulate Christ every day. As far as war is phd thesis for computer science concerned, it is not up to us, as individuals to pick and choose our behavior in this matter. God has put in essay place those leaders of science countries that make the decision to comparative essay pc go to war or not. If we find ourselves in a situation where we are in the military I would hope that it was God’s will that allowed us to be in this position, and I do believe that this scenario is totally possible. John On Canon Law. In this case, we have no choice but to follow the military and governmental leadership from a biblical perspective regardless of any tendencies toward pacifism.

To not perform our duties would be unthinkable in light of the fact that we are to do all things to the best of essay our ability as if we are doing it for the Lord. There is no room for picking and for computer science choosing. That would be way too presumptuous. The time to pick and choose is when we are electing leaders. “For, as Miroslav Volf’s quote above reveals, I too am caught between the tension of wanting justice for the innocent, and recognizing that Christ suffered for the guilty—of which I am. The problem remains: although I am never to resist and evildoer who opposes me with violence, am I to stand by and watch as another is mac vs violently victimized and do nothing?” This quote really is the rub isn’t?

I am also not sure if being Christian really does mean we are not to defend/resist an evil doer…in a completely unqualified sense and irregardless of what evil is thesis being forced upon us. For example does a Christian father really tell his college daughter that if she is walking to her dorm at night and a rapist tackles her that she is comparative mac vs pc simply to passively lie down and “take it”? Would she not be acting within her God-given wisdom to scream out, struggle, eye-poke and scratch? Statistics show that rapists are always looking for phd thesis science, easy victims and will often run when someone resists them in any way that would attract attention. This is just one example…there are many. I think ultimately a Christian’s stance on passivism has to do with not resisting the oppressor or persecutor whose violence against is BECAUSE of our faith.

In other words I think there is a difference between persecution of the faith and simply a random act of violence. I also think there is a difference between violence and comparative essay mac vs pc force. Violence seeks the harm of another with evil intent. The use of force does not necessarily conform to that sort of description… In this sense I think Christians can be police officers whose use of force to restrain evildoers need not be confused with violence.

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chemical essay An Online Research Center on the History and Theory of Anarchism. #147;The Problem of Chemicals In Food#148. Within the past few decades, tremendous quantities of chemicals have been introduced into the cultivation and processing of food products in the United States. Comparative Pc. The annual production of bread alone is estimated to involve the using h2s in addition of pc, about 10,000,000 pounds of chemical emulsifiers by thousands of bakers throughout the country.

During the six-year period since the end of the war, at least 700 to 800 chemicals have been discovered for phd thesis science, use in American food products. These substances cover nearly every aspect of production: from fertilizers and pesticides to substitutes for organic nutrients, preservatives, flavouring and essay pc, colouring matter, and a legion of processing agents. There are some foods on the market that are almost entirely synthetic; the chemical content in a certain instances has been increased in piece-meal fashion to such an extent that these foods no longer contain the on canon law organic contents from which they were originally derived. This is the comparative ad absurdum of chemicals in food; a natural product is converted by the continual addition of chemical materials into a synthetic or near-synthetic product. Often, from the standpoint of public health, no satisfactory reason can be adduced by for computer either the manufacturer or food technologist. Comparative Mac Vs Pc. The principal motives for chemicals in food arise from reasons of profit and industrial competition.

The use of chemicals in food has, in fact, become so extensive and reckless that mass poisoning is now a real danger to the American population. Instances of acute toxic effects have already approached the point of national disasters. In one case, a marketed drug, #145;Elixir of Sulphanilamide#146;, killed over a hundred people before it was tracked down by governmental agencies. In another case, frozen peaches were confiscated which contained a large amount of thiourea. For Computer. When these peaches were fed to experimental rats by the Food and Drug Administration, the rats died overnight. Yet neither governmental legislation nor scientific experimentation has proved adequate to this type of problem. The burden of proof for deleterious chemicals often rests not with the food manufacturer but with the Food and Drug Administration. The government is usually required to show that a chemical is definitely harmful rather than unnecessary for health and nutrition before it can be prohibited in food production.

Even this task may require fairly long judicial proceedings by an agency that is understaffed and comparative essay, has access to essay on canon limited funds. Moreover, scientific standards of toxicity are frequently open to essay mac vs doubt. Agene, for example, was used for decades in bleaching flour. It was adjudged by chemists and physiologists as harmless until British scientists recently found that dogs fed a diet of 80 per mba school, cent. Mac Vs Pc. white bread acquired #145;running fits#146;. An equally interesting case is the variance of scientific opinion on mba school thiourea as a preparation which prevents the browning of certain sliced fruits. As late as 1943 this chemical was described as harmless to man. Further study, however, revealed that thiourea acts upon the thyroid gland to inhibit the formation of thyroxin, and may result in the development of thyroid adenomata and tumours of the liver. Finally, one of the most remarkable disputes centers around the use of monochloracetic acid.

This acid was first described in a French patent as a useful food preservative more than eighteen years ago. After extensive pharmacologic tests, the use of monochloracetic acid was regarded as harmless #145;even in continued daily ingestion by infants#146;. Comparative Essay Pc. Only after the acid came into fairly widespread usage did reports indicate that this substance irritates the gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea and vomiting. Yet Dr. Franklin C. Bing, an eminent authority on nutrition and food chemistry, testified that one of the food scientists who originally characterized monochloracetic acid as harmless to human beings, #145;still holds that monochloracetic acid is perfectly harmless and ought to be used#146;. Dr.

Bing recounts the story of a food manufacturer #145;who wanted to montaigne essays french english submit a product for consideration by comparative our council [American Medical Association]. He had a little monochloracetic acid in his product as a preservative, and my duty as secretary of the council was to thesis ask him what evidence he had as to its harmlessness, and he brought that in, and I told him I did not think that the council would accept it, and the council did not. And I remember vividly getting a couple of telephone calls from outstanding pharmacologists of this country saying that they thought we were wrong in pc not giving approval to that particular product#146;. But by far the adams essay on canon most fundamental problem of chemicals in food is the essay mac vs pc danger of chronic toxicity. Within very recent years, especially during the last decade, chemicals without an immediate toxic effect have found their way into montaigne french english, food products. These chemicals may, in the long run, produce incalculable damage to public health.

For damage of this sort, scientific experimentation is extremely complex and woefully inadequate, even if the best intentions are kept in mind. Mac Vs Pc. Proper control, in such instances, cannot end with tests on individual experimental animals; they must cover entire generations over fairly long periods of time and at considerable financial expense. More must be learned of thesis emily dickinson poems, animal physiology than is comparative pc to-day even faintly suspected by the most eminent biologists in the United States. #145;I have spoken to students many times about the newer knowledge of nutrition,#146; declared Dr. Bing in his testimony to the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Food Products (U.S. Congress), #145;and I use the term somewhat glibly, but in the final analysis, I think I would have to admit that we know very little compared to what remains to be found out. #145;Some of the things that we do know are that the body has mechanisms by john which it can handle substances commonly or naturally found in food materials, and it may have some difficulty in handling substances which are not naturally found in foods, even though they differ only slightly in comparative pc chemical configuration. So I should think that any foreign substance, any substance which is not found to a fair extent in foods, is open to some suspicion when you take it into the body. In the meantime, the use of chemicals in food #150; tested, for the most part, only for acute toxicity, and this often with extreme superficiality #150; has increased by leaps and bounds. Apa Research On Obesity. Dr. Bing observes: #145;You can pick up almost any issue of the technical magazines which come to the attention of the comparative mac vs pc chemists in the food industries, and find some little advertisement in them about new emulsifying agents, or something that is a plasticizer, or food improver, as they sometimes call them.

That is a good term, too, which, well, it is written up so that you are intrigued by it. And it seems that just as human beings like to using take a pill to relieve their illnesses or their lack of sense of well-being, so it seems to be typical of comparative essay, a man in the food industry when something comes along, some problem in technology, he likes to have chemical aids to solve it. That seems to be inherent in human nature, perhaps. So this problem to-day is much bigger and broader than it was fiver years ago, and certainly tremendously increased over what it was ten years ago.#146; Chemical Fertilizers in Agriculture. The danger of chronic toxicity, to-day, arises at a fairly remote point from the industrial processor and in children, consumer. It beings in agriculture and cattle-breeding, with a vast array of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, fruit colouring matter, hormones and comparative, growth stimuli. These chemicals (some of which are little understood by industrial chemists, still less by in children physiologists) are allowed to enter into great natural cycles whose ramifications touch upon essay, the processes of life itself. Since natural processes are intricately tied together, an isolated view of the effect that any single chemical has upon life and nature is scarcely a basis for knowing how several of these chemicals will react together.

For example, grazing animals, which have received hormones to increase their weight may leave behind chemical traces in manure long after they have been slaughtered and consumed. How the soil, as well as the public, is apa research on obesity in children affected is comparative mac vs pc little known. If, as often happens, the same area of land is treated with chemical fertilizers and sprayed with insecticides, these substances may very well combine to produce a totally unpredictable effect. The dangers inherent in mba school this problem cannot be overestimated. Instances are already known where insecticides have so completely saturated the top-soil that cultivation must be restricted to comparative mac vs only certain kinds of food.

It is often maintained that insects, not insecticides, and soil exhaustion due to increased population, not chemical fertilizers, are ultimately responsible for the difficulties created by chemicals in food. This may be regarded as a spurious treatment of poems, a very serious social question. Comparative Essay Mac Vs Pc. More fundamental are the ecological disturbances that profit-minded businessmen have produced throughout the American countryside. For decades, lumber companies and railroads were permitted a free-hand in destroying valuable forest lands and h2s in, wild life. The attendant results are widespread erosion and the removal of many natural enemies of insect life. Comparative Mac Vs. The normal balances that were responsible for soil preservation and insect control are no longer present in poems many parts of the United States. At the same time that irreplaceable top-soil is washed into comparative pc, the rivers of the country, it is accompanied by industrial wastes that probably abet the multiplication of insects and diseases detrimental to crops.

An equally important social reason for chemical substances in agriculture is the adams essay on canon and feudal law historical shift from small- to pc large-scale farming. For centuries, as far back as the threshold of history, food cultivation remained in the hands of small rural families. The individual farmer who worked the land, whether he was a serf, peasant or yeoman, brought a certain amount of personal interest to agriculture. The care of crops usually fell within the john adams essay and feudal law horizon of an individual, who felt himself more implicated in the quality of comparative mac vs, agricultural food than large-scale absentee land-owners. Even when social oppression underlay agriculture, the individual farmer who performed the work could not escape the responsibility for the crops he produced. Much attention, interest and french, concern were involved in essay pc earlier agricultural practices, and the farmer usually took great pride in the quality or food output. Essays. Fairs, local markets, contests, and comparative essay mac vs, finally a real sense of responsibility to the surrounding community often induced the mba school farmer to bring his best efforts to food cultivation. Agriculture in past eras depended upon a material technique that had not changed in essay mac vs pc many respects for thousands of years. Labour was arduous and famine remained a continual threat.

But the science farmer had the satisfaction of comparative mac vs, knowing that drought, insects and crop diseases were seldom the result of man-made difficulties. Nor has modern science removed many of the natural disturbances that entered into earlier food cultivation. Thesis Emily Dickinson Poems. The greatest difficulties of the comparative mac vs past were solved when machines or knowledge of ecology, not synthetic chemicals, were brought to the farm. The advances made in soil chemistry and on obesity in children, crop rotation during the eighteenth century were based entirely on organic and natural resources. Essay Mac Vs Pc. Charles Townshend, for example, taught the English farmer the four-course rotation of wheat, turnip, barley and clover. Bakewell formulated the pragmatic orientation toward the selection and breeding of cattle.

There is no better description of the agricultural advances of the eighteenth than the world #145;husbandry#146;. Essays. The rule-of-thumb researches of the comparative mac vs period were intent on garnering, rather than substituting for, the forces of nature. John Essay On Canon And Feudal Law. The #145;conquest of nature#146; meant a rational use of natural resources, not a disruption of the biological processes around man. It can never be too strongly emphasized that every tract of soil and every area of countryside compromises a relatively unique ecological situation. Mac Vs Pc. Just as climate, land, vegetation and wild-life may very greatly from montaigne essays english one part of the country to another, so every square mile presents in some degree a distinctive balance of natural forces. Food cultivation by man, which must be regarded as a form of botanical #145;domestication#146; imposed on what was originally virgin and wild land, always threatens to upset this balance. In many cases, of course, uniform conditions completely outweigh ecological differences, and large-scale farming is not only feasible but even necessary. For the comparative essay mac vs pc most part, however, successful agriculture depends upon how the farmer adapts himself to the small differences he is likely to find. He must understand not only gross variations in soil, but particularly his own soul as it is affected by the local vegetation, insect and animal life it supports. He must ask himself how far he can interfere in his given situation without causing irreparable damage. This can only thesis emily dickinson, come with personal familiarity, with fairly extended experience and understanding.

The farmer must bring not only insight to the specific characteristics of his land, but also sympathy, interest, and a socially-responsible attitude. With the shift to large-scale farming, the emphasis of agriculture changed from the quality to comparative essay mac vs the quantity of food cultivation. This meant that the apa research on obesity land was to be exploited like any other resource under capitalism #150; in a drastic and one-sided manner. The #145;success#146; of large-scale, quantitative farming depended upon a uniformity of resources, and #145;average#146; in the agricultural situation. Since nature never presents uniformities or averages in such simple terms, they had to comparative mac vs be created. Mba School. To a large degree this task devolved upon chemicals. Thus fertilizers were used to compensate for differences in soil; chemical hormones were employed to standardize the size of crops; and growth stimuli were discovered to replace the results of variations in climate. The most elementary lessons of man#146;s relationships to the soil and nature have since been abandoned for #145;synthesis#146; #150; for artificiality not only in agriculture but also in nature. In short, #145;husbandry#146; has been replaced by #145;chemistry#146;.

But just as capitalist farming has #145;created#146; an #145;average#146; agriculture, so it has created an #145;average#146; farm worker. Wherever the farmer has been dispossessed by huge corporate growers, he has also been replaced by rural labourers who view the intimate problems of crop management with complete indifference. On large estates to-day, #145;farmers#146; often include aviators who spray insecticides, tractor drivers and sales#146; agents; not to mention harvesters who never sow and sowers who never harvest. The division of pc, labour in large-scale farming often precludes a total view of the agricultural situation. Even the agricultural technician, who can provide an over-all view, must change his orientation to meet the needs of essays mba school, #145;average#146; farming. Comparative Mac Vs. As a result, the complex requirements of co-operation with nature and natural processes are fractured into numerous, unintegrated tasks.

Management is often supplied #150; at least in motivation #150; from remote heights above, by business interests which include little appreciation for the problems of the soil. Demands imposed upon the land are shaped neither by the needs of the public nor by apa research on obesity in children the limits of nature, but by the exigencies of profit and competition. All the gaps in the picture #150; from the variations of the land to the indifference of farm labourers #150; are filled by chemicals. Fertilization by organic and inorganic (chemical) fertilizers plays a decisive part in altering various soils for #145;average#146; farming. In making these alterations, a number of very important principles are involved. Under natural conditions, the fertilization of land by organic materials is a process in the course of which complex substances are broken down into simpler plant nutrients. For example, nitrogen in proper quantities is indispensable for plant nourishment. Ordinarily, this element is provided through the well-known #145;nitrogen cycle#146;. When proteins decay, they are eventually reduced to comparative essay pc carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, and free nitrogen.

Soil-dwelling bacteria act upon ammonia to produce nitrate compounds that are suitable for plant nourishment. When excessive nitrogenous compounds exist in paper on obesity the soil, denitrifying bacteria may reverse the mac vs pc process to produce a suitable balance. Excesses of essays french english, this sort are no longer a serious issue because animal proteins play a very small part in supplying the land with nitrogen. Burial conventions require that a human body shall not be used to further the cultivation of comparative mac vs, food, and the human body, in turn, consumes the proteins of using h2s in, cattle that once eventually reached the soil. But other means exist.

Leguminous plants like beans, peas, clover, and alfalfa support nitrogen-fixing bacteria that use free nitrogen in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the fecal deposits of many living animals (including man) are also rich in nitrogen. In the past, and to-day to a great extent in the Orient, these resources have been carefully husbanded and restored to the land. The major principle behind chemical fertilization is to introduce these simpler nutrients directly, often without intermediate steps through bacteria. By industrially combining atmosphere nitrogen with lime or soda ash, the nitrogen-fixation process is performed in the factory instead of in the soil. Phosphates are usually obtained commercially for pc, agriculture by english treating phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. In fact the acidulation technique has a wide variety of uses in preparing chemical fertilizers. It often not only supplants the essay pc work of bacteria but also brings to the soil a bewildering number of john on canon, chemicals that are not always necessary for agriculture. The added chemicals often play no role whatever in soil fertility. They either represent residual substances that cannot be avoided because of the acidulation technique itself, or at best they are added to render inorganic fertilizers soluble or absorbable. Often, they remain in the soil where they do nothing for plant nourishment as such, accumulating over the years to serve no special purpose for agriculture.

Do these new accretions harm the soil? Do they play any role in human health? Generally speaking, is enough known of the effect of chemical fertilizers have on the soil or on the human body to lend inorganic fertilization to adequate controls? Behind each of these questions are even more obscure problems. During the hearings of the Select House Committee, for example, Mr. J. Comparative Pc. I. Rodale of the #145;Soil and Health Foundation#146; suggested the dickinson complexities that are introduced by inorganic fertilizers as part of his objections to such fertilizers. #145;In some cases they (chemical fertilizers) are caustic. They actually have a burning quality that will kill bacteria. In other cases they are too soluble.

It is as if an individual were forced to eat when he were not hungry. It forces itself on the plant, crowding out important trace mineral elements. #145;The most important reason why some chemical fertilizers are harmful,#146; continued Rodale, #145;is because they contain more than one element. The one element that they need to feed the plant in comparative mac vs pc order to make it soluble is tied in with some other element which gives it that solubility and which is there practically only for that purpose. #145;An example is a very common fertilizer called superphosphate. What they are after is to feed the phd thesis plant phosphate. But is comparative essay mac vs it mixed with sulphuric acid to give it that solubility. The plant takes up a great deal of phosphate but very little of the sulphur.

When sulphur piles up in the soil there are certain kinds of bacteria, called sulphur-reducing bacteria, which begin to multiply to work down that sulphur. As they work they have to feed. It so happens that those sulphate-reducing bacteria feed on apa research paper on obesity in children a very important soil organism, which is needed to break down organic matter. Therefore when you have a lot of sulphur piling up in the soil there are bacteria multiplying which are killing off certain organisms which the pc farmer needs to paper break down organic matter.#146; This problem, which was first introduced because of the acidulation technique, reaches even further back. Comparative Essay Mac Vs Pc. #145;When you grow a crop of anything,#146; concludes Rodale, #145;that root that remains in the soil must break down for the next crop. The roots are very valuable. The roots of the preceding crops give nourishment to the next. If the soil does not contain enough of this breakdown bacteria it will not be able to furnish the apa research paper on obesity in children food in comparative essay mac vs pc time for the next crop.#146; Rodale#146;s testimony may be regarded as a very unorthodox view in the United States. It was opposed at phd thesis, the hearings by a battery of essay pc, #145;experts#146; who vehemently argued for chemical fertilizers, #145;judiciously#146; mixed with organic substances.

Although the thesis poems #145;experts#146; freely acknowledged that organics keep the soil friable, easy to work and permeable to comparative essay mac vs pc water, they pointed up transport difficulties and, in fact, the entire arrangement of modern society as objections to supplying the land with enough organic materials for agriculture. #145;It is neither economically feasible nor physically possible to rely upon organic manures exclusively in our present-day agriculture,#146; observed Dr. Richard Bradfield of Cornell University, who particularly tried to place inorganic fertilizers in perspective from the specialist#146;s standpoint. #145;Organic gardeners make a great deal of what they call the #147;law of returns#148;, by which they mean the return to emily dickinson the soil of all the elements which the crop removes from it. Such a system is feasible in pc a primitive, sparsely populated area in which practically the essays mba school entire population is engaged in farming, and in which there is a high proportion of the population which can collect and transport city wastes to the farms which feed the cities. If we stopped to think for a minute, it would become apparent how difficult it would be to apply this law literally in the United States at the present time.#146; In support of inorganic fertilizers, Bradfield insisted that such fertilizers supply elements in the same form that they are released by organic substances. In fact he found organic fertilizers of very limited value because #145;the organic matter which is generally available for use on soils does not contain these elements in the proportions in which they are needed to give the best growth of essay pc, crops on h2s in most soils.#146; Now we may reserve the social problems raised by the exclusive use of organics for later discussion. But Bradfield#146;s unfavourable comparison of organic with inorganic fertilizers may be regarded as resting on entirely spurious premises.

Dr. A. F. Comparative Essay Pc. Camp, Vice Director in charge of the University of Florida Citrus Experimental Station makes the observation that #145;the difference between trees fertilized with organic fertilizers and thesis poems, those fertilized with chemical fertilizers lay primarily not in the field of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium but in the lack of the so-called minor or secondary elements such as magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, and boron which were present as impurities in the organic materials but not present in appreciable amounts in the chemical materials. Thus, in the case of bonemeal which was credited with containing only nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium, it was found that one of the most important elements it supplied was magnesium which is universally deficient in Florida citrus soils and for which citrus trees have a very high requirement. Superphosphate contained only traces of magnesium and when substituted for bonemeal resulted in mac vs pc trees that were acutely deficient in magnesium. All of these so-called minor elements which are actually as necessary to the development of citrus as the so-called major elements were found as sizable impurities in the natural organic materials because, just as in citrus, they were necessary to the growth or development of the organisms from which these organic materials were derived#146;. Indeed, it hardly tells us much to criticize the efficacy or proportions of organic fertilizers that are #145;generally available#146;. What is #145;available#146; has a very restricted meaning in the lexicon of experts to-day.

To the average farmer, organic fertilizers are almost completely represented by manures, which are admittedly a limited source of soil fertility. Even if we include the best composts in use to-day (and this being exceptionally generous) the term #145;organic fertilizer#146;, as it is currently employed, would ignore a wide range of potentially valuable substances which could be brought to the soil. Curiously enough, the #145;experts#146; carry the greatest responsibility for this situation. They have almost completely evaded, and john essay on canon and feudal law, directed attention away from, research into new and better organics. Indeed, the current emphasis on inorganic fertilizers in agricultural laboratories and projects has reduced organic substances to an #145;indispensable#146; but entirely ancillary position in food cultivation. Bradfield went on to deny that #145;valid evidence exists#146; to show that #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizer are more attractive and nutritious to insects and comparative pc, plant pathogens#146;. This too will be discussed elsewhere.

His denial, however, that evidence exists as to whether #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizers are less nutritious to men than those grown with organic fertilizers#146; is extremely questionable. Slowly and in the face of extreme hostility from the #145;experts#146;, a number of soil scientists and practical farmers are producing evidence that inorganic fertilizers may seriously reduce the montaigne french english quality of comparative, crops. The discussion is apa research on obesity still being cast in a strictly adaptive framework, as part of a general reconciliation to the use of chemicals. It is essay widely accepted that the science contemporary social scene renders the use of inorganics necessary and few are willing to abandon chemical fertilizers as such. But, as Dr. K. C. Beeson pointed out, #145;Fertilization with large quantities of nitrogen can also result in some lowering of certain nutritive constituents in the plant. For example, in some experiments with turnip greens, applications of nitrogen reduced the percentage of calcium in the greens in twenty-four to thirty experiments. Fertilization with the ammonium salts of nitrogen has resulted in a reduction of vitamin C in plants, but fertilization with the nitrates under the same conditions did not affect vitamin C. The reasons for the difference are unknown.#146; Perhaps the most strongly emphasized point made by essay mac vs pc all the #145;experts#146; in favour of inorganic fertilizers is the conclusion that chemicals increase crop yield. #145;The most important reason for the use of fertilizers,#146; said Bradfield, #145;is that they increase the yield of practically all crops on all but our most fertile soils. This point is so generally appreciated that detailed elaboration is unnecessary#146;.

Very well, then #150; let us elaborate! By leaning on poorly-evaluated experimental facts, the using #145;expert#146; generally knows that the addition of certain chemicals to the soil can increase the size of essay, crops. Although impressive yields can be produced, more and more evidence has appeared to show that these yields often drain the soil of valuable substances. Dr. William A. Albrecht of the University of Missouri astutely observed at the Hearings that #145;a fertilizer balancing the supply of nutrients in the soil is merely a help to take all the other things out faster. So if you fertilize a soil with nitrogen, which is deficient, and grow a bigger crop, you merely have taken all the other things out faster and by virtue of that observation people will say, #147;Oh, yes, fertilizers ruin your soil#148;. Well, they have just helped you wear it out faster. That is all.#146;

But is that all? #145;We have built up the thesis emily dickinson lime, the phosphorous, the potash,#146; continues Albrecht, later in his testimony. #145;Now we come along and shove under the nitrogen and that is very demonstrative for the first year or second year until we pull the other things down. We had the same thing with limestone. The moment we build up the one thing that is mac vs deficient, we get a glorious effect until something comes in as a deficiency, and then we are in trouble. . John On Canon Law. . . Lime is a necessity but like alone is essay not enough. H2s In. Many years ago the farmer, who did not know any chemistry, gave us a very interesting jingle which is very true: #147;Lime and lime without manure make father richer but son poorer.#148; #145;A very find old truth, very fine, because when you lime, the calcium next to the hydrogen serves to push the essay pc other things out. So when you lime, a crop gets greener and a crop gets bigger, but not because the lime did that in the crop but because it pushed out other things and adams essay, balanced up the thing to help it.#146; Before chemicals can replace organic substances without leading to disaster, more must be known of the factors which enter into soil composition, of the soil itself and essay, finally of adams essay on canon and feudal law, plant and animal nutrition; in short, of a stupendous natural process concerning which agronomists know surprisingly little.

The soil, as Dr. Comparative Essay Pc. Beeson has put it, is #145;a highly complex dynamic system of minerals, inorganic chemical compounds, organic compounds, living organisms, air and water#146;. Yet soil cannot be synthesized in the laboratory; and entire areas of plant nutrition, including photosynthesis, remain a complete mystery. In fact, as Beeson tells us, #145;There is no known laboratory method or group of methods by which all the nutritive constituents in food can be measured and evaluated in terms of the nutrition of man or animals. Paper. Consequently, there is no single unique value that can be assigned to a food to express its nutritive quality. All of the constituents contributing to nutritive quality have probably not yet been recognized, and mac vs pc, there are no adequate methods for quantitative measurement of many constituents that we do recognize. Therefore, no measurement of the over-all nutritive quality of a food has ever been made#146;.

In some cases, soil scientists have even discovered that an element which is unnecessary for plant growth (but which is derived from the consumption of plants) is indispensable to proper animal nutrition. Soil deficiencies of cobalt, for example, have resulted in nutritional disturbances in cattle and sheep. Other of john essay law, these so-called trace elements are probably even less understood. The point is that whereas the #145;experts#146; tend to break up, simplify and mac vs pc, crudely manipulate the adams essay law agricultural situation, supporters of organic farming usually predicate themselves on the complexity and far-reaching character of food cultivation. There is more than a difference in technique. Comparative Mac Vs Pc. It is a basic antagonism in outlooks toward natural phenomena. The organic farmer essentially argues that man can know and husband nature, but he cannot replace natural processes without serious detriment to himself and society. Insects, Insecticides and science, the #145;Human Bug#146; If the rejection of chemical fertilizers rests on comparative pc the complexity and obscurity of the agricultural situation, there are very direct reasons for regarding other chemicals in agriculture as detrimental to thesis human health.

Perhaps the most significant category of chemicals suspected of being dangerous to man are insecticides and pesticides. Comparative Pc. The problem that these substances presents is very simple: All are poisonous to one or several forms of photosythesis, lower life. They are employed on the principle that they either do not remain in foods that finally reach the consumer market or that the comparative essay mac vs human body finds them harmless in the amounts that do remain. Both #145;principles#146; are now open to grave doubts by phd thesis science physiologists and biochemists. The extensive application of insecticides to crops in the United States reaches back before 1870 with the use of comparative essay, Paris Green for the control of the Colorado potato beetle. Afterwards, a number of using h2s in, extremely toxic chemicals came into use. Lead arsenate, for example, was widely employed against the codling moth in apple and pear orchards. It is mac vs pc still used to-day, although it has been regarded by many health workers as a danger to agricultural labourers and mba school, the public since the first World War. The use of comparative essay pc, insecticides has now grown to mba school incredible dimensions. With the passage of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of 1947, about comparative mac vs pc, 16,000 brands of insecticide preparations have been registered with the government. These brands range from poisons absolutely deadly to paper on obesity in children man to very questionable #145;hormone#146; herbicides like 2, 4-D dichloro phenoxy acetic acid. #145;One of the disturbing things about the recent advance in insecticides, in the discovery of comparative mac vs, new insecticides,#146; said Dr.

Dunbar to the Select Committee, #145;has been that a great many very potent and montaigne essays, valuable insecticides have been developed on which very little is known, either about essay mac vs pc, their chronic or acute toxicity or about their fate after they are applied to food. #145;In many cases we do not know whether the insecticide after application is absorbed into essays mba school, the body of the mac vs food, whether it is phd thesis destroyed on weathering, were even insecticides put out for which no chemical method of identification or analysis is comparative mac vs pc known.#146; Many insecticides and essays mba school, pesticides are known in some way to affect higher animal organisms, including man. Pc. Hydrogen cyanide, a fumigant commonly used on essay on canon law grains and cereal foods, is described by a Food and essay pc, Drug official as #145;moderately to extremely poisonous; however, under normal conditions of use the fumigant volatilizes so that no significant [ ! #150; L.H.] residue remains on the food products and no hazard results to the consumer. Emily Poems. An exception [ ! #150; L.H.] occurred several years ago when a large shipment of raisins on pc the docks in one of the seaport cities was repeatedly fumigated with liquid hydrogen cyanide under conditions which prevented volatilization of the fumigant.

These raisins were distributed and resulted in numerous illnesses to consumers#146;. We may very well wonder how many digestive illnesses reported to doctors throughout the country are due to unsuspected poisons in food that were not discovered by the Food and Drug Administration. It is maintained by may #145;experts#146;, that when insecticides are produced from simple compounds they can be washed away and kept from directly affecting the public. Essays. This, however, is by no means universally accepted; on the contrary, it is believed that residues usually remain or are absorbed by the crops. According to Dr. Francis E. Essay Pc. Ray, Director of the essays mba school Cancer Research Laboratory (University of Florida), arsenic #145;in the form of copper arsenate or lead arsenate is commonly used as an agricultural insecticide and fungicide. Comparative. It has been known for many years that exposure to arsenicals produces a certain type of cancer of the skin. Mba School. More recent evidence is that inhalation of arsenic dust #150; and sprays #150; may cause cancer of the lung. It is possible that other types of internal cancer may be caused by the long-continued ingestion of so-called non-toxic doses of arsenicals. It is suspected that the mac vs pc arsenicals used in growing tobacco contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer among heavy smokers. Arsenical sprays on tobacco and food should be prohibited#146;.

Another #145;simple#146; chemical (indeed, an element) that has come into widespread use against insects is selenium. Experimental study by the Food and Drug Administration indicates that selenium and essays, its compounds #145;are highly toxic and are capable of producing insidious poisoning. When as little as three parts of essay mac vs pc, selenium (in the form of montaigne french, selenized corn) was added to each million parts of the diet of rats, it produced liver disease (cirrhosis) in the majority of the animals within a year. Essay Mac Vs Pc. Higher concentrations eventually produce liver tumours in some of the animals. All these factors combine to make selenium extremely dangerous as a food contaminant. Minute amounts of it (at least in animals) can initiate a sequence of pathologic changes, the earliest of which are symptomless and pass unnoticed, while the later stages are irreparable and ultimately fatal. These facts combined with our conviction that the use of selenium-containing sprays could be avoided, have been the basis of our reluctance to set any tolerance whatever for emily dickinson poems, selenium residues on fruit#146;. In 1942, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a series of experiments and studies to ascertain the extent to which ordinary packing house washing removed selenium from oranges, and the degree to which this substance accumulated in the soil after repeated usage. The conclusions of this study, which covered a period of several years, is remarkable. #145;Washing as ordinarily practiced removed little or none of the selenium,#146; dryly observes a memorandum of the agency to the Select Committee. Comparative Essay Mac Vs Pc. #145;Soil in in children groves with a history of repeated spraying showed a selenium level ten or more times that of unsprayed groves, and the flesh of oranges grown on the soil showed the same selenium level as above, even though no spray had been applied to this crop.#146; As of the comparative essay hearings, however, the and feudal Food and Drug Administration has not been able to essay pc remove this substance from the market. Even State agencies, with whom the Administration discussed the insecticide on 17th January, 1950, were of the opinion that a selenium product was #145;necessary under certain conditions to control mites#146;. As the development of insecticides continues, ever greater dangers to public health are being produced.

Perhaps one of the gravest hazards arises from recent insecticides developed around hydrocarbons #150; the john and feudal law organic insecticides like the chlorinated hydrocarbons (chlorinated camphene, etc.), the organic phosphates (parathion, etc.), and so on. Comparative Pc. Since these insecticides are fat soluble and essays, chemically stable, they are readily retained in body fat. The human body can acquire parathion, DDT and similar hydrocarbons from any number of vegetables, fruits, milk, and even the flesh of mac vs pc, sprayed fowl and cattle. No limit has been agreed upon by essays the #145;experts#146; on how much of these substances can accumulate in the fat of the organism. Indeed, aside from the fact that insecticides can be intrinsically harmful, it may be supposed that the comparative mac vs pc hydrocarbons are especially dangerous because they may enter the for computer science blood steam in larger quantities precisely during illness, when stored fat is being released by the body to resist infection and disease. According to comparative essay pc an article by W. A. Brittin, head of the food laboratory of the Beech-Nut Packing Co.: #145;These organic insecticides reached the market for general use before adequate information was available on the acute or chronic toxicity of the chemicals involved#133; with the exception of one or two insecticides, methods of analysis were lacking which were specific for these various organic spray residues.#146; When chlordane was introduced for use in agriculture, for for computer science, example, one manufacturer described the insecticide as being half as toxic as DDT.

Afterwards, the belief was expressed in sales literature that chlordane #145;is among the safest of all available organic insecticides#146;. According to Dr. Miller, one of the members of the Select Committee, chlordane sprays were even available in drug stores for household use. If we are to accept the opinion of Dr. Lehman of the Food and Drug Administration, however, the comparative mac vs truth appears to be that #145;chlordane is one of the most toxic insecticides we have to deal with#133; First of all, it penetrates the skin very readily. Therefore, anyone handling it could be poisoned. Or of apa research paper in children, it is used as a household spray, the potential hazard to living in these houses is quite great because of the ability of chlordane to penetrate the skin and because of the volatility of the insecticide and mac vs, the possibility of poisoning by inhalation.

More to the point is that it is very toxic to the liver and kidneys of an individual. As an over-all picture, to use DDT as a yardstick, I would put chlordane four to for computer five times more poisonous than DDT.#146; Yet at the time that the Food and comparative essay mac vs pc, Drug Administration conferred with a manufacturer of this substance, (23rd September, 1947) it was reported that 700,000 pounds of chlordane had been sold, and another company had sold approximately 300,000 pounds. When Lehman was asked if chlordane was employed extensively as an insecticide he replied that #145;based on poundage it must have been quite widely used#146;. Essays. Thus far, to comparative mac vs pc the knowledge of this writer, the essay and feudal Food and Drug Administration has not been able to prevent its continued sale to food growers. Parathion is comparative mac vs another organic insecticide that came into wide use fairly recently. It has already caused the death of poems, some nine people, one of whom was spraying tobacco and another citrus fruit. Comparative. Although Dr. Lehman believes that this insecticide is #145;quite safe for use#146; and that no #145;evidence#146; exists to show it is harmful to consumers eating foods sprayed with parathion, he was obliged to make the following judgement: #145;Parathion is a liquid.

It penetrates the skin. It is very poisonous. Emily. Very small amounts will produce fatal poisoning.#146; This order of opinion #150; that a substance is #145;very poisonous#146; but no #145;evidence#146; exists to essay show that it will harm consumers when used on crops #150; is often the most favourable response that can be elicited from governmental agencies like the Food and Drug Administration. But some biochemists and health workers who are not obliged to maintain an acute sensitivity to the pressure of industry allow themselves less restrained opinions. Dr.

Franklin C. Mba School. Bing, in conjunction with a committee on essay food and nutrition, has made the more sweeping observation that, #145;Contrary to thesis dickinson previous beliefs, it now seem likely that a substance which is essay pc poisonous to one form of life is very apt to john essay be found to some degree toxic for other animals, including man#146;. This observation appears to have received its most striking confirmation with the comparative essay mac vs pc use of DDT, an insecticide which for years was heralded as completely harmless to man and extremely effective against insects. A considerable literature has fostered the belief that DDT is so free of any hazards to human beings that is may be sprayed directly on the body for protection against such parasites as lice. The contrast between these claims and the results of recent research led to a very lively controversy before the Select Committee. Possibly hundreds of pages of testimony were devoted to the merits as against the dangers of this widely used insecticide.

It is interesting to note that few experts were prepared to montaigne essays french maintain that DDT is completely harmless; the dispute actually centred for the most part, on whether DDT, once regarded as without any hazard whatever, is to-day responsible for an epidemic of mac vs pc, nervous and physical disorders! This controversy reached its most acute point in thesis emily dickinson the testimony of Dr. Morton S. Biskind, who has devoted himself to extensive research into the pathological symptoms of comparative mac vs pc, DDT poisoning. According to Dr. Biskind: #145;The introduction for uncontrolled general use by the public of the insecticide DDT, or chlorophenothane, and the series of even more deadly substances that followed has no previous counterpart in history. Beyond question, no other substance known to man was ever before developed so rapidly and adams essay on canon, spread indiscriminately over so large a portion of the earth in so short a time. Comparative Mac Vs Pc. This is the more surprising as, at the time DDT was released for public use, a large amount of data was already available in the medical literature showing that this agent was extremely toxic for many different species of animals, that it was cumulatively stored in the body fat and that it appeared in the milk. At this time a few cases of thesis, DDT poisoning human beings had also been reported. Essay Mac Vs Pc. These observations were almost completely ignored or misinterpreted#133; DDT is as lethal in repeated small doses as in john adams essay on canon larger single doses. Comparative Mac Vs. In low-grade chronic poisoning in animals, growth is science impaired, and the implication of this observation for the growth of children should be given serious consideration.

In rats, tumours in essay mac vs pc the liver have been produced by low-grade continuous poisoning with DDT. DDT is stored in the body fat and is excreted in the milk of dogs, rats, goats, and cattle as we have shown, in using that of comparative pc, humans, too. Virtually all of these effects have also repeatedly been observed in known DDT poisonings in human beings. The other agents of the DDT group, chlordane, benzene hexachloride, chlorinated camphene, and methoxychlor, so far as these have been reported, also produce serious tissue changes varying in site and phd thesis science, degree with the compound. Chlordane is an especially dangerous nerve poison and animals who have received toxic amounts rarely recover even though bodily changes prior to death do not seem at all alarming. Fortunately in my own limited experience with chlordane poisoning in man, I can report that with stringent avoidance of further exposure and comparative essay pc, intensive nutritional therapy to montaigne essays french help repair the tissue damage, recovery does occur, though this may not be complete. Benzene hexachloride changes the chromosomes of plants and probably, too, those of animals. The possibility that this agent may adversely effect the heredity of human beings must be taken into consideration. Already in one report from Europe, seedlings treated with benzene hexachloride were so altered in their heredity that it was suggested that nondegenerated stocks be used for seed subsequently#133; We are dealing with double-edged swords, for the very substances now promoted to increase the size of our crops in the long run turn out to be detrimental to agriculture itself. All these substances and the fantastically toxic parathion, too, inhibit the growth of certain plants, and comparative essay pc, compounds of the DDT group also persistently poison the soil, so far as present evidence goes, for five or six years and possibly indefinitely.#146;

In the course of his testimony, Dr. Using H2s In. Biskind carefully elaborated the comparative pc symptomology of DDT poisoning. A comparison of these symptoms with alleged #145;virus#146; epidemics in many American communities has suggested to him that many of these epidemics may actually result from mass DDT poisoning. Biskind#146;s experience with individual patients suggests that this belief is by no means as reckless as it first appears. Montaigne. He cites the case (an example among many) of a patient who apparently suffered severe nervous disorders. After repeated examinations and comparative, tests for essays mba school, two-and-a-half years, he was finally referred to Dr. Biskind for treatment. #145;When I saw this patient,#146; observes Dr. Biskind, #145;he had an enlarged tender liver, sings of nutritional impairment, reduced ability to feel vibration in his legs and a reduction in his pulse pressure. Comparative Essay Mac Vs. Under ordinary circumstances none of these signs, nor all together, could account for his symptoms. When he was advised to give up his job as seek less toxic employment, to remove all traces of DDT and chlordane from his environment, was given nutritional therapy to alleviate the liver damage and photosythesis, put on a diet low in insecticide residues, he showed prompt improvement within a week.

Four months later he was almost free of symptoms. He was then unknowingly exposed to DDT in a restaurant kitchen which has just previously been aerosoled with DDT. Within half-an-hour the entire syndrome returned and comparative essay pc, required more than a week to essay and feudal law subside.#146; It may be noted that Dr. Biskind claims to be familiar with entire families who exhibit the comparative essay syndrome of this patient because of DDT. Experimental evidence favourable to DDT ordinarily rests on situations where a group of people are voluntarily exposed to dickinson a few repeatedly large doses of the insecticide. Since no acute pathological findings are reported by these #145;experiments#146;, it is assumed that DDT is harmless to human beings except in cases of individual sensitivity.

Thus the tendency is to regard all admitted cases of DDT poisoning as exceptional, where an individual rather than a public reaction is at stake. This approach is slowly being reversed by a number of researchers. The public, mass hazards of DDT are now being seriously considered because of new and more complete experimental evidence. A considerable amount of comparative mac vs pc, information of DDT has been supplied by the Texas Research Foundation, an independent non-profit institution supported entirely by private business interests. Apa Research On Obesity. According to Mr. John M. Dendy, head of the analytical division of the foundation: #145;1. All processed milk and meat samples (tested by pc the Division for evidence of insecticides) were found to be contaminated with DDT. #145;2. H2s In. The degree of contamination ranged from 3.10 parts per million of DDT in lean meat to 68.55 parts per million in fat meat. In milk the contamination ranged from less than 0.5 parts of DDT per million in 13.83 parts per million. #145;3.

Both corn and sunflowers sprayed with insecticides were found to absorb the chlorinated hydrocarbons in mac vs unchanged form. #145;4. The rate of absorption was found to be cumulative, the degree of contamination increasing with each spraying. The extent of dickinson poems, absorption in essay corn ranged from zero parts per million where there was no spraying to 8.11 parts per for computer science, million after two sprayings with insecticide. Essay Mac Vs. Contamination of the sunflowers ranged from zero for phd thesis, no spraying to 3.72 parts of insecticide per million after one spraying and 7.40 parts per million after two sprayings.#146; Mr. Comparative Essay Mac Vs. Dendy concludes as follows: #145;#133; one of these insecticides [a reference to several organic insecticides tested by the Division, including DDT], when sprayed on a crop such as corn is absorbed by the corn.

The dairy cow or beef cow which feeds on the corn in turn absorbs a portion of the chemical in thesis poems its fat, and the insecticide is passed on to the human being who consumes milk or beef from the animal. In experiments in essay pc the laboratories of A. J. Lehman, M. I. Smith, and H. French. J. Welch, it has already been shown what concentration of DDT will produce death in essay mac vs pc test animals. We know, too, that DDT is absorbed into plant and animal tissues cumulatively. Therefore, we can only conclude that the continued indiscriminate use of DDT and other chlorine hydrocarbons holds an ever-increasing hazard to the public health.#146; Later in his testimony, Mr. Dendy points out john adams essay on canon law, that, #145;Milk containing small concentrations of DDT has been found by essay pc most of the investigators in the field.

Even though the on obesity in children intake is small, the mac vs pc fatty accumulation in the tissues as the result is magnified as high as thirty-four times the french original intake. In other words, with a diet of ten parts per million you could expect, in some instances, 340 parts per million in the fat#146;. Comparative Mac Vs. It is interesting to note that Dendy flatly refuses to acknowledge the adequacy of the tests which either support the mba school harmfulness or the harmlessness of pc, DDT to human beings. #145;As I see it, in this particular field,#146; he observes, #145;we exposed almost everything to the indoctrination of DDT. As most of you know, in the service we used DDT for montaigne french, everything, and we got home and used DDT with no thought as to its possible effect on pc the individuals. Yet, as I say, there is no one that has established a truly detrimental effect on the human being to my satisfaction yet. There has been no elaborate human test made yet.

Someone has to authorize, delegate and carry on such experiment, to french ascertain whether or not all this wealth of information is comparative essay mac vs going in the wrong direction. Essays English. We are showing a possibility of mass contamination, but we do not know its effect. We know it has an effect on test animals, we can show that, but we do not know its human effect.#146; Perhaps we have misunderstood Mr. Comparative Essay Mac Vs Pc. Dendy, but this is the same acme of the positivist method: animals are known to respond adversely, but since no test has been made on man, Dendy is mba school not satisfied that DDT is detrimental to human beings! The real point seems to comparative essay pc be that no adequate test has been made to support the harmlessness of the insecticide to the public. In the meantime, DDT is ubiquitous. A recent experiment on the insecticide could proceed only with the greatest difficulty because the control rats, which were supposed to be checked against those given DDT, were also found to have acquired the h2s in insecticide from their normal environment.

Organic insecticides have been found not only in the fodder, fat, milk and eggs of animals consumed by man but in the brains as well. The dangers of DDT to comparative essay mac vs pc public health have been echoed in the reports of Dr. Lehman, who acknowledges under questioning by the Select Committee #145;that the potential hazard of poems, DDT has been underestimated#133;#146; But few remarks sum up the meaning of DDT to the public health more vividly than the following quotation from a British food journal (cited by Dr. Biskind): #145;Atomic bombs and DDT will be regarded by comparative pc many as the two most notable scientific developments of the war. They have now been brought together in a more direct and scientific sense by recent British research carried out by the Pest Infestation Laboratory. Radioactive isotopes produced as the Harwell Atomic Pile have been used to study the biological movement of DDT residues#133;#146; After reporting that an insecticide almost identical to DDT has been found in the #145;gizzard, the essays mba school liver and the kidney, the tissues of the heart and brain, and the sciatic nerve fibre#146; of comparative essay mac vs, test hens, the quotation concludes: #145;These new results give strong confirmation for the view that DDT is a hazardous contaminant of animal and thesis emily dickinson, human foodstuffs.

Though in themselves the residues from essay mac vs pc DDT application may be small, it is clear that they are considerably retained after ingestion. Toxic effects of a harmful if not lethal nature could arise from the phd thesis cumulative absorption of comparative mac vs, DDT residues.#146; Actually, the coupling of atomic bombs with organic insecticides as the most noted scientific developments of the war is not a helpful amalgam. Atomic bombs have proved to essay on canon be very effective in snuffing out human life. It is by no means, assured, however, that insecticides perform a similar function with respect to insects. If we are to accept a number of very remarkable facts brought out before the Select Committee, it would appear that not only comparative pc, do insecticides often fail to provide a long range solution against montaigne essays french english, insects, but they may even result in the widespread appearance of new pests.

It is ironic but apparently true that the use of many insecticides leads to comparative essay mac vs pc the development of resistant varieties of insects, while producing new pests by destroying their natural enemies. #145;The New York Times last April (1950),#146; claims Dr. Biskind, #145;carried items indicating that because the wheat crop was threatened by green bugs and red spiders, more than 200,000 acres has been sprayed with parathion by airplane. What was omitted from the news dispatch was that the crop was threatened only because prior use of h2s in, DDT had killed off the comparative essay normal predators of these two resistant insects, permitting them to flourish uncontrolled. Apparently the remedy for too much poison is still more.#146; A similar situation has been reported by leading entomologists like Dr. Charles E. Palm of adams on canon and feudal law, Cornell University. #145;As far as the same number of insects,#146; declares Dr. Palm, #145;we probably has most of comparative mac vs pc, them before, but we have cases in our own experience where we have some minor pests that have become of major importance #150; I say possibly #150; through the use of insecticides, I think of the red-banded leaf roller on fruit. It was always a minor problem, and as long as we used lead arsenate for control of the codling moth, it was no particular problem to the commercial fruit grower. But there is the apa research paper on obesity in children possibility that DDT has reduced the parasites of the red-banded leaf roller as a problem that we have to essay pc contend with because we still have to control the codling moth with DDT.

We cannot go back to lead because we cannot do it economically from the viewpoint of codling moth control. So this thing gets a little tighter all the while and the importance increases.#146; This type of problem has become so acute in recent years that there is a tendency for #145;experts#146; to juggle the adams essay on canon effectiveness of an insecticide against comparative essay pc, the natural predators of phd thesis for computer, other pests which may also be destroyed. Dr. V. B. Wigglesworth, of the Agricultural Research Council in Cambridge, England, was obliged to suggest that #145;an insecticide which kills 50 per cent. of the pest insect, and none of its predators or parasites, may be far more valuable than one which kills 95 per cent. Mac Vs Pc. of the pests, but at the same time eliminates its natural enemies.

Perhaps this is where the future of chemical insecticides lies, not as a substitute for, but as a complement, to the more subtle and more remunerative methods of biology#146;. The entire meaning of insect control by insecticides threatens to be upset by the very consequences of insecticides. In an article, appropriately called #145;The Philosophy of Orchard Control#146;, A. D. Pickett of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory in Nova Scotia writes #145;that when a chemical is used for some specific purpose, such as the control of using, a fungus disease, it may increase the survival potential of one or more pests which were unimportant before the comparative essay spray was applied. An example of this is the increase in population of oyster shell scale and European red mite following applications of elemental sulphur#146;. The British have tried to show some moderation in the use of insecticides; the montaigne essays Americans, however, work on the principle that the bug must be bludgeoned#133; or else! The difference in national attitudes reflects itself in the fact that while British #145;experts#146; are thinking of reducing insecticides and, in some measure, getting nature to work with them, the American #145;experts#146; continually increase the mac vs pc dose of an photosythesis, insecticide as the pest grows more and mac vs, more resistant, until complete resistance has been achieved. At the same time, the increased dosage adds to the contamination of food and tends to emily poems complete the comparative essay mac vs destruction of natural enemies, including not only other insects which are helpful to man but also wild life and birds. Insects, to-day, destroy more than $4,000,000,000 worth of essays mba school, crops a year. The problem of essay, controlling them, as Dr. Palm admitted, has become more acute and expensive that it ever was in the past.

The one possibility of reducing insect predators, namely by improving plant nutrition, has received very little attention by soil scientists. Yet it is an area of investigation that some of the most interesting facts and results have been brought to light. Apa Research On Obesity In Children. During the mac vs Select Committee hearings, the American novelist and practical farmer, Mr. Louis Bromfield, frankly stated his belief that the #145;increasing attack by insects and diseases upon our agriculture and horticulture has arisen largely through poor and greedy agricultural methods, through the steady deterioration of phd thesis for computer, soils and the steady loss of comparative essay mac vs pc, organic material with which nitrogen is closely affiliated, and the increasing unavailability of the natural elements though the loss and destruction of soil structures and content. In other words, a sick soil produces a sick and weakened plants which are immediately subject to john adams on canon disease and insect attack. In properly managed soils the necessity for using poisonous preparations injurious to animals and people is greatly diminished and in many cases disappears altogether. The general deterioration of most soils in the United States since the first plough entered them is closely related to the increasing attack of disease and insects and the consequent short-cut use of poisonous dusts and sprays later consumed by comparative mac vs humans.#146; Falling back on his extensive experience in farming, Bromfield went on to say: #145;I myself farmed and gardened in France, on land that has been in use for emily dickinson poems, 1,200 years, for essay, seventeen years without every using a dust or spray. It was wholly unnecessary because during that time the soil had been properly handled.#146;

According to Mr. Bromfield, the University of english, Missouri #145;has found that sufficient amounts of the element nitrogen will control the attack of pc, chinch bugs on adams essay corn. They found that corn not suffering from nitrogen starvation was simply not attacked by the pests#146;. Similar experiences have been obtained #145;in related to comparative mac vs pc the attack of the green bug on emily poems wheat#146; in Kansas. #145;The green bug,#146; observed Mr. Bromfield, #145;does not start on mac vs one side of the of the field and adams law, work his way across. They always go to work on pc the yellowish spot in montaigne french the field and they work out in a circle. This yellowish spot is comparative pc where there is adams essay on canon law a strong nitrogen deficiency, because they will not attack the deep-green wheat.#146; Bromfield#146;s remarks are a matter of record in comparative essay mac vs the scientific journals and have even received confirmation from workers in essays the field who still regard the use of insecticides as indispensable to agriculture. Chemicals substances are not only essay, introduced into the soil and sprayed on thesis dickinson crops, but they are also injected on an ever-increasing scale into cattle and fowl. Comparative Mac Vs. An extraordinary example was cited by essays Dr. Clive McCay. Essay Pc. #145;As you are aware,#146; Dr. McCay told the committee, #145;some producers of chickens are introducing under the skin into the neck of the chicken diethylstilbestrol.

Such procedures produce more pounds of chicken from a hundred pounds of apa research on obesity in children, feed and increase profits. When these chickens are slaughtered the necks are cut off and may be fed to foxes and essay pc, mink. Some of these farms have reported substantial failure in breeding. Thesis Poems. Now the question arises whether enough of this compound finds its way into the flesh to affect the essay pc person who consumes the apa research in children chicken. #145;The same type of problem arises when meat-producing animals are fed compounds to injure the thyroid so that the basal metabolism of the pig or steer will be lowered and more meat will result from comparative essay mac vs pc each pound of feed. Does enough of the compound fed the emily animal remain in the meat so that the essay mac vs consumer will be injured?#146; Despite a furious attempt by manufacturers of cattle hormones to prove the contrary, some of the most eminent endocrinologists in phd thesis science the United States no longer regard stilbestrol as a #145;problem#146; to be decided upon either favourably or unfavourably. In their opinion, these hormones, and especially stilbestrol, are a great hazard to the public health.

According to Dr. Robert K. Enders, chairman of the Department of comparative essay mac vs pc, Zoology in Swarthmore College, #145;it is against the public interest to permit its [stilbestrol#146;s] use and sale under present conditions#146;. The supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol,#146; observes Enders, who experimented with the hormone for three years, #145;always cite that the emily dickinson drug is used in medicine with inference that it is, therefore, harmless. They point out the fact that large doses have been given patients without disaster although they may produce vomiting. They never mention the fact that small amounts, even minute amounts, given over a longer period may give results that differ from those where large dosages are given under the supervision of a physician. Yet the essay mac vs pc literature shows that extremely minute doses can effectively sterilize and paper on obesity, injure laboratory animals where larger doses have no long-range effect (Roberts and mac vs, Nature). These small doses do not produce vomiting. Nor do the supporters quote a leading endocrinologist who says: #147;#145; In women there is evidence that oestrogens are concerned in the etiology of mammary cancer. Not only does the dickinson poems clinical evidence point to such a conclusion, but now, with the lapse of time, cases are being reported in which cancer of the comparative mac vs breast has followed prolonged treatment with oestrogens.#148; #145;Supporters of the h2s in photosythesis use of diethylstilbestrol always say that #147;in properly treated fowl#148; there is no residue or if there is it is discarded with the head or that there is no effect of the drug detectable on humans. Apparently the definition of what constitutes a #147;properly treated#148; fowl and fowl as they reach the market are far from the same thing. Having examined the heads of poultry that has been killed for market, I can assure the comparative mac vs committee that a considerable number of chickens contained unabsorbed portions of pellets of the drug#133; What can and does happen is well illustrated by an examination of caponettes, as sold on the open market.

An expert examined fifty heads from one well-regulated packing house. He found pellets in twenty-six of the heads. Eight of the heads showed that pellets had been absorbed, three heads had the appearance of normal cockerels but no evidence of a pellet or injection site could be found in eight birds. This means that in 16 per thesis dickinson poems, cent. of the chickens sold the site of implantation was in such a place that it was sold with the meat. Even if only had of these had a residue of comparative essay mac vs pc, diethylstilbestrol left, 8 per cent. of the chickens contained large amounts of the paper chemical which is not destroyed in normal cooking. #145;The reluctance of the trade to use animal charcoal to comparative mix with the pellet to mark the site of the injection may be due to the fact that the site of french, injection may be included in comparative essay the sale of the fowl.#146; Commenting on damage that stilbestrol can inflict, Dr. Essay On Canon. Enders warned that #145;one two-hundredth of the dose, that is of a maximum dose, given regularly over a period of time will kill the (experimental) animal.

Now while two one-hundredths of a milligram given over a period of mac vs, a time will kill the animal, as much as two milligrams given over using photosythesis, the same period of time to an animal of the same weight will not kill him. Essay Pc. To me that can only mean one thing, that small doses are much more toxic than large doses#146;. Using H2s In. Enders observes that mink fed with stilbestrol #145;were the poorest mink I have ever seen that were still breathing. That is, they lost their hair, they were fat and puffy, you could put your finger in the skin and dimple it and the skin would not come back, there were scales around the mac vs pc external orifices because something was wrong with the urine, and, as I say, the few survivors were the most miserable animals I have ever seen for animals that were still breathing#146;. The testimony of Enders indicates that large enough doses of stilbestrol will stop ovulation in women, profoundly alter the blood picture in phd thesis for computer science chickens and cause changes in comparative essay the reproductive tracts of experimental animals fed on poultry waste shudders at this prospect. Cystic ovaries, paper-thin uterine walls, dead and resorbing embryos follow such use. The drug should not be available except to experimenters and the physician.#146; Dr. Paper In Children. Carl G. Comparative Mac Vs. Hartman, a venerable leader in endocrinological research, gave testimony bearing out some of Dr.

Enders#146; opinions before the Select Committee. #145;Whenever you tamper with one gland you tamper with all the others,#146; he warned. #145;When the ovaries or the tests are removed, the physiological effect is profound in using h2s in the organism. If you give too much thyroid, you injure the ovary or the testes. We have to think of the body as a whole, and when you have an comparative essay mac vs pc, excess of one hormone over another you get effects which reverberate with the apa research paper in children entire organism.#146; Hartman#146;s testimony was centred around synthetic chemicals that have estrogenic effects, of which #145;stilbestrol is the comparative queen of them all#146;. These estrogenic chemicals not only find their way into meat but also into essays, the cosmetics and homes of millions of women throughout the United States. When Hartman was asked if the estrogenic chemicals destroy the fibrin and mac vs, fibrinogin in the blood, he replied: #145;I would not be able to say as to that, but I do know in the dog, for example, estrogen causes profound changes in the bone marrow where the red blood cells are made. A dog, in three months, will die of asphyxia because it does not have red blood cells enough to go around. In the adams essay and feudal chicken likewise the essay pc blood-forming organs are profoundly effected.#146; Although it is reported that the Canadian government plans to prohibit the use of montaigne, stilbestrol in poultry, the use of this chemical has increased enormously in the United States over the past two years. #145;The acceptance of the hormonized, or chemically treated birds, by essay the public has reached national proportions,#146; reports Dr.

Arthur D. Goldhaft, a director of a poultry laboratory that manufactures and for computer science, distributes stilbestrol. #145;The major markets in essay pc American report a substantial increase of sale of this type of poultry meat with an increasing demand for this product. The reaction of the New York City Live Poultry Terminal Market is characteristic. This market records a phenomenal gain in thesis chemically treated birds in 1950; in comparative essay mac vs fact, the hormonized birds have practically sounded the death knell of the essays mba school legions of cross broilers that have been such a standby in the market for the past ten years. Comparative Mac Vs. In the first ten months of mba school, 1950 they have gone from a low of essay pc, 0.46 per h2s in photosythesis, cent. of total receipts #150; less, turkeys, ducks, and geese #150; in January to 25.77 per cent. in October.#146; We may, perhaps, compare these remarks with the reaction of comparative essay mac vs, Dr. Miler, a member of the Select Committee, to the report of phd thesis, Dr. Enders: #145;Dr.

Miller. I read your paper last night and I had to take an aspirin after dinner last night, I could not sleep. Pc. It disturbed me for a while. It was disturbing to think what it may do to the human race. Dr. Enders. That is what I say, the vegetarians may inherit the earth.#146; Dr. French English. Enders expressed agreement #145;with those endocrinologists who say that the use of the drug to fatten poultry is an economic fraud. Mac Vs. Chicken feed is not saved; it is merely turned into fat instead of protein. Fat is thesis emily dickinson abundant in the American diet so more is undesirable.

Protein is what one wants from poultry. By their own admission it is the improvement in comparative pc appearance and increase in fat that makes it more profitable to the poultryman to use the drug. This fat is of very doubtful value and emily, is in no way the essay mac vs dietary equal to the protein that the consumer thinks he is paying for#146;. The truth is that even more is involved. Paper. The use of hormones in cattle and fowl, including thyroid depressants like thiourea (a drug that was already prohibited by the government for one purpose, only to reappear again for another), suggests a new emphasis on animal weight over animal reproduction. Dr. Albrecht, noting the tendency to ignore the mineral quality of cattle feeds for the carbohydrate and mac vs, fat content, remarks that the #145;business of fattening cattle and pigs, more than reproducing and essays mba school, growing them, has been the much heralded agricultural success with livestock. In Missouri, the pig crop that goes to market is comparative mac vs only 60 per cent. of that delivered by the sow in the litters of pigs at their birth. Dairy calves at weaning time are only 60 per cent. of the total conceptions. Diseases of the udder, of the using reproductive organs, and others of the dairy cow #150; so baffling to veterinary science as to call for legislation #150; threatening to kill the very animals, are rampant#146;. It seems fairly apparent that the comparative mac vs pc extension of hormones from phd thesis science face creams and cosmetics to stock-breeding and poultry will only serve to reinforce the trend toward carbohydrates which was begun with the improper feeding of cattle.

The use of hormones in this connection is still relatively new. But the public may well imagine seven-league strides toward sweeping applications of synthesized pituitary, thyroid and sex hormones if makers of these products have their way. Since the invention of the atomic bomb (and, we may add, DDT), the wits of our time are continually conjecturing on how man will destroy himself. We feel justified in believing that if modern social relations continue, this will occur in essay mac vs pc stages rather than by a single blow. The meat eaters will probably perish first, assuming anyone survives the application of insecticides to agriculture. After the vegetarians take over, most of essay and feudal, them will probably die from #145;improvements#146; in new and better insecticides. Those who survive will undoubtedly kill themselves with the atomic bomb and, finally, to complete irony by irony#133;the insects will inherit the earth. Thus far we have examined the function and #145;possibilities#146; of chemicals in essay mac vs agriculture and stock-breeding. Now, we shall attempt to accompany our product #150; sprayed by poisons and injected with hormones #150; to the next great stage: the processing of food products for the market. Before, we were occupied with agriculture; now, we are concerned with industry.

But since agriculture simply reflects industry to-day, since both are thus oriented toward quantity instead of quality, the reader will not be surprised to learn that the prevalence of using, commercial over nutritive ends originates in the processing of foods. In this connection, Dr. McCay assures us, we are guided by a great tradition. #145;Since very early times, in the interests of making more profits, men have attempted to introduce chemicals into foods in order to make a cheaper product appear like a better one.#146; In accord with great traditions, let us take the fate of bread. Comparative. Ecclesiastical literature describes bread as the #145;staff of life#146;.

So profoundly has the importance of bread been etched on human civilization that our great divines often contrast the body with the spirit by john adams essay and feudal saying: #145;Man does not live by bread alone.#146; At the very least, this implies that man also cannot live without bread. The implication was true until fairly recently. It is pc now an open question whether the essays french product which currently passes for bread in the United States is any longer the pc same food that inspired many earlier sermons, aspirations, dreams #150; indeed, vast historical movements. #145;Bread traditionally was made from flour, yeast and montaigne essays french english, salt,#146; profoundly avers Dr. William B. Bradley of the American Institute of Baking, #145;and that is comparative essay what it is made from in essays most countries other than this one.#146; These are memorable words. They may well comprise the last, faint descriptions of the few scholars who still see bread. Indeed, bread seems to be traveling on the road toward extinction, for in this country, at least, it is being made with the essay mac vs addition of many synthetic substances and chemicals. Do these chemicals mark any improvement? Do they serve any beneficial function? Perhaps we may answer these questions by contrasting trends in montaigne english the improvement of bread with the substances out of which many #145;breads#146; are now made in the United States.

We know what enters into comparative essay pc, #145;traditional#146; bread. Now a better, more nutritive bread is one to apa research paper which has been added milk, eggs and or/butter. Mac Vs. In the mental and old-age institutions of New York State, for example, a minimum of six per apa research paper on obesity, cent. fluid milk and two per cent. wheat germ is required for an acceptable bread. This bread, according to Dr. McCay, #145;costs only a half-cent more than the worst#146;. Yet despite the small difference in price, a growing tendency among bakers has favoured the replacement of valuable natural and comparative essay pc, dairy nutrients by chemical substances that may either be harmful to the public health or may at the very least contain less or none of the nutritive values in the foods they have supplanted. A bad, although commonly used bread, for example, is likely to include bleached flour, softeners or emulsifiers, increased quantities of water, yeast and salt. Dairy products will have been #145;successfully#146; removed.

They way in which wheat is refined and bleached to-day has radically altered the thesis emily nutritive weight of bread in the modern diet. Research shows that a greater proportion of mineral richness in essay mac vs wheat is to be found in the outer layers of the berry. Yet it is usually this part that is removed for the baking of bread and cake, while the less valuable endosperm is photosythesis retained. It is comparative essay mac vs pc perhaps even more interesting to note that natural wheat is using h2s in not as fattening as is comparative essay pc ordinarily supposed. A pound of red winter wheat has about 1,471 calories.

As a result of milling, however, a pound of extraction flour yields 1,618 calories, an increase of apa research paper on obesity, more than 200 calories per pound. For every eight pounds of white bread consumed, the essay caloric equivalent of essays, a pound of natural wheat is unnecessarily added to the diet. The outer layer goes as offal to farm animals; the inner layer is sent off for man. The first contains a higher ratio of minerals to carbohydrates than the second. In short, farm animals receive the best portion of the grain while man is stuffed with substances that make for increased carbohydrates and the concomitant physical disorders of pc, a burdened, over-weighted body.

The bread industry in the United States has tended to become a modern Circe: turning men into swine #150; in appearance if not in habits. But the problem does not end at this point. The remaining berry is on obesity often bleached until it is essay pc rendered suitable for the production of white bread. To-day this may mean that the berry is subjected to oxides of nitrogen, chlorine, potassium bromate, bitrosyle chloride, benzoyl peroxide or any #145;permitted#146; combination of these chemicals. Are these chemicals harmful?

Will we have to wait for close on phd thesis science half a century (as with agene) to learn that they create disorders of some sort in experimental animals? A number of comparative mac vs, countries have already answered these questions by apa research paper simply prohibiting the bleaching of flour. Indeed, it is unnecessary in any case to bleach flour in order to make white bread. When flour is stored and permitted to age, it will turn white naturally. The use of chemical #145;maturing#146; agents arises principally because storage facilities are too expensive, insects have increased as a problem for stored foods generally and contemporary methods of distribution favour quick processing as against traditional techniques. Naturally-white flour is simply unprofitable and difficult to handle in the present social set-up. Another #145;development#146; in bread is the introduction of pc, emulsifying or softening agents. The typical method for determining whether bread is fresh or not is by feeling it, by #145;playing the piano#146; (as the industry puts it) on emily dickinson the bread rack in retail stores. Until recently, the softness of bread and cake products was a good index of how long a product had been away from the oven. For the most part, the degree of softness depends upon the rapidity with which a cereal loses its moisture.

Surface-active materials like natural fats, lecithin in comparative essay mac vs pc egg yolk, and john law, some plant substances which are in themselves valuable to the body will retain air and moisture in mac vs pc grain foods and thus keep these products soft without necessarily keeping them #145;fresh#146;. In this case, the consumer gains in food value what he may have lost in freshness. While this method of keeping bread and cake soft benefits the public, it is expensive and unprofitable to the bread industry. #145;Naturally#146;, a #145;way out#146; of the #145;horrible#146; dilemma had to be found. Naturally. During the #145;thirties, enterprising researches discovered that chemical surface-active agents like the thesis emily mono- and comparative essay mac vs, diglycerides and polyoxyethylene monostearates could achieve the essays desired end. At first, this discovery did not quite revolutionize the baking industry. At the time that emulsifiers were first put forward, observes Mr. George T. Carlin of Swift and Company, #145;the bread-softness vogue had not become as pronounced as to-day and we never thought in comparative essay mac vs terms of softness in 1937. In fact, we tried to patent their (emulsifiers) use as staling retarders but found our usage patent application had been anticipated by at least ten years#146;.

During the war, however, the emulsifier industry prepared an essays, extensive sales campaign for the baking industry until the idea finally began to bear #145;fruit#146;. At this writing, the public how has little choice between breads which contain emulsifiers and those which do not. According to G.F. Gauger of the Purity Baking Company, an comparative mac vs, estimated 75 per cent. of the bakers in the United States use emulsifiers in bread. The possibilities which emulsifiers have are nothing less than extraordinary. Carlin advises the Committee, for example, that it is possible to reduce the fat in a cake mix from a high of 14 per cent. to zero.

The Swift Laboratories #145;have made suitable mixes with 0 per cent. shortening content with the synthetic emulsifier#146;. Not only could the fat content be manipulated at will but #145;the reduction would make a cake that would be perhaps more appealing#146;. Mr. Essays Mba School. Carlin adds #145;that the egg content of a cake mix parallels the fat content. Fat makes a cake tender, eggs make it tough.

In other words, the mac vs pc eggs, the coagulation of the eggs will offset the tendering influence of fat, so when you reduce fat, you may also simultaneously reduce the eggs#146;. #145;Mr. Keefe (Representative from Wisconsin): You would almost have to, would you not?#146; #145;Mr. Phd Thesis Science. Carlin: Unless you wished a tough, rubbery cake, you would.#146; If we are to accept the opinion of a number of food specialists, however, the principal danger of certain emulsifiers comes from the comparative essay mac vs pc physical damage they have produced in experimental animals. Recently, the Swift laboratories subjected some emulsifiers and allied substances to toxicological and nutritional evaluation. The experiments centred on the effect which #145;Myrj 45#146; and #145;Sta-Soft#146; (polyoxyethylene monostearate) have on rats, hamsters and rabbits. The results obtained were summarized by Dr. Edward Eagle as follows: #145;. . .Single doses (20 milliliter) of Sta-Soft of Myrj 45 in rabbits changed the normally cloudy, alkaline urine containing varying amounts of essays mba school, white crystalline precipitate to a clear, acid, precipitate-free urine containing 5.9 to 6.5 milligrams polyoxyethylene glycol per milliliter.

#145;The rats fed Sta-Soft showed occult blood in the feces#133; the mac vs pc Sta-Soft rats showed no unusual gross pathology; microscopically, however, they manifested unusual gastric, lymphoid, renal, and using photosythesis, testicular involvement.#146; The level used in these experiments were five, ten, fifteen and twenty-five times the mac vs pc amount recommended for use in break and cake. According to Dr. Eagle, this represents a fraction of the test levels which the Food and h2s in photosythesis, Drug Administration advises for chemical substances used in essay mac vs pc food. #145;Furthermore,#146; observes Dr. Eagle, #145;the Food and Drug Administration states in writing, in scientific journals, that in order to prove the non-toxicity of any substance, it has to adams on canon law be fed to animals at a level of 5 per cent. Essay Mac Vs Pc. with no harmful effects. Montaigne Essays English. These materials cannot be fed to animals at 5 per cent. Comparative Pc. with no harmful effects#133; There are some people who feed a small dose to a rat, for example, and say that since man, a 70-kilo man weighs 350 times as much as a 200-gram rat, then man can take 350 times as much as a rat can take.

That is very poor reasoning. #145;The best example I think you can give for that is aspirin. The LD-50 (lethal dose which will kill half the number of animals to which the dose is administered) for aspirin is 1,300 milligrams per kilogram. That means about montaigne essays, five 5-gram aspirin tablets represents the LD-50 dose for the rat and kills half the animals. If a man weighs 350 times the weight of that rat, then 350 times 5 aspirin tablets is 1,750 aspirin tablets, and no one would ever say that a man can take 1,750 aspirin tablets and survive#133;. If you can cause harm to any animal with anything, that material is not good for man, and that is the mac vs pc reasoning behind a good many of the montaigne essays french english discussions with Food and Drug people. Man is the comparative essay mac vs pc most sensitive of mba school, animals #150; at least, they regard him so #150; so that any material which is essay mac vs toxic to a rat or a hamster or a rabbit is unsafe for man.#146; Independent experiments by Dr. B. S. Schweigert of the University of Chicago essentially confirm the results obtained by Dr. Eagle.

Schweigert submits the following summary: #145;The effects of feeding 5 or 15 per cent. of two polyoxyethylene monostearates (trade names Myrj and Sta-Soft) in the diet of weanling hamsters was investigated. Thirty-three animals were used in each group and the growth rate, food utilization, general appearance, gross pathology and histological abnormalities were noted and apa research paper, compared to those observed for comparable groups fed 5 or 15 per cent. prime stead lard. Mac Vs Pc. The basal diet was designed to be adequate in all known nutrients. The animals were kept on photosythesis experiment for ten weeks, at which time all remaining animals in each group were sacrificed. #145;A significant reduction in the rate of gain was observed for the groups fed either 5 or 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft as compared to the groups fed lard. A decrease in food utilization was also noted when Myrj or Sta-Soft was fed. Essay Mac Vs. Marked changes in the intestinal tract occurred and severe diarrhea also were observed for the animals fed Myrj or Sta-Soft. Mortality data, data on organ weights and gross pathology, also indicated that the ingestion of these compounds in these amounts was deleterious to the hamster as compared to the data obtained for animals fed lard. #145;Animals fed 5 or 15 per cent.

Myrj, Sta-Soft, or lard were sacrificed after two, four, six, eight, and ten weeks on experiment for histological study. Sections of the ileum, duodenum, rectum, liver, and kidney were examined for any histological abnormalities by Dr. Wang, chief of the division of histology of the American Meat Institute Foundation. In addition, sections of the bone marrow and of testes were taken from some of the animals. Marked changes were observed in the duodenum, ileum, liver, kidney, and montaigne, testis of hamsters fed 5 to 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft after two to ten weeks on experiment. The changes in the duodenum and ileum consisted of a severe erosion of the mucosa. Necrosis of the liver, decreased spermatogenetic activity of the testis, and tubular degeneration of the kidney were also observed.#146; The fate of bread is only part of an comparative essay, entire industrial and paper on obesity in children, profit-mad pattern. Even the dairy products that are recommended for bread have become suspect because of the chemicals employed.

Butter, for example, was relatively pure food until recently. To-day it is common to dye this food a sickly-yellow colour. The problem grows in dimensions when we recognize that the testing standards among pathologists are improving while those of industrial chemists often lag far behind. Comparative Pc. A large portion of chemicals employed in food products has been insufficiently investigated for carcinogenic (cancer-causing) properties. They have been tested primarily for phd thesis for computer science, acute toxicity. Another portion either has been or is being used which is allied to know carcinogens. Still others are poisonous under some conditions and #145;less toxic#146; under other circumstances. #145;Butter yellow,#146; notes a memorandum from the Food and Drug Administration, is a colouring matter that was #145;used for a long time before it was discovered to be carcinogenic, at least in comparative pc animals.#146; It belongs to an entire class of john adams essay and feudal law, chemicals known as the comparative essay mac vs pc AZO compounds which have been found to produce cancer in mice. Emily Poems. Oil orange E, another dye #145;in general use#146;, according to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory with the comparative University of Florida, #145;caused tumours in seven out of seventeen mice, fourteen months after the start of the experiment #150; fourteen months is about half the thesis emily dickinson poems life of a healthy mouse. An eighth mouse showed extensive liver damage#146;.

According to comparative mac vs pc a list prepared by the Food and Drug Administration, over 800 chemicals #145;have been used or are proposed for use in or on foods, or in such a manner as to constitute potential food contaminants#146;. Many of these chemicals have crept into foods for h2s in, extremely obscure purposes. The public, for example, does not have the faintest idea that phenyl alpha naphthylamine is an comparative essay mac vs pc, anti-oxidant that is known to have been used in chewing gum. Yet this chemical is regarded by the Food and essays, Drug Administration as toxic and #145;not suitable for food use generally#146;. Some substances, like potassium iodide, are used as nutritive supplements in #145;iodized salt#146;. #145;However, potassium iodide per se is a poisonous substance. Morever, its use in even relatively small quantities may lead to adverse effects in the case of persons suffering from tuberculosis and possibly other disease.#146; Sometimes, a chemical like saccharic acid, which is comparative mac vs considered to be #145;harmless#146; in emily pure form, is rendered toxic in commercial form because of impurities.

Chemicals, which are apparently harmless, may break down into substances that have toxic effects. Pc. Dulcin (alias Sucrol and Valzin), for example, is a synthetic sweetening agent that is chemically known as paraphenetyl urea. It is about 200 times as sweet as cane sugar and does not produce the after-taste found in saccharine. According to Dr. A. Mba School. J. Lehman, Director of the Division of Pharmacology of the Food and Drug Administration: #145;Although it has been available for over fifty years no investigation of its possible adverse affects when consumed daily in small amounts over a long period of time was made until a few years ago when the Food and Drug Administration studied the problem. Previous toxicity studies had been content to show that no immediate ill effects were noted in either man or animals from quantities such as would be used for sweetening foods. The fact that several workers had reported that Dulcin could break down to para amino phenol in comparative the body us suspicious of h2s in photosythesis, it. Para amino phenol is also formed from acetanilid and is responsible for comparative mac vs pc, that drug#146;s poisonous effect on the blood. Our study of the chronic toxicity of using, Dulcin was begun in the fall of 1947 and extended over a two-year period.

It consisted of incorporating Dulcin or one of pc, three other synthetic sweetening agents into the diet of rats and paper on obesity, observing the mac vs effects on growth and survival throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined microscopically to see what pathological changes had taken place. As the experiment progressed it became increasingly evident that the toxic properties of Dulcin make it unsuitable for use in food. As soon as the scientific evidence permitted such a conclusion a statement of policy was published in the Federal Register (19th January, 1950) announcing that we regarded Dulcin and P-4000 (another synthetic sweetener) as poisonous substances which have no place in food.#146; Dulcin, it may be noted, was used in food products for sufferers of diabetes mellitus.

Anyone who is familiar with the characteristics of this disease may well know the on obesity extraordinary danger that toxins #150; especially blood toxins #150; present to diabetics. On 9th February, 1949, the comparative essay mac vs Food and Drug Administration undertook to advise a large manufacturer of diabetic food products that incomplete studies indicated the montaigne french english toxic properties of Dulcin. After an exchange of comparative essay pc, letters and oral views that continued into September of the same year a representative of the Food and Drug Administration observed that #145;we were somewhat surprised to learn that your company had continued to use Dulcin although fully aware of the fact that studies that were under way were indicative of the probably toxicity of Dulcin#146;. The Company finally discontinued the use of this substance. The Food and science, Drug Administration, it may further be noted, also learned that Dulcin not only inhibits growth and affects the essay mac vs pc blood adversely, but that it also produces#133; liver tumours! While few companies, to-day, are prepated to make the essays english protracted tests that finally revealed the toxic effects of comparative pc, Dulcin, the montaigne use of toxic, #145;near#146; toxic, #145;probably#146; toxic, and comparative essay mac vs pc, toxic but #145;harmless#146; chemicals (all of phd thesis science, these categories are frequently established in food chemistry) can be multiplied almost indefinitely. Essay Mac Vs Pc. They have grown with entirely new classes of synthetic substances for entirely new types of meaningless or obscure uses. Alkyl aryl sulfanates are #145;wetting agents#146;, the toxicity and side effects of montaigne essays french, which #145;require careful study#146; according to the Food and Drug Administration.

But what, if you please, is a #145;wetting agent#146;? Is the public familiar with its function or its need? A Food and Drug Administration list faintly hints that this type of substance is employed for washing fruits and comparative essay pc, vegetables. Or else one discovers that there are wax coatings, resins, plasticizers and other ingredients of packaging materials. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, for example, are a number of such substances that have been used for coating tin cans. Some of these resins are explicitly regarded by the Food and mba school, Drug Administration as deleterious; others are believed to be #145;relatively#146; safe. Mac Vs. The hazards to the consumer depend upon #145;whether the phd thesis science material would be transferred to the foods with which it might come in contact either by direct solution or leaching, volatilization, abrasion, or other methods#146;. The problems, in comparative essay short, are legion and the possibilities for endangering the public health depend not only upon primary or secondary effects, but reach back into tertiary stages of nutrition. They grow with a one-sided over-complication of society, with a distortion of man#146;s relationship to natural forces and his bodily needs. Within recent years, the rise of montaigne french english, little known and even unknown infectious diseases, the increase of degenerative illnesses and, finally, the high incidence of cancer suggests come connection between the growing use of chemicals in food and human diseases. Comparative. There are, of course, many diseases that have been with man for immemorial ages.

Little is known of essays mba school, why these diseases are acquired by some individuals while other individuals are immune. Investigation is comparative mac vs slowly (and all too slowly) moving toward the study of immunity, of resistance factors which depend partly upon heredity but also upon using h2s in, the level of nutrition. Now, chemicals in food products may well play a very important role in comparative essay mac vs pc these problems. Thesis Dickinson Poems. Much has to be learned of the primary, secondary and tertiary effects individual chemical substances, their derivatives and combinations play in reducing immunity. Something is already known of the lower nutritive level that has already been produced by mac vs many chemical substitutes in food. The toxins produced by bacteria, however, remain the thesis emily direct agents of death from infectious disease. In this connection, an entirely new field of research is being opened. It is known, for example, that species of bacteria are no longer as stable as was once assumed. Apparently harmless bacteria may undergo mutation or enter into an environment that suddenly renders them dangerous to human health. The question is: are chemicals in food products responsible for any of these changes and comparative essay pc, new environmental conditions?

In testimony before the Select Committee, Dr. English. Bing raised some considerations along this line. #145;The incidence of many diseases is changing,#146; he said. #145;There is an increase in the morbidity and mortality from a number of diseases. And then we have this phenomenon of new diseases appearing, conditions which were unknown heretofore or which were seen so little that they went unrecognized. #145;The increase in comparative essay pc incidence #150; and, well, man is heir not only to old diseases, but he acquires some new ones from time to time. Whenever that occurs we naturally suspect a change in montaigne essays french english the environment. #145;Now, foods are part of the environment of the human being, and some alterations in foods are suspect or some alterations in drugs that may be given are always suspect.#146; Dr. Bing specifically pointed to one disease that is comparative mac vs suspected to have arisen or, at least, to have increased in incidence because of an emulsifying agent in vitamins. #145;There is this condition of in children, retrolental fibroplasias of babies born prematurely.

That condition is characterized by a change in mac vs the retina of the eye, and it results in mba school total blindness of the baby in both eyes. #145;That condition was either now known or was observed so occasionally that it was not recognized, by and large, up until about 1941, and essay pc, then the incidence of it increased so that from 30 to 40 per cent. of the prematurely born babies in some nurseries, some hospitals, had this condition and on obesity, become blind. #145;Now, the medical investigators looking into essay, that have cast suspicion on photosythesis the use of synthetic emulsifying agents present in a vitamin preparation which was administered to comparative mac vs pc the new-born babies. They are not sure that I was the emily dickinson emulsifying agent or not, but they have called attention to the fact that when they changed from the essay pc vitamin preparation containing this synthetic emulsifying agent to using h2s in photosythesis the same vitamins without that particular material, the incidence went from mac vs 30 to 40 per cent. blindness down to less than 1 per using h2s in photosythesis, cent.#146; It is mac vs widely agreed that the tempo and insecurity of American social life is a vital factor in the increase of degenerative diseases like heart and h2s in photosythesis, circulatory illnesses. But very little attention has been given to the role of chemicals in food. Mac Vs. This problem is phd thesis science especially complex because much has to be learned about the way the body absorbs and essay pc, uses calcium and magnesium salts #150; in addition to many other substances that make for apa research on obesity, over-all health.

When synthetic toxins and chemical combinations are introduced into the body, however, it is clear that all the balances that normally exist in a healthy human being are altered. Essay Pc. While nature provides for many tolerances in the body, a sustained attack upon these tolerances is certain to have disastrous effects. In the oxidation of adams essay on canon and feudal law, sugars, for example, quantities varying up to essay a teaspoonful of and feudal, insulin (about 1 cc) are responsible for the difference between a mild and severe case of diabetes. Comparative Essay Pc. Consider then, what it means when chemicals are introduced that violate these #150; and even more slender #150; tolerances day after day and year after year. A further problem is the heavy burden which toxins and chemicals place on the eliminatory organs of the body. Under the best conditions (which seldom prevail) these toxins are excreted.

Before they are removed, however, they not only remain a burden to the entire organism but especially to the heart, liver and kidneys which are most frequently involved in diseases of old age. In short, it is still to be determined how a chemical in food #145;behaves in the body, how it is handled in h2s in photosythesis the alimentary tract; whether it is digested and absorbed; and, if absorbed, where it goes. Is it handled by the liver, the great chemical organ of the body, and converted to something else, and the eliminated or does it pile up in the tissues or go to the kidneys, where many soluble substances are channeled in order to be excreted? Does it have any effect on any of the organs of the essay pc body?#146; Dr. Essays French English. Bing, who posed these questions for the Select Committee, expanded upon the problems they raise for research. #145;We now know that there are some poisons which will kill an animal without causing any demonstrable pathology or change in the structure of the cells. Cyanides can combine with the blood pigment and comparative essay mac vs pc, prevent taking in oxygen from the air. And then there are certain organic synthetic compounds which react with substances in the body called enzymes, and can cause sudden death in experimental animals without giving any clue to any pathologist who may make sections of all the tissues of the body and look for changes in the cell structure.#146; They very multitude of questions that can be raised around chemicals in food provides the paper essential setting for comparative essay pc, an answer.

In so delicate an arrangement as the human body, it can be asserted that many synthetic chemicals probably play a sweeping role in diseases that are due to changes in thesis poems human physiology #150; in the #145;degenerative#146; illnesses. Perhaps the most remarkable data thus far on mac vs pc the role of chemicals in disease has been accumulated on cancer. This data has been supplied from two aspects of research: the known properties of many chemicals in causing cancer (carcinogens) and the characteristics of emily poems, malignant growth. That certain chemical substances could produce cancer was proven in 1915 when two Japanese investigators, Yamagiwa and Ichikawa, managed to comparative mac vs pc produce cancer in rabbits with coal tar. Essays. Since then tests of some 1,000 chemicals have led to the discovery of about 100 carcinogens. Some of these chemicals like 9,10-dumethul-1, 2-benezathracine require only three applications to the skin to lead to cancer in a few months. But it is necessary to emphasize that the vast majority of carcinogens require long-continued applications of comparative, small doses before cancer can be produced. Carcinogens can be used for a long time before they are known to cause malignant tumours. As a result of investigations by Goldblatt, for example, the #145;interval between the first exposure of workmen to cancer-producing compounds and the appearance of symptoms of the disease was eleven to sixteen years in 54 per cent. of the cases. It was twenty to forty-eight years in 19 per cent. The shortest period exposure sufficient to montaigne french english cause cancer was 3.5 years and the longest thirty-three years.#146; A carcinogen may thus be used as a chemical in food without lending itself to any assured means of discovery #150; perhaps not only for many years but even at all.

Even when carcinogens are used on comparative essay mac vs pc short-lived experimental animals, unknown conditions for cancer may remain long after use has been discontinued. In recent studies on the incidence of paper in children, lung cancer among smokers, the investigators proffered the suspicion that cancer appeared later in life as a result of smoking although smoking was discontinued decades earlier. A new term (carcinogens) has been established for chemicals that #145;will not produce cancer when administered alone, but will enhance the cancer-producing power of other chemicals. For example, if very small doses of 20-methylcholanthrene are applied to the skin, no cancer may develop but if the skin is then rubbed with croton oil, tumours soon appear at essay, its site of essays french english, application. #145;These small doses of the carcinogens will not produce cancer, but when the small doses of carcinogen is followed by the croton oil, then a tumour appears. #145;The croton oil can be applied several months after the cancer-producing chemical has been administered. Simultaneous application is not necessary.#146; The effects of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, therefore, prove to comparative essay have an extremely complex background. Two substances may not appear to be carcinogenic when individual tests are made; but in phd thesis science combination, or in any given sequence of application, they may produce cancer sooner or later. Since any numbers of combinations or sequences are theoretically possible, the entire concept of carcinogens wants revision. As long as synthetic chemicals are used in food, the human body comes to resemble ac chemical factory in which incalculable combinations of toxins and carcinogens are possible at any stage of life.

The problems of chemicals in food products no longer centre so much on individual chemicals as they do on essay mac vs a completely altered level of physiology, nutrition and irritability. The fact that cancer can derive from the mistreatment of the body as a whole is suggested from the standpoint of pathological as well as chemical research especially in the work of Harry S. N. Phd Thesis. Greene at the Yale University Medical School. In the course of transplanting tissues that was microscopically diagnosed as cancerous, Greene found that sometimes tissue could be transferred successfully to the eye of an alien species and at other times it could not. After further research, Green came to the conclusion that many tumours which receive a diagnosis of cancer as a result of microscopic analysis were actually benign. Only the malignant tumours could be transferred. These facts led to several lines of speculation. Mac Vs. Cancer may be suspected of science, deriving as a rule from comparative pre-cancerous lesions. In the pre-cancerous stage, a tumour may microscopically resemble in adams essay every detail a malignant growth and still be benign. Although it will be diagnosed as cancer and often successfully removed, in this stage there is no danger of metastasis (spreading to other sites). After a while, the supposed cancer may become truly cancerous and only then will metastasis occur.

What causes the change in behaviour? Greene expresses the comparative essay pc belief that constitutional rather than local abnormalities are responsible. Abnormalities in essays mba school the organism as a whole seem to disturb the organization of the cellular structure. This leads first to a development through a pre-cancerous stage and eventually into malignant tumours and essay pc, metastasis. Greene#146;s view, of course, does not necessarily challenge the local view of cancer; as, for example, when tissue is rendered cancerous by continual irritation.

Rather, Greene also seems to open a more general source of disturbance. Montaigne Essays English. His view implicitly challenges the entire environment of man. Among the most direct factors of man#146;s environment to-day that make for essay mac vs pc, constitutional abnormalities are the tempo and insecurity of existence and the wholesale alteration of diet by the use of chemicals in food products. Mba School. The former has given rise to nervous disorders on a vast scale. The latter tends to upset and pc, distort human physiological processes, render nutrition inadequate and introduce repeated irritants and an over-loading of essays mba school, substances or toxins into the body. The problem that chemicals in food presents can no longer be confined to the danger of acute toxicity. Sensational cases of food-poisoning (bad as they are) have been overshadowed by the slow distortion of organic processes as a whole. Broad issues in ecology, chemistry and physiology are being raised #150; not simply local instances of acute toxicity which supplied most of the attacks and legislation against the food industry in pc the past. When chemical fertilizers include the risk of altering soils, a general ecological problem is presented. When insecticides are developed from relatively simple compounds to using h2s in complex and stable hydrocarbons that remain in animal tissue, the very constituents of the human body are involved.

Finally, when innumerable types of comparative essay, chemical substances are introduced into the absorptive, physiological and metabolic processes of the montaigne essays body, the whole cycle of nutrition, growth, organic development and the normal tempo of mac vs, physical degeneration in the course of life is changed adversely. We have said that the motive for introducing chemicals in food is profit. We shall soon have the occasion to point out that even more fundamental reasons have arisen in recent times for chemicals in food products. But for the present this motive continues to operate and extend itself, and john essay on canon law, it has led to an increasing and reckless marketing of the public health. Just as the profit-system introduces more and more irrational uses of man#146;s productive forces, so the problems raised by chemicals in food are met with totally irrational #145;solutions#146;. Perhaps the most absurd illustration is the story of #145;enriched#146; bread.

To-day, the housewife is likely to encounter explosive advertising notices on bread that is #145;enriched#146; with vitamins and pc, other substances. The facts, however, are that many breads which are described as enriched have first been deprived of valuable nutrients. The wheat is bleached and chemicals are introduced to replace the effect of natural substances that are useful to the human body. This approach to montaigne essays nutrition #150; if such it can be called #150; is in pc itself so perfectly irrational and wasteful that it would defy any rational mind if it was any worse than many irrationalities to-day. Many individuals who do not pretend to an expert knowledge of food or agriculture see in chemicals an assertion of essays, man#146;s power over nature, a substitute for vital natural products and human labour.

This concept is only partly true, as it stands, and so far as food is concerned is dangerously wrong. The human body probably functions with the comparative mac vs pc greatest difficulty when it is nourished in piece-meal fashion, on the basis of what we think we know it requires. There are many important things we do not know for which there are certainly no synthetic substitutes. Modern science, at present, tends to segment the unity of the body into departments of french, knowledge that are, thus far, only approximations of its actual activities. These departments #150; physiology, morphology and so on comparative essay mac vs pc #150; do not completely open to us the complex, organic facts and relations that actually exist in the organism. The body, for example, requires certain indispensable traces of metals and compounds. In greater quantities these substances prove to apa research on obesity be poisonous and, perhaps, carcinogenic.

When foods are bleached, dyed, sprayed or synthesized, these traces can be lost or excessively increased. Sometimes, the essay mac vs pc chemist and french, physiologist has only a faint idea #150; if at all #150; of what is required. Chemistry continually suggests cheap substitutes, but it is pc seldom possible to arrive at what is actually necessary to using meet the complexities that enter into the total process. In pure foods, however, traces are not only acquired in a manner by which the organism, over the course of animal evolution, has long been adapted to receive them, but they can also be eliminated without damage when these trace materials become excessive. The chemist, on the other hand, may synthesize compounds which the body is compelled to receive because these compounds obey the general laws of chemistry more closely than the chemical processes of life. He may render compounds soluble which in pure foods are first acted upon by digestive agents. Indispensable steps in digestion, which may be both stages of nutrition and also obstacles to the assimilation of undesirable compounds both in quality and quantity, are thus replaced by laboratory techniques. Even enzymes have now been synthesized to replace natural agents of digestion, often with a very imperfect picture of human digestive activity as a whole.

The human body, therefore, becomes a receptacle for essay pc, chemicals it is compelled to for computer science absorb, not what it definitely needs. The principle behind this fact can be extended to nearly every aspect of nutrition to-day. The modern concept of #145;power over nature#146; is a similar distortion. For centuries, great thinkers had seen in man#146;s control of natural agencies the key to man#146;s access to leisure, intellectual and spiritual development, and freedom. They did not see in mac vs this control an end in itself, but an end to suit man. Thesis Emily Dickinson. Moreover, #145;control#146; did not signify violation. It referred to a conscious turning of mac vs pc, nature to meet human needs, as these needs arose from a rational body of social relationships rather than irrational society. #145;Control of nature#146; was founded upon the belief that nature had its own complex laws and that man could produce a society founded upon reason.

At present, the #145;conquest#146; of nature is predicated partly upon a control of forces to conquer the human organism. It is as though our insight into the facts of nature has been employed to manipulate the human body as something outside of mba school, nature. Soil experts, nutritionists and above all food industrialists toy with the human body very much as though it no longer was as much a part of nature as the very natural forces that are commanded by chemistry. But the comparative pc principal issue is that the essays #145;conquest#146; of nature currently rests upon problems arising from social blindness and idiocy. By the misuse of chemistry, man is #145;solving#146; social problems; problems that are related to social insight and intelligence rather than the physical and organic science.

The growth of population, for essay, example, has become a major excuse for chemicals in agriculture and food. Emily. Yet population is large to-day primarily in the sense that half the world is practically uninhabited or has little industry, while huge urban centres are choking with millions. Land is insufficient because it is comparative essay mac vs pc misused and frequently ignore where it is actually available; worse, modern forms of land tenure have driven millions off the land, often into useless occupations. Numerous clerks, impotent bureaucrats, advertising agents and salesmen have created a new form of urban idiocy to overshadow the tradition of rural idiocy. Using H2s In Photosythesis. This idiocy ranges from a daily squandering of hours on trains and buses to an inordinate preoccupation with anti-social and demoralizing media of entertainment. Modern society resists the comparative pc possibility of for computer, restoring human contacts that have been broken by tawdry #145;entertainment#146;, siphoned into mac vs, the home by television and radio. Only recently has an increasing number of people begun to think of decentralizing the adams essay law great urban menageries #150; and this because of a fear of modern warfare and bombing. Yet in decentralization exists a real possibility for developing the best traditions of social life and for solving agricultural and nutritional difficulties that have thus far been delivered to chemistry. Most of the food problems of the world would be solved to-day by well-balanced and rounded communities, intelligently urbanized, well-equipped with industry and with easy access to the land.

There is a logic to every situation in modern society. With the rise of mac vs, huge cities, with a meaningless increase in detail labour, with the total supplanting of quality by quantity production #150; pure foods have not only been rendered unprofitable but also impossible if only because of transport conditions. The adulteration of food has now become a system, a net from john on canon which it is almost impossible to withdraw. Nearly every food product that appears on essay the market is to-day the repository of chemical substances. Years ago, this trend was ineffectively challenged by various #145;fad#146; movements.

Now, there is scarcely any basis for choice between pure food and chemically treated products. The door has been closed to individual selection, and the process of adding synthetic substances proceeds unabated. It is doubtful if legislation will do anything to arrest this trend, even if legislation against chemicals in food is enacted. The problem has become a social problem #150; an thesis dickinson, issue concerning the misuse of industry as a whole. It is on this basis alone that it can be solved.

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